Skip to main content

Full text of "Narrative of travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in the seventeenth century"

See other formats


-n ^ 



'^J'JIJONVSOI^ 






■^/5a3AINI1-3WV^ 



I 2 l^'^i 



?3 O 






<rji]ONVsoi^"^ %a3AiN(i'3i\'v^ ^öAavaaıvî^^' ^öAbvaaın'^'^ % 



\ 



M(FOff^^ 



^ 
-O 






\ 



Of C/Jif 



2 S ^- 






3- 



^Tiu'jf 



■■•% 



■'■/iai/\ifJiij\\v'' 



,ANCEl£r> 



uü.NVi,uı-~*' '^/iajAiiU jw^ ■ 



^nMLIBRARYö/: 






jj,ÜfCAllfÛttj^ 



f. 






~r o 

^5 Ş 



^iUW-iuF 



■7' O 

.2 = 

er •< 



-iJli^ViUi^' 



ü 



AUE UNIVERÎ//>_ ^^vlOSANCElfj-^^ _^^11IBRARY0/-^ ^HIBRARYO' ^\yE UNIVFRÎ//^, ^s>lOSMCElfj> .v^.HIBRARYO/r 



3 



''nywim^ %iiaAiNn3WV^ 



>- 



^WE UfJIVERî//, 



^lOSANCFlfx^ 



'Jr 



2? O «l- 



^J'iiiowsoi^'" "^/j^a^AiNn^v^ 



-.V.OFCA!IF0R<;,_ 



^-s,.OFCAl 



^y^' 



•?< 



e fr -_ 



^^\^EIINIVER% ^v>lOSANCElfx, 



•^öAavaaıiî^'^ ^idnvsoi^"^ "^/sajAiNn-jyw' 



/i. 



CO 

^1 






= 5 



MIFO% 



< ^ 



s.^ 



^MIBRARYQ/: <,\MIIBRARYQ^ 






, \\U L'NlVtKJ/A 



■^•TJUjiVViUi" 



■^/iajAL^IIl JlVv ■ 



>vfL!BRAKYQc 



Ü 






O 



2 :ş 



JJUJ,NVİ,Ul" 



^ofCAiiFOff^ ^.or 






-_ > 



,^WEUNIVER% 



'^^ 



"^-Oirj.sYiui-^ 



;j.M,\,i]uv 



% 



Y^/^ ..^^ ■ 



.^MEUNIVERÎ/A 






'Ji!il'.VS>UP 






'MEUNIVERî//>^ ^v>:lOSA,'JCEtfj-^ ^Vvî-UBRARYöy^^ .^^^î■llBRARYaf^ ^-sMEUNIVERr^/^ ^vlOSWCElfj^ 



^<^^ÇIIBRARY(3^ ^ 



,v:? 






-k 



^\^E•ü^'ıvERS//- 



'%a3AiNn]WV^ 

^lOSAN'CEtfj> 



i(^ 



•3 



^vSîllBRARYO/- 

ti irri 



'%3AINil-3\\V^ 






^-j,-OF-CAt! F0% ^-vOf ■CAll fOff^;-^ 



^ 



■^6>Aava3iiî'^^' '^^öAavaan-î'^^ 



. ^\^f ■UMIVERS'/Â 






vlOSWCElfj> 






,^MEUNIVER% 






'^<!/0JllV3J0>' 



JNfimv ^<'<J0JIWDJO' 



sVlOSANCEEfj> 



^ 






^^;OFrA(IF0% 



^aaiTî^' 






V^j 



^^\lFti';tVFPV/A 


•Ö-' 


s .. ö 


t? 


>- -Tl 


o , 


fS 


"- 


,_ > 


= 




<. 


/ ^ 


tj 


o 


^^ 


s» 


o 


-^ 


-^// 



,^;OFCAIIFn^x., ...(^FrAlIFDP,/,.. 



^ 



^lrtElWIVFR,V/>. .vinv.wr.Fifr.. 






< 



I 



AF-fİilFnD.. 



-cWFtlVfVFPf//^ 






^^\\EUNIVEI% 



;\V- 



''''i'UJlIVjJO'-' <->'<İÜJÎ 



'^ 



<'İ1J'JNVİUI'^^'^' '^^AdiAlNftJV^V 






.^WfUfJIVfRJ-/^ ^lÜSANCElfj> 



Of 

t, 



^OfCAÜFOff^^ ^OfCAÜfOftı^ 






■■■JVii:jNvsüV^~-~ 



-< î:^: 



i\^^ ■•■^Advaaiii"»^^^ '''iiyjwsui-^'- '^^/iaiAiNfıi\\v^ 



Ç7 ^ - 



^v^HIBRARY■0/^ <^fi' 



!^ 



ir 



l\(, 



fV 



..Qf-rAllFd/j,, . ,\t(t,\SU\u, 



^'^'h %Iy,. 






-< 



.j ıj J ' w , « 1 1 11 



. t: < FİM) « llV 






\İ\J i \ l V J JVJ 






>- 

cc 



i ir 



^ 3 



' J IJJ.H jUl • 






ı f i'.fn Tl, 



^ 






v>lÜVAffC[lfJ> 



^l' 



5" c 




-' j ııjnv yıV 



'^■^miKmii^ 



<S, — ' 

>- 




<ril]DNVS01^ 



^ ^ 



,0 



■v> 



.?v«UNIVERS//, 



'> 



1 ~ 



.V^lOSANCflfXy. 






''^^.İ/ÜJ II VJ JÜ-^^ ^l^DNVSOl^"^ 






A^v^lLIBRARYö/: ^^vNUIBRARYO/ 



'^tfOJIlVJJO^' %0JI1V3J0> 



A\\EUNIVERS//, 



.r^- 



.VlOSANGflfXv> 



«),OfCAllF0% 



^ 



^\\«UNlVERy/^ vvlOSANCflfj> 



-5 Ö ig 



.-;,.OfCAllfO%. .-;;OfCAllF0% 

■^ ^ <i* '^:. 



^,. 



^mmnivy -^öAavaaıı# ■^c'Aavaaıii^'^' ^jju'jnvsoi^"^ '^aMiNnı^vv^ %Aavaaii-^^'^ ^OA^nmi"^' 



^ S 1 ir i 







■^ 



JUJVMnil 31*'*' 



, ı>,ı . .\\y ^ . r I mil 1 n\< ^. 



î S 



•uuaııvjjı^ı ■ 



,>■ 



.rVlt IIl'KrCDt . 



<^ 



-^ CC 



^ -I I4J1U İUl 



3» =: I 
= -< 



-ÎP^ ^< 






I ne iıircı r,s 



ir iıı'u Tiıp 



y(?^jıw!iqıı.-ıvcv >üAavaan-î^ 



■' J IJJı' i ,M.I1 



'JO.i/Mivrin-' 



# %... 



<: 



' J ıljn jıjı 



'^- ^VOSA-JCflfj-^ 

> = I 



..\WEUNlVERy/A .v^OSANCflfj^ 




<rj]30Nvs( 



'//i'aMiNnıu^''' 



.0^ ^^ 



^ 



^J'İİJDNVSOV^^ %ÎAlNı1]\\V 



^^WEUNIVER% ^vlOSANC[lfj> 



j^^tllBRARYQr^ ^^UIBRARYO/: 



-< S 



-<.OFCALIfO«fc, ,-;..OF-CAllFO«fe, 



po ~- 



\ 



^^^t■llBRARY(9/^ 

^1 



5. — »I I S: T~^ . — '» 



i^' 


^^'öAavaaıı-^v^^'- 


%13DNVS01^^ 


-< 


"^^OAavaaıı-î'^'^ 


>öAavaaıiî'^'* 


i? 




% 


fı iri 


. 5,\'.f I'vivfRr,.' 






\\^fl'MVfR?://, 




^.nFf 




wwnwmi 


>, 


.KinvMf.nrr. 



% i 



S3 O . 



:s:. — ' 1 L FJ 



EX BIBLIOTHECA 
FRANC. BABINGER 



NARRATIVE OF TRAVELS 



EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA, 



THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY, 



evliya efendi. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE TURKISH 

BY 

THE RITTER JOSEPH VON HAMMER, 

F.M.R.A.S., &c. &c. &.C. 



VOL. n. 




LONpON: 
PRINTED FOR THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND 

OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND ; 

SOLD BY 

WILLIAM H. ALLEN & CO. LEADENHALL STREET. 



M.DCCCL. 



EXBIBLIOTHECA 
FRANC. BABINGER 



LONDON : 
PRINTED BY WILLIAM NICOL, CO, PALL MALL. 



?ffc, 



y'. 



:n. 



^ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



JOURNET TO BrUSSA. 

Description of the Town and Fortress of Mo- 
dania ....... 

Description of the Buildings of Brüssa 
The Public Officers of Briissa 
Description of the Imperial and other Mosques 
The Mosque of Khodavenkiar, or Sultân 

Murâdl 

The Mosque of Sultân Bâyâzid I. 
The Mosque of Mohammed I. 
The Mosque of Murâd II. the son of Moham 
med I. ..... 

The Mosque of Emir Sultân 

The Colleges of Briissa 

The Convents, Imârets, Khans, Fountains, 

Mills, and Sebils of Briissa 
Praise of the Baths of Bn'issa 
Description of the hot spring of Chekirgel 
Sultân ...... 

Description of the sulphurous hot spring 

(Gogurdli Kaplijeh) 
Description of New Kaplijeh 
Description of the Market of Briissa 
Description of the bridge of Erghandi . 
Description of the Walks and pleasure-places 
of Briissa ..... 

A Dissertation on Mountains 
Description of the Ice-worm 
Language, Dress, and Manufactures of the 

Inhabitants of Briissa 
The Climate of Briissa 

The Eatables, Beverages and Fruits of Briissa 

Visit to the Monuments and Tombs of the 

first Ottoman Sultans .... 

Short account of the Conquests of Osman 

Khân 19 

Conquests of Sultan Orkhân . . . ib. 

Visit to Sultân Orkhan's Tomb . . . ib. 

Notice of Haji Begtâsh, the Great Saint . ib. 
Short account of Sultan Murâd I. . .21 

Tomb of Sultân Murâd I. Kbodavendkiâr . ib. 
Short account of liderim Bâyazid . . ib. 

Short account of Sultân Mohammed I. . 22 

Short account of the reign of Murâd II. . ib. 



2 

4 

ib. 

6 



ib. 
ib. 

ib. 

8 

ib. 

ib. 
10 



11 
ib. 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 

17 
ib. 
ib. 

18 



Page 
Tombs of Ottoman Princes . . 23 

Visit to the Tombs of Saints at Briissa , 24 

Journey to Nicomedia. 

Qualities of a Mineral Spring . . .30 
Pilgrimages of Nicomedia . . . .33 

Journey to Batum and Trebisonde. 

Description of the Ancient Town of Sinope . 36 
Description of the Castle of Samsun . . 39 

Description of the Castle of Onia . . 40 

Description ofthe Town and Ancient Fortress 

of Trebisonde, the Capital ofthe Lezgians 41 
Begs of Abaza Tribes . . . .43 

The Commanding Officers and Magistrates of 
Trebisonde . . . . . . ib. 

Praise of the Poets of Trebisonde . . 44 

Form and size of the Town, and description 
of its Monuments . . . . . ib. 

Description of the Lower Castle . . . ib. 
Description of the Mosques . . .45 

Description of the Scientific Colleges, Baths, 
Market-places, &c. . . .46 

Description of the complexion of the Inhabi- 
tants of Trebisonde . . . .47 

Occupations, Guilds, &c. . . . . ib. 

Description of the principal Arts and Handi- 
crafts ....... 4S 

Eatables and Beverages . . . . ib. 

Walks of Trebisonde 49 

Praise of the River Kosh-oghlan . . 50 

Visit to the Monuments of Sultans and Saints ib. 

Journey to Georgia and Mingrelia. 
Description of Mingrelia . . . .51 



Journey to Azak (Assov.) 

Description of the Land of Abaza 
Specimen of the Abaza Language 
Specimen of the Sadasha Abaza . 

Journey to the Crimea. 
Description of the Castle of Baliklava . 



52 

58 
ib. 



67 



OS'^ 




'^ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Description of the Convent of Kilghra Sul- 
tân 70 

Return to Constantinople . . . .73 

Expedition against Malta in the 
YEAR 1055 (1645). 

Station of Gallipolis 78 

Siege of the Fortress of Canea . . .79 

Cause of the Death of Yûssüf Pâshâ . . 83 

JOURNBT TO ErZBRUM. 

Gebize ....... 89 

Praise of the Lake of Sabiinja . . .91 

The Station of Khandak-bazâri . . .92 
Places of Pilgrimage at Boll . . .93 
Pilgrimage to Habib Karamanı . . .94 

Pilgrimage to the tomb of the great Saint 

Koyi'm Bâbâ 96 

Pilffrimaffe to the Tomb of Burhandedeh . 97 
Form and Size of Amasia . . . .98 

Inhabitants, Language, Dress, Provisions, &c. 100 
Of the Walks, and Pilgrimages or Tombs . 101 
The Town and Castle of Nigissar . . 102 

The Hot- Spring of Nigissâr . . .103 
Pilgrimages of Nigissâr . . . .104 

The Governorship of Erzerum or Erzenrdm . ib. 
Pilgrimage of Mama Khati'in . . .107 
Description of the Fortress of Erzerum . 108 

Description of the great river Euphrates . 110 

Of the Form and Size of the Fortress of 
Erzen'im . . . . . .111 

Praise of the Palaces of Erzerum . . ib. 

Of the Mosques ib. 

Fountains . . . . . .112 

Of the Baths, Khans, Market-places and 

Markets 113 

Of the Inhabitants, Climate, Products, &c. . ib. 
Genealogies of Erzerum . . . . ib. 

Description of Mount Eğerli . . .115 
Praise of Balaam, the son of Baur . . ib. 
Pilgrmiages ; Tomb of Sheikh Kârzûni . 116 

Stations of our Military expedition to the 

Castle of Shüshik 117 

Size and Form of the Fortress Hassan . .118 

Description of the Hot-baths . . .119 
Size and Form of the Castle of Khinis . . 120 



Description of the Hot-bath . . . 120 
Description of the Castle of Shiishek or 

Shi'ishik 121 

Size and form of Magii • ■ • .122 
Description of our journey along the Aras to 

Persia 123 

Curiosities of Uch Kiiisse . . . . 1 25 

Pilgrunage of Mohammed Shah's Tomb ib. 

Journey from Nakhshivan to Tabriz. 

Pilgrimage of Riza, the Son of Hossein 

Bikara 129 

Description of the Capital of Azerbeijan, the 

ancient town of Tabriz . . . . 1 33 

Description of the Mosques of Tabriz . .134 

Colleges of Tabriz 135 

Praise of the Air and Climate . . .136 
Account of the Persian Crown (Taj) . . ib. 
Arts and Handicrafts, Provisions, Fruits, 

Beverages, Gardens, &c. . . .137 

Account of a curious conversation . . 1 39 

General Praise of Tabriz . . . . 1 40 

Bad and reprehensible things in Iran . . 141 
Pilgrimages and Visits in the town of Tabriz . 142 
Description of the Expedition we undertook 

with the Kkân to Sham Ghâzân . .143 

Description of Merâghâ . . . .144 

Description of Ajan . . . . .145 

Places of Pilgrimage at Erdebil . . . 147 

Journey from Tabriz to Erivan. 

Pilgrimage to the Tomb of Shems Tabriz! . 1 49 
Description of the Town of Erivan (Revân) . 150 
Description of the important town of Genje . 154 
Pilgrimages (or Tombs) of Martyrs . . ib. 

Description of the Castle of Sheki . .156 
Account of the Tribe of Ettels . . .157 
Pilgrimage of Ashâr-bâbâ .... 158 
Praise of Mount Caucasus . . . . ib. 

Description of the Town of Shamâkhi . . 159 
Description of the Fortress of Baku . .162 

Description of our journey from Baku through 

Georgia . . . . . .163 

Description of a Whale with ears like an 

Elephant 164 

Description of Derbend the Gate of Gates . 1 65 



CONTENTS. 



Ill 



Size and figure of the Castle 

Description of the Iron Gate 

Buildings within the Castle 

Pilgrimages 

The Pilgrimage of the Forty 



Page 
166 

ib. 
167 
168 

ib. 



Journey to Georgia. 

Description of the Castle of Serir-ul- Allan . 1 69 
Tomb of Emir Sultân . . . .170 

Description of the old town of Kâkht . . ib. 

Description of Georgia or Shûshâdistân, viz : 

Betlis 171 

Size and Figure of the Fortress . .172 

Products ....... ib. 

The Hot-baths of Tiflis . . . . ib. 

Description of the Castle of Kusekht . .173 

Description of Sûrân . . . . . ib. 

Specimen of the Georgian Shushad Language ib. 
Genealogy of the Georgian Kings . .173 
Description of the Stronghold of Akhaska, 

Sultân Seh'm's conquest . . . . 1 74 

Khas or Revenues of the Sanjak Begs . .175 
Number of Ziamets and Timars . . . ib. 

Form and size of the Castle of Akhachka . 176 
Castles of Georgia belonging to the Province 

ofChaldir 177 

Stations of the Journey from Akhaska to Er- 

zeriim . . . . . . .178 

Castles in the neighbourhood of Erdehân . ib. 

i 

Journey to Erivan in the year I 

1057(1647). I 

[ 
Journeys on our return 

Journey to Baiburd, Janja, Isper, 
Tortum and Akchbkala'a. 

Form and size of the Castle 
Description of the River Jorilgh . 
Pilgrimages .... 
Description of the Castle of Tortum 
Size and Shape of the Castle 



. 185 



188 
189 
ib. 
190 
191 



Page 
Account of our Inroad into Mingrelia . . 195 
Of the Language of the JVIingrelians . .197 

Moral Reflections 198 

Account of our return from Erzeriim to Con- 
stantinople in the month of Zilka'deh 1057 

(1647) 199 

Our journey to the Castle of Kumakh . . ib. 
Description of the Castle of Kumakh . . '201 
Description of the Castle of Erzenjan . . 202 

Praise of the Eatables and Beverages . . 204 

Pilgrimages . . . . . . ib. 

Description of the strong Castle of Shin or 
Shiibin Kara-hissar .... 205 

Description of a Lion ..... 207 

Praise of the Alum, called Solomon's Alum . 208 
Description of the Castle of Lâdik . . 209 

The Walks of Lâdik 210 

The warm baths of Lâdik . . . .211 
Description of the Lake of Lâdik . . ib. 

Pilgrimages of Lâdik ..... 212 
Description of Merzifun . . . . ib. 

Description of the Baths .... 213 
Praise of Pirdedeh . , . . . ib. 

Products 215 

Pilgrimage to the Saints of Merzifun . . ib. 
Journey from Merzifun to Kopri . . .216 

Description of the old town and great bridge 

of Kopri 217 

Description of the town of Gumish . . 220 

Praise of Sheikh Bârdâkli-bâbâ . . . 225 

Form of the Castle 227 

The Pilgrimages of Karânji-bâbâ Sultân . ib. 

Description of Angora .... 229 

Praises of Haji Bairâm the Saint . . . 231 

The Eatables and Products . . . . ib. 

Pilgrimages ...... 233 

Description of the town of Beg-bazâri or 
Bebek-bazari ...... 239 

Journey from Beg-bazâri to Constantinople . 240 
Description of the tomb of the great Saint 
Akshems-ud-din . . . . .241 



NOTES. 



Note \, p. 16. — It is a Journey of two days from Briissa to the top. 

The summit is easUy reached in nine hours, on horseback, the journey having been accomplished in that 
time by the Translator, in the company of Mr. Stratton, the British Minister, and B. Bielfields, the 
Prussian Charge d'affaires, in the year 1804. Evliya evidently places the time necessary for rest, and 
Turkish indolence, to the account of the length and difficulty of the road. 

Note 2, p. 197. — The inhabitants of Tortum all assembled to form the istikbâl (solemn meeting .) 

See Morier's Travels, First journey through Persia. Bushire to Shiraz : "At two o'clock we came to 
Ahmadi^h, at half past two we passed a small fort called Khosh Auh, where a large body of people were 
waiting our passage. (In the Journey this is the first notice of the Istakball, which so frequently recurs in 
the future progress of the mission, as an honorary assemblage called forth to receive a distinguished 
traveller, and to conduct him in his passage.) They were all armed with pikes, matchlocks, swords, and 
shields ; and gave us two vollies as a salute. They then advanced to us and being announced by the Arz- 
Beg, wished us a prosperous journey. They were answered by the usual civility "Khosh amedeed, you are 
welcome." As we proceeded our party was headed bv the soldiery. They were commanded by a man 
on horseback, all in tatters, who with his whip kept them together, and excited them with his voice where 
he wanted them to run. Two of the chosen of the village performed feats before us on their lean horses, 
and helped to increase the excessive dust, which involved us. This party kept pace with us, until we were 
again met by a similar host, the van of the little army who were waiting our reception at Borazjoon : 
these also fired their muskets." 

Note 3, p. 2\\.—The river Khalliz. 

This was no doubt originally called Halys, which seems to have formerly been the name, not only of 
this river, but of the whole Kizil Irmak. 



LONDON : 
PRINTED BY WILLIAM NICDL, 60. PALL MALL. 



THE 



TRAVELS 



OF 



evliya efendi. 



JOURNEY TO BRUSSA. 

Praise be to God ! for before all things it is the duty of men and genii to praise 
him, who made the heavens and all the wonders therein, Angels and Eden, Hûrîs 
and Rizwan the guardian of Paradise ; who created roses and daffodils, nightin- 
gales and murmuring fountains, pearls and corals ; the moon and the radiant sun : 
greetings also be to Ahmed the prophet, who by his family accomplished his divine 
mission ! Praise be to the Creator ! who out of nothing called me into existence and 
destined me to obey him, imposing on me the duties of Islam, the prayer, fast, 
alms and pilgrimage. In accomplishment of this sacred duty, I, his lowly servant 
Evliya, left my family, and, with the desire of performing the pilgrimage, first tried 
my strength by commencing, in the month of Moharrem 1040, a journey on foot 
through the environs and quarters of Constantinople ; the account of which is 
contained in the first volume of these travels. My ardent wish was to see 
Jerusalem and Baghdad, Mecca and Medina, Cairo and Damascus, according to 
my dream related in the introduction to the first volume of these travels, when 
the prophet appeared to me in the night, and I, by a slip of the tongue, said to him, 
instead of the usual form, Shifd'at yd ressid-allah (Intercession, O envoy of God) 
Siydhat yd ressul-allah (Travelling, O envoy of God) and he, graciously smiling, 
granted my wish. 

" Whatever God willeth, he prepares the means for its accomplishment." Thus 
ten years after this dream, when I came to the house of my friend Okjî Zâdeh 
Chelebî, I found that preparations were made for a journey to Brussa. He invited 
me to be his companion according to the maxim, "First the companion, then the 
road;" and said, "Let us spend a fortnight in visiting all the remarkable monu- 

VOL. II. B 



2 THETRAVELSOF 

ments at Brussa : the tombs of the Ottoman Sultans, particularly that of the great 
Saint Emir Sultan, and by this visit illuminate our hearts." I accepted this 
proposal as a divine inspiration, saying, " in God's name ! " to which all present 
responded, giving us their best wishes for a prosperous journey. 

For the first time then, without the knowledge of my family, I set out on this 
journey, in the year 1050, accompanied by twenty friends in a boat of Modania, 
leaving the town of Constantinople, the place of my birth, with the intention of 
seeing other towns and villages. The present volume gives an account of this 
journey, which I undertook in consequence of the verse of the Kordn, " Travel 
therein safely day and night," and describes all the hardships I underwent ; for 
according to the tradition of the prophet ; " A journey is a fragment of hell." We 
weighed anchor at Emîrgûneh, on the Bosphorus, and called at Findikli to take on 
board as passengers some clever ship-builders ; and in the morning on the first 
Friday of Moharrem of the year 1050, the boatmen finding the time favourable for 
sailing, unfurled the sails and weathered the point of the Seraglio ; laying the 
ship's head towards Brussa, the object of our voyage. All the passengers were in 
high spirits, and some of them implored the Lord's assistance for a happy voyage 
by singing spiritual songs. Some Musicians encouraged me to accompany them in 
their strains, and so, after having preluded awhile, I fixed on the measure girdanieh, 
and sung three tetrasticks and one sumâyi of the compositions of Dervish Omerbes- 
teh. Several of the boatmen accompanied us on their instruments, chokur, with such 
effect, that water came into the mouths of the hearers with delight. Amidst these 
amusements we came to the island of Heibeli (Prince's Islands), eighteen miles 
distant from Constantinople, and nine in circumference ; it contains a famous 
Convent which is visited every year by many boats from Constantinople. The 
inhabitants are all wealthy Greeks, captains and masters of ships. The public 
officers are the Bostânji-bâshı (of Constantinople) andan officer of the Janissaries. 
From hence we weighed anchor with a brisk gale, the vessel cutting the waves 
with a rapidity as though fire was bursting forth from it, and after five hours' 
sailing landed happily on the coast of Modania. 

Description of the Town and ancient Fortress of Modania. 

It was built by a Greek Princess called Modina. Here I was first enabled to 
perform my Friday's prayer, which I did with great devotion, and then went 
forth to view the town. It is the port of Brussa, and forms a safe harbour, being 
closed against the wind from seven points and open only to the North. The 
anchorage is excellent. At the head of the harbour stands the custom-house, the 
lease of which amounts to a million aspers. The town is built by the sea-shore. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 3 

on a low rocky ground. Prince Orkhdn, with his father Osman's permission, 
conquered this town in the year 721 (1321) and destroyed the walls in several 
places, that it might no longer afford shelter to the infidels. It is governed by a 
Voivode, subordinate to Brûssa, the chief seat of the Sanjak of Khodâvendkiâr. 
The judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers a day. His annual 
revenue amounts to two thousand piastres. This appointment is sometimes given 
to the Molla of Brûssa as Pashmaklik (pin-money). Tlie houses are all faced 
with brick. There are three mosques (jâmî) and seven mesjids, three khans, one 
bath, two schools for boys, and two hundred small streets ; but no room for read- 
ing the Koran or tradition, because the greater number of the inhabitants are 
Greeks. There are fine gardens producing superior figs and grapes. From the 
excellence of its vinegar, it has acquired the name of Darkhill (vinegar-house). 
South-east of the town we passed on horseback continuously through gardens and 
the cultivated field called Filehdar. The river Nilüfer, not fordable in the 
beo-inning of spring, is a clear stream, which issuing from the mountains Rvihbân, 
Ketelî and Castel, waters the valley of Fillehddr and disembogues into the White 
Sea. The main road crosses it over a handsome bridge, each arch of which 
resembles the arch of heaven ; its name, as well as that of the river, was received 
from its builder the Princess Nilüfer, daughter of a Sultân (Orkhân) : after con- 
tinuing our journey among gardens and vineyards for two hours, we reached the 
town of Brûssa, the emporium of silk, the ancient capital of this country (Bithynia). 
The town of Brussa having been built towards the North on natural rocks has 
no ditch, but on the side of the head fountain (Bünâr-bâshî) and the quarter of 
the Mills, it has a deep one, which at the time of the Asiatic rebellions of Kara 
Yaziji, Kallender and Said Arab was filled up. Some of the stones of the walls 
are of the size of the cupola of a bath, and some bear Greek inscriptions on 
them. The town is protected against southerly and easterly winds from its 
being situated at the foot of Mount Olympus. The houses have a northern aspect 
and look over the plain of Filehdar. The fortress, the circumference of which is 
eleven thousand paces, has six thousand battlements, sixty-seven towers, and four 
gates, viz. the gate of the head fountain, the prison-gate, the hot-bath s'-gate to 
the west, and the gate of the fishmarket. This stronghold was besieged more than 
once by the Seljukians, who came with an army of twenty thousand men ; the siege 
lasted between seven and eight months, the besiegers retiring only on the ap- 
proach of winter. Osmfin the founder of the Ottoman dynasty besieged it three 
times, but was compelled on the last occasion by an attack of the gout to retire 
to Iconium. He sent his son Orkhân with Sheikh Hâjî Begtâsh, who renewed 
the siege, and built two great towers, one at the side of the hot-baths (Kaplijab), 



4 THE TRAVELS OF 

and the other on the side of the head fountain (Bunâr-bîîshî), which took seven 
months to complete. Orkhân posted himself at the hot-bath, his nephew Timur- 
beg, at the head-fountain, and Yalabanjik-beg at the mountain's side. It sur- 
rendered in 722 (1322) after a year's siege, and Osman died at the moment he 
received the news. Orkhfin his successor entered Bnissa with Hajî Begtâsh, there 
fixed his residence, and buried his father's body in the castle. Osman conquered 
seventy towns during the lifetime of his father Ertoghrul. His first conquest 
was in Koja-Ui by Akcheh Koja. Near Niceea at the castle of Wailakabtid, he 
begat his son Orkhan on Sheikh Edebali's daughter, who was related to the pro- 
phet, so that the Ottoman Sultfins are Seyyids or Sherifs on the mother's side. 
Sheikh Türsün their first divine was a relation of Sheikh Edebâlî, and said the 
first prayer from the pulpit in Sultân Osman's name. Brüssa soon became popu- 
lated by mussulman colonists from all quarters. 

Description of the Buildings of Bnissa. 

The interior of the fortress contains two thousand houses, and many high 
palaces, but no gardens, there are seven quarters and as many mosques, one bath 
and twenty shops. The mosque of Sultân Orkhân is one hundred and ten feet 
square, with a minareh of one story. Sultân Orkhân lies buried here, and the 
large drum called Orkhân's drum is suspended in this mosque ; it was used during 
Sultân Orkhân's reign. The palace in the castle was the residence of the early 
Ottoman Emperors to the time of Mohammed II., who removed to Constan- 
tinople ; Sultân Murâd I. having previously resided at Adrianople. Since Brüssa 
has had its own Böstânjî-bashî (like Constantinople) the streets of the castle are 
paved with large stones, and in some places stones are found with inscriptions of 
the time of the Infidels, by which may be ascertained how long the houses have 
been built; they are all built of stone, faced with brick, and have a kind of 
sexangular chimneys to let out the smoke, which look very well. In some places 
also grow cypress -nut trees and vines, and from the elevation of the ground, the 

air is very wholesome. 

The public Officers of Bnissa. 

The first is the Pâshâ of the Sanjâk, Khodavendkiâr, appointed with a revenue 
of 618,079 aspers khâss. There are four hundred and twenty fiefs called ziâmet 
and one thousand and five tîmârs. The feudal militia is commanded by an 
Alâi-beg, Cherî-bâshî and Jûz-bâshî, and assemble at the Pasha's command in 
time of war. The Pâshâ leads five hundred men of his own. The judge (Molla) 
is appointed with 500 aspers, and is promoted from hence to the posts of Adrianople 
and Constantinople, it is a high office, valued annually at forty thousand piastres. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. r, 



O 



Seven Naîbs (deputies) in the town are subordinate to the Molla. The five other 
districts are those of Kînâ, Fileli, Abolonia, Castel, and Chokurjeh. The civil 
officers are, a Chokâdâr of the janissaries, a chamberlain (Kâpüjf-bâshî) ; the 
commanding officer of the janissaries, the colonel of the armourers (Jebeji), the 
officer of the Sîpâhıs (Kiayâ-yerf) ; the Mufti, the head of the Sherifs, the 
inspector of the silk, of the custom-house, the Voivode of the town and the 
provost, who all have power of life and death. 

The lower town was fortified in the time of Mohammed III. the conqueror of 
Erla against the Anatolian rebels Kara Yaziji, Kalender-oghli, Deli Hassan, and 
Jennet-oghH, but it is not very strong ; it extends from East to West to the foot 
of Mount Olympus for the length of one farsang and the breadth of half a farsang. 
The circuit is fifteen hundred paces, the walls are not very high. There is but 
one ditch near the gate of the Tatars and no where else, and there is no need of 
it, because if an enemy were to dig approaches, water would rush up in the 
trenches. Guns and falconets are mounted on the towers, which are fired on 
festivals ; there is no other garrison than the doorkeepers, but there are six 
thousand guards in the town. The gates are of iron and above each are towers 
whence grenades and stones may be thrown on the besiegers. The gate of theTâtârs 
opens to the East, that of Filehdar to the North ; and that of Hassan Pâshâ 
towards the Kiblah. There are twenty-thousand large and small houses built 
in the ancient style ; the most conspicuous of all is the ancient residence 
of the Emperors, in the upper town or fortress, it has three baths and three 
hundred rooms, but no garden on account of the narrowness of the place. There 
are in the whole town one hundred and sixty-six quarters of Moslims, seven of 
Armenians, nine of Greeks, six of Jews, and one of Copts. The quarter of the 
Meskins (Lepers) is a separate quarter leading to the road of Sultân Murâd. 
The upper part of the town with Mount Olympus rising in the background is 
beautiful when seen from the plain of Filehdar, an hour's distance from it, and 
I can truly say that I have seen nothing like it during my travels. Briissa is a 
very devout town, abounding with Divines, expounders of the Koran and keepers 
of tradition, who are found no where else so numerous, excepting at Baghdad. 
Mount Olympus at the back of the town on the south side is a mine of living 
water, no less than one thousand and sixty well-known springs flow from it, and 
supply water in abundance to the palaces and houses. It abounds also in all 
kinds of flowers, particularly in syringa (Erghiwan), the annual assembly of Emir 
Sultân held in the season when the syringa is in perfection being much celebrated. 
The inhabitants being fair, the air good, the water full of holiness, contribute 
altogether, to render Brussa one of the most delicious spots on earth. 



6 THETRAVELSOF 

Description of the Imperial and other Mosques. 

There are in all one thousand and forty places of worship, three hundred and 
fifty-seven of which are mosques of Sultans, Vezirs, and other great men. The 
first is the great mosque Ulü-jami'î built by liderim Bayazîd, on an airy elevated 
spot of Brüssa, it is supported within by large square pillars, the bases of which 
are gilt and painted to the height of a man, with inscriptions, such as, Yd Hanndn, 
" O all gracious!" Yd Menndn, " O all merciful," Yd Diijdn, " O all faithful!" 
Yd Hassdn, " O all beautiful !" and other names of God. The letters of these 
inscriptions are three cubits high ; nineteen cupolas covered with lead and 
crowned with golden crescents are supported by these pillars. The twentieth 
cupola is placed on the centre of the mosque, and is left open so that light and 
air may enter, but birds and animals are shut out by a grating of brass wire. 
Directly beneath this cupola is a round basin of water, wherein fish are swimming 
and whence the Moslim community take the water necessary for their ablutions. 
The pulpit made of black nut is skilfully carved and chiselled with flowers and 
arabesques of all kinds. It must be absolutely seen, for it is so wonderful that it 
cannot easily be described, and has no equal any where except at Sinope on the 
Black Sea. The mahfil or place where the Muezzins repeat the proclamation 
of prayer, is painted with great art. The mosque is lighted by glass windows on 
the four sides, and the floor covered with carpets which are not found elsewhere 
because this mosque is so richly endowed. It is nightly lighted by seven hundred 
lamps, and is crowded with people at all hours, because no less than seventy 
lectures are read here on scientific subjects to two thousand scholars. The 
distance from one of the side-gates to the other is three hundred and fifty feet, 
and from the Kiblah to the mihrab one hundred and eighty feet ; it has three 
gates. On the left side, the gate of the Emperor's oratory (mahfil), the gate of 
the Kiblah (opposite to the mihrab), and on the right side, the gate of the 
Mehkemeh. Outside of the Kiblah-gate is a stone bench ; it has no great court- 
yard like other mosques, but a small one, in the centre of which the Mufti Abd- 
ul-aziz Efendi has built a basin with water-pipes. 

On the right and left are two high brick minareh, and at that of the Mehkemeh- 
gate is a fountain (jet d'eau), the water of which comes from Mount Olympus, 
but it is now in ruins, the pipes having become decayed by age. When it rains 
the water collects in the basin of this fountain on the top of the Minareh, and the 
birds flock hither to drink. In short there is no more holy mosque than this 
in Brussa ; it is the Ayâ Sofia of Brussa, and has therefore been described the 
first, but the first consecrated in chronological order, was that of Orkhan in the 
upper castle. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 7 

The Mosque of Khodavendkidr, or Sultdn Murdd I. 

On the west side of Bnissa at half an hour's distance, in a separate suburb 
called Eskikaplijah is Sultan Murjid's mosque, built in a peculiar style, because 
the architect was a Frank. The lower part is devoted to worship, the upper 
devoted to science, is distributed into rooms for students, so that each may follow 
the Imam's directions at prayer. The length from the Kiblah to the mihrab is one 
hundred feet, and the breadth seventy feet. On one of the columns appears a 
falcon, which having been recalled by Sultân Murâd I. and not obeying, was by 
his curse changed into stone. This mosque has one gate, and a minareh one 
story high, but no courtyard. 

Description of the Mosque of Sultdn Bdyazid I. 

It is a small mosque, situate on the East side of Bnissa, surrounded by fields 
and gardens, and not much frequented on account of its distance from the town ; 
it is one hundred and fifty feet long and one hundred in width, in the old simple 
style, and remained unfinished during the war of Timiir, but was completed by 
Mussa Ilderîm's son. 

The Mosque of Mohammed I. 

This celebrated and elegant mosque, known by the name of Yeshil imaret 
(the green building) entirely built of marble, stands upon a hill on the East side 
of Brussa, and has two cupolas without columns, one hundred and eight feet long 
and eighty feet in width. It is impossible to give an idea of the mihrab (altar) 
and minber (pulpit) because the carving is beyond all conception; the only 
gate is also ornamented with such elegant arabesque carvings, that they could 
not be represented finer even by the pen on Chinese paper. The stone-cutter 
who worked this gate, spent full three years on it, during which he received 
forty thousand ducats from Mohammed I. as is generally reported ; in short, there 
is no mosque of more elegant and exquisite workmanship in the world. The 
reason of its being named the green building, arises from the cupola and the 
minareh being covered with green fayence which radiates like emeralds in sunshine. 
Tall plane trees surround the outside. I saw no finer mosque in Brussa, and 
other travellers say no where else. 

Description of the Mosque of Murdd II. the son of Mohammed I. 

On the west side of the town is a certain suburb composed of this mosque and 

its appurtenances of colleges, khans and gardens. The builder was Murad II. 

the son of Mohammed I. and father of Mohammed II. who died at Adrianople 

and was buried here. It is a holy mosque and has two cupolas. From the gate 



8 THETRAVELSOF 

of the Kiblali to the mihr.lb the length is one hundred and fifty feet, the width 
sixty. The (mihrâb) altar, (minber) pulpit and station of the Muezzins (mahfil) 
are in the ancient simple style, built in the year 850 (1446). Tall plane-trees 
adorn the courtyard. Many Princes of the Ottoman family are buried here. 

The Mosque of Emir Sultân. 

This mosque is built on a mound and is the last of the Imperial Mosques which 
I visited. 

On the east side of the town is the mosque of Monlâ Arab Jebbârî, a small 
mosque built after the model of the great mosque Uhi-jami'i, its fine situation 
invites the people to pray there. The mosque of Uftadi Efendi is in the 
inner castle. Of the Mesjids or small mosques (where Khutbeh is not said on 
Fridays) it is the principal. The Mesjid Zeiniler, the building of the Mufti Abd- 
ul-latif, where I read the Koran from beginning to end in one day, without inter- 
ruption. Here the Molla Khosrew composed his famous book. At that time 
two hundred lead-covered mosques and seven hundred minarehs might be seen 
from Kazi-yaila, a height half way up Mount Olympus. 

The Colleges of Briissa. 

The colleges are those of Orkhan, Ilden'm, Murad, Mohammed I., Emîr-sultân, 
Issa-beg, Kâssem pâshd, Joneid, Kadri, Tenarî, Zein-ud-dîn Hâfî, Bâyazîd-pâshâ, 
and Hamza-beg. 

The Convents, Imdrets, Khdns, Fountains, Mills and Sehils of Brûssa. 
There are three hundred convents, the most handsome of which are, that of 
Mevlana Jelal-ud-din containing eighty cells for Dervishes, and a place for the 
dance (sima'a). That of Emîr-sultân entirely covered with lead, which stands on 
a high hill. That of Zeiniler of the sect of Na'amân Ben Thâbet. That of Uftâdî 
Efendi, in the inner castle, of Khalveti dervishes. That of Abdal Murad Sultân 
of the Begtâshis, men fervent in piety, who bareheaded and barefooted with open 
breasts, wait upon the Moslims who frequent this delightful walk ; it was built 
by Orkhan and possesses more than a thousand kettles, pans, and copper vessels ; 
visitors perform their devotions here. That of Sheikh Kili near the camel-driver's 
station, the dervishes are Begtashis and very poor, having no endowment, it was 
built by Sultân Orkhan. That of Abdal Sultân Mussa built by the same. That of 
Ak-bi'ik Sultân of the order of Begtâsh. That of Abu Ishak Kasûli who is 
buried at Erzerum within the gate of Tebriz. That of Gulsheni; seventeen 
Convents of Khalvetis ; nine of Kadris ; three of Nakshbendis ; one of Rufa'ais ; 
one of Kalenders, and one of wrestlers. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. g 

The Imîiıets (dining establishments for the poor) are those of Murâd I. 
liderim Bâyazîd, Emîr Sultân, and that of Mohammed I., called the green one. 

There are one hundred and eight khans ; the principal one is the rice khdn, 
which has iron gates, a large stable, worthy of Antar, with two hundred cells ; 
the silk khan, of the same size, where the inspector of the silk resides ; the cus- 
tom of the silk is let for three hundred purses a year ; the butter khdn on the 
gate of which is suspended a cask, which, being filled with biiza, was once drank 
out by a single man who had laid a bet that he would do it. There are also 
seventy khans called Mujerred Khans for unmarried people. The caravanserai 
of All Pasha was built by Sinan the famous architect, and has doorkeepers. 

The fountains of Briissa amount to the number of two thousand and sixty, 
every one of which vies with the spring of life. The Mufti Azfz Efendi 
himself built two hundred, his name appearing on all of them, with an inscription 
begging for a fatihah from those who drink. Besides these public fountains, 
each of the twenty-three thousand houses has its own supply. From certain 
springs water-courses pass from house to house, along the streets, and carry 
water to many basins, water-pipes, baths and gardens. The town bein"- built at 
the foot of Mount Olympus, and the houses rising in rows one above the other 
the water naturally flows to them. There are seventeen fountains, from which 
this large quantity of water is derived, the principal one is that called Bûnâr- 
bâshî, which rushes out of the rock in several places on Mount Olympus and 
spreads itself over the town. The head fountains of Sûnderlî, of Chatâl Kainak, 
of Kepiz, of Nâshî Dersi, of Sobran, of ArejH, of Charshu, of Bellor Kainak, of 
Samanlı Kainak, the latter obtained the name of straw-boiler, because it issues 
from Mount Olympus, flows for some distance underground, and comes out again 
at another place, which is proved by the re-appearance of straws that have been put 
into the upper part of the stream ; the Sheker Kainak (sugar-boiler) ; the Selâm 
Kiassî Kainaghî ; the Kirâl Kainak (king's boiler) ; the Murâd-dedeh Kainaghî ; in 
short there are seventeen large fountains which yield the clearest and coldest 
water; but the channels decaying in the course of time, the keepers of the 
aqueducts, at night, throw horsedung into them, by which the openings are 
obstructed and the purity of the water is spoiled ; they would not dare to do this 
in the day-time because they would be punished for it by the public officers. 

The Water-mills are an hundred and seventy, which succeed one another from 
the head fountain (Bûnâr-bâshî) to the fish-market and all the way down from 
Balabânjik ; also in the valley of Eghzândî, at the tanners, the quarter of the 
lepers, the foot of the Castle, the gate of Hassan Pâshâ, &c. The establishments 
for distributing water (Sebils) are six hundred. Although here, as at Brussa, 

VOL. 11. c 



10 THETRAVELSOF 

there is such abundance of water that these estabHshments are superfluous, yet 
the generosity of the Ottoman Sultdns provided them for the distribution of iced 
water in the summer months. 

Praise of the Baths of Brüssa. 

The cleanhness and elegance of the bath of Sultan Mohammed is beyond 
all description ; the bath of Ainebegi-Charshu was founded by liderim Khdn ; 
the bath of Takht-ul-kala' ; the bath of Kayaghan Charshii ; the bath of 
Bostanı, of the castle of the Cutlers, of Murad, and of liderim, have all two 
rooms each (Chifteh). There are besides three thousand private baths in the 
palaces, some of which are also devoted by the proprietors to public use. The 
hotbaths in Turkish are called Ilijeh; in Arabic, Maîhamîm; in Persian, 
Germab ; in Rumeli, Kainarjeh (boiling) ; and at Brûssa, Kaplijeh (from 
Ka-Kvoç smoke, which hangs over these hot springs;) in the Mogolic language 
they are called Kerensa, and in Europe, bagnio. These springs are impregnated 
with sulphur from mines which they pass through underground, and when mixed 
with cold water, are equally wholesome for bathing or drinking, but if drank to 
excess, it is said, they cause the teeth to fall out. There are many hundred hot 
springs at Brûssa, which being neglected in the time of the Infidels, were not 
covered. The hot-bath of old Kaplijeh, built by Murad I. has a great cupola 
covering a large basin ten feet square, on the four sides of which are washing- 
tubs, with two retired cabinets (Khalveti), upon entering these the flesh feels 
soft as an ear-lap and all uncleanliness is boiled as it were from the body. To 
drink the water is a good remedy for palpitation and throbbing of the heart ; but 
a certain method is prescribed to those using the baths, which if neglected brings 
on pleurisy. 

The following are the rules to be observed: — First, take a common ablution 
at the edge of the basin, then wash the head with warm water, throwing some 
over the body preparatory to walking into the bath, till the whole body is 
covered, do not remain too long, and dress quickly upon coming out, in order 
to avoid catching cold ; this precaution is necessary, and if neglected causes many 
ailments. The most powerful of all the hot-baths of Brûssa is that of Murad I. 
the dressing-place being built in the old style is not cold. 

Description of the hot spring of Chekirgeh Sultan. 
The building is small, but its water is very useful in leprosy ; lepers who have 
been afflicted for forty years, are cured if they drink and bathe here forty days. 
Persons affected with this disease lose their eyebrows and eyelashes, and their 



EVLIYAEFENDI. H 

breath becomes infectious. God avert it from us ! There are for this reason 
separate quarters for the leprous (Meşkin) in all towns in Rum. 

Description of the sulphurous hot spring (Gogurdli Kaplijeh.) 

It is a small building, the spring is very hot and sulphurous ; it is principally 
used as a remedy for itch and scab, and the waiters (Dellak) know how to treat 
people so affected. Those who can bear to be rubbed by them in the private 
cabinets for half an hour, will see within twenty-four hours a miraculous 
alteration ; the skin peels off in black scales, and the body appears white as 
silver. In short, the suburb of old Kaplijeh, where the above springs exist, con- 
sists of three hundred houses with gardens and hot springs, some for men, some 
for women, some for children, and some for old men. The inhabitants of Briissa, 
who are acquainted with their qualities, come here to stay a fortnight with their 
relations, and use the baths. 

Description of New Kaplijeh. 

It stands near the town on a rocky place, and all the buildings arC' covered 
with lead, like those of old Kaplijeh. It was formerly a small building, but 
Sultân Suleiman having been cured of the gout here, he ordered his Vezir, Sârî 
Rostem PâshiC, to build a large bath. The travellers of Multctn, Balkh and 
Bokhara, say, that they have no where seen a bath so magnificent as this. Its 
dressing-room is a vast place covered with cupolas, capable of holding a thousand 
men ; on its walls is written in Ta'lik letters, a Turkish verse, saying ; 

" In life on your apparel lay no stress 
As every body must his body here undress." 

In the centre of this dressing-room is a basin, and in the middle of the basin a 
fountain. There are more than a hundred inspectors walking round in high 
pattens, besides clean waiters (Dellak). The interior basin (the bath itself) 
has a cupola which some say is one hundred cubits high, it is covered with lead, 
and pierced with six hundred glass windows ; the basin is like a sea into which you 
descend by six marble steps ; at its four corners are figures of lions and dragons, 
which spout the water from their mouths. In the cooling place (Sukhk) is a 
fountain (jet d'eau) which reaches to the top of the house. On the side of the 
basin are eight large vaults, underneath each of them is a bathing trough of stone, 
where those who perform their ablutions can see those who swim in the basin. 
The floor of the whole bath is paved with variegated marble, as though 
enamelled by goldsmiths. It has two private cabinets (Khalveti), in that on the 



j2 THETRAVELSOF 

rio-lit is a small basin, the water of which is extremely warm, but when mixed 
with that of a cold spring which is adjacent, a proper temperature is obtained. 
Though this hotbath is not in such good repute as the former, yet it is a pleasant 
place, where lovers delight with their beloved, especially in the long winter nights ; 
when these baths are lighted with candles, a thousand tricks are played by the 
bathers, some diving, some swimming, some wrestling in the water, some swelling 
their aprons into sails, others spouting water from their mouths, some lying dead 
fiat on the water, others joining hands and imitating the cries of boatmen, 
" Tira Mola," drive the water round like a whirlpool, which forces all those who 
are in the water to follow the quick rotation of it. 

There is also a private hotbath, called Kaindrjeh, which, with many others, I did 
not see, because I was a stranger, and only setting out on my travels. 

Description of the Market of Bn'issa. 

There are nine thousand shops. The Bezestan is a large building with four 
iron gates secured with iron chains ; its cupola is supported by strong columns. 
It contains three hundred shops (dolâb) in each of which merchants reside, who 
are as rich as the kings of Egypt. The market of the goldsmiths is outside the 
bezestan, and separate from it ; the shops are all of stone. There are also the 
markets of the tailors, cotton-beaters, capmakers, thread merchants, drapers, linen 
merchants, cable merchants, and that called the market of the bride, where essence 
of roses, musk, ambergris, &c. are sold. The brains of the passers by are refreshed 
with the most delicious odours, and nobody is willing to leave it on account of the 
fragrance of the perfumes and the politeness of its merchants. These markets 
are established around the Bezestan, and the shops are arranged in rows. In each 
corner is a fountain supplying water out of two pipes. In the summer months the 
servants sprinkle the ground with water, so that the whole market resen)bles a 
serdâb or cooling place of Baghdad. The principal men of Brussasit here during 
the hottest hours of the day. According to the descriptions of travellers there is 
no where to be found so pleasant a market place. The market of Haleb and of Alî 
Pasha at Adrianople are famous, but neither they, nor even those of Constantino- 
ple, are to be compared with the markets of Brussa. The saddlers, and the long 
market are the most crowded ; and the one occupied by the sellers of roast meat 
near the rice khan is very elegant. None of the provisions at Brussa are sold by 
Infidels but all by true Moslims. The shops of the Sherbet-merchants are 
adorned with all sorts of cups, and in the summer-time they put flowers into the 
sherbet and also mix rosewater with it, which is not the custom any where else. 
The fruit merchants ornament their shops with branches bearing fruit. There 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 13 

are seventy-five coffee-houses each capable of holding a thousand persons, which 
are frequented by the most elegant and learned of the inhabitants ; and three 
times a day singers and dancers execute a musical concert in them like those of 
Hossein Bikara. Their poets are so many Hassciiis, and their story-tellers 
(Meddah) so many Abül-ma'âlî. The one most famous for relating stories from 
the Hamzeh-ndmeh is Kûrbanî Ali, and Sherif Chelebî enchanted his hearers by 
those he told from the Shdh-nameh. Other story-tellers (Kissah Khîın) were 
famous for reciting the tales of Abu Moslem the hatchet-bearer, which may be 
compared to the memoirs (Seir) of Weissi. All coffee-houses, and particularly 
those near the great mosque, abound with men skilled in a thousand arts 
(Hezar-fenn) dancing and pleasure continue the whole night, and in the morning 
every body goes to the mosque. These coffee-houses became famous only since 
those of Constantinople were closed by the express command of Sultân Murâd 
IV. There are are also no less than ninety-seven Buza-houses, which are not to 
be equalled in the world; they are wainscoted with fayence, painted, each 
capable of accommodating one thousand men. In summer the Buza is cooled in 
ice, like sherbet ; the principal men of the town are not ashamed to enter these 
Buza-houses, although abundance of youths, dancers and singers, girt with Brussa 
girdles, here entice, their lovers to ruin. The roads are paved with large flint-stones, 
a kind of paving not met with elsewhere ; these stones are not the least worn by 
age, but they are dangerous for horses, who stumble on them because they are so 
hard and bright. 

Description of the bridge of Erghdndi. 

A market for weavers is established on both sides of the bridge of Erghândî at 
Gokdereh (the valley of Olympus) the small windows of each shop look on to the 
torrent of Gokdereh, which flows beneath. The shops are covered with lead, and 
the bridge is shut in on two sides by iron gates pierced with loopholes. A part of 
the bridge is reserved for the use of strangers to fasten up their horses. There is 
no covered bridge like this, either in Arabia, Persia or Turkey. The name of this 
bridge, Erghândî, is derived from the word Erghalândî, which signifies, " it has 
been shaken," and to which the following tradition is attached : — 

In the time of Sultân Orkhân, a warrior, going early to the bath here, heard a 
voice, saying, " Shall I come out or not ? " The soldier being a brave fellow, called 
out, " Come out," adding a curse or two ; when out broke from the place whence 
the sound came, a rich treasure, with great shaking and trembhng of the earth 
(Erghalandi). The soldier, upon seeing such a quantity of gold coins, went and 
related the story to Orkhân, who advised him to spend in pious works, what 



14 THETRAVELSOF 

Heaven had thus granted him. He took the treasure to his home, paid a tenth 
of it to the revenue, and then built this bridge, which took its name from the circum- 
stance. There are forty-eight large and small bridges in and about Brûssa. The 
streets and some of the markets are adorned with festoons of grapes, which grow 
here in great plenty, and others with tall plane-trees and willows. Brûssa is truly a 
garden-town ; the number of gardens is said to be forty-seven thousand, all 
abundantly supphed with water. 



Description of the Walks and pleasure-places of Brûssa. 

Of these there are no less than three hundred and sixty-five, so that there is one 
for every day in the year. The finest is that of Bûnâr-bâshî, where if you eat 
roast meat and drink of the water, you feel hungry again immediately ; of such 
digestive power is the water : a mosque adorns this famous walk. The walk of 
the Mevlevî-khâneh, or convent of Dervishes, built by Orkhân, where twice a 
week the Mevlevis assemble for their religious dances (sima'â), and afterwards 
take their pleasure in the fields. The walk of Abddl Murâd Sultân is situate in a 
valley high up on Mount Olympus, whence the finest view of Brûssa is obtained. 
The verdure is so luxuriant, that the earth seems covered with green velvet. 
There are plane-trees, willows, cypresses and box-trees, of an immense height, 
under the shade of which ten thousand men may procure shelter. Swings are 
fastened with ropes to some of these trees, where lovers and their beloved swing 
each other. There are benches for company and benches for prayer ; it is a most 
delightful place, and extends as far as the eye can reach. The walk of Fissdîklî is 
adorned with pine-trees, and is a secluded but very pleasant corner. The walk of 
Karanfilli, on the way to Kaplijah, is a resting-place. The walk of Kaplı Kiaya is 
a fine spot without any buildings, and surrounded by woods, and that of Abd-ul- 
mûmen is above all praise. Outside of the town, to the east, in a chesnut-wood, 
half an hour's distance from the foot of Mount Olympus, stands the fountain of 
A'ssa, which is said to have rushed forth by a miracle, when the great Saint Emir 
Sultân struck his staff (a'ssa) into the ground on this spot. The chesnuts are 
grafted trees, each not weighing above forty drachms. The walk of Sobran is 
also adorned with chesnut-trees. The place of Ulumest is a convent for the 
accommodation of strangers. The pleasure-place of Kazî-yailâ (the judge's Alp) 
is situate half-way up Mount Olympus, and is ascended from below in five hours. 
The Okmeidan, or archery-ground, is so pleasant a place, that it is beyond all 
description. The walk of the Monks' mountain (Olympus) obtained jts name 
from its having been the retreat of Greek Monks. 



evliya efendi. 15 

A Dissertation on Mountains, 

God created one hundred and forty-eight mountains, as locks of the earth, 
which is held together by them when shaken by earthquakes ; this is hinted in the 
verses of the Koran, " His (God's) are the keys of the earth and Heaven ;" 
and again, " and the mountains as pales." According to geographers there are in 
the first climate, nineteen ; in the second, twenty -seven ; in the third, thirty-one ; 
in the fourth, twenty-four; in the fifth, twenty -nine ; in the sixth, thirty-six; 
and in the seventh, thirty-seven great mountains. The root of all mountains 
is mount Kâf, thus designated by the verse of the Koran, " Kâf and the glorious 
Koran ;" it surrounds the earth and is reached by the Kalmuks beyond the ice- 
sea; they call it in their language Yaldarak Tak. If it pleases God, I shall 
describe it when I undertake that journey. Since the time of Alexander none but 
the Kalmuks have seen Mount Kâf, they assemble every forty or fifty years to 
the number of seventy, or eighty thousand, in order to visit it. The Caucasus 
(Kuh-al-burz) faces the desert of Tartary called Heihât, the great mountain of 
Germany (Riesengeburg), and the mountain of the moon twenty farsangs beyond 
the equator, where the Nile originates. Mount Olympus was the first of these 
mountains which I ascended with a goodly company ; we took Utters, tents and 
all necessary preparations with us, and set out from Bûnâr-bâshî ascending 
during five hours. The first height, Ghâzî Yailâ, is so called because the Moslim 
victors (Ghâzî) had a station here during the siege of Brûssa, which lasted a 
whole year. It is a pleasant spot with meadows and chesimt-trees, a small rivulet 
running through it is full of trout. From this place a full view of the town of 
Brûssa is obtained. Five hours further on is the table-land called Sobrân 
Yailâssî, a large plain with chesnut-woods ; trout are also found in the lakes of 
it ; we took a great many of them, and ate them fried with fresh butter ; each 
fish seemed like one of the dishes Jesus multiplied amongst the people (six 
thousand men). Some hundred thousand sheep graze here, descended from the 
forty thousand sheep of Sultân Osman : the shepherds are Turks, they brought 
us some sheep as a present, which we immediately roasted, and passed the night 
in the open air. Next day we mounted again in a south-east direction (Kiblâh) 
the road fined with hyacinths, roses, basihcon, and other flowers, the scent of which 
perfumed our brains. We refreshed ourselves with water from the living spring, 
and came after three hour's travelling to the place called Menzil Bakajak, where 
we halted three days and three nights in the woods, delighting in fresh fish and 
roasted sheep. This place is called Bakajak, or look-out, because from hence on 
the nights previous to Ramazân they watch for the new moon, and, as soon as 
they see it, light a fire to give notice to the town, where the guns are fired to 



]g THE TRAVELS OF 

announce the commencement of the fast. This look-out is on the top of an 
isolated rock, which stretches towards the town like an elephant's proboscis and 
hanfs over so deep a precipice that nobody dares look down. From it the plain 
Filehdar, with all its villages, fields, and cultivated grounds appear, like a picture 
on paper. It is so steep and prominent that the great mosque, the castle and 
bezestan of Brûssa seem as it were sinking into the base of the mountain, and 
from the summit cannot be seen at all. Rocks towering to the sky take the 
appearance here of many strange shapes, such as dragons, elephants and eagles. 
We mounted still further in the direction of the Kiblah through flowery meadows, 
where no tall trees were to be seen, and after five hours came to the station of 
Sultân Suleiman's fountain-head. A delightful spot with a spring of water so 
cold that a man cannot take out of it three stones in succession. There is here a 
large mass of rock the size of the cupola of a bath, which vibrates on being 
touched, and also many rivulets containing trout of one or two becas each. 
These rivulets and brooks being frozen in the winter, the head ice-man, (Kârjî- 
bâshî) sends two or three hundred persons to cut the ice, which, transparent as 
crystal and brilliant as diamonds, is used in summer to cool their sherbet by the 
inhabitants of Constantinople and Brussa. Some hundred ass-loads are every day 
embarked at Modania for the use of the coffee-houses. Imperial kitchens, and the 
Imperial Harım ; for the Vezirs, the Kâzî-askers, and the Muftis. 

Description of the Ice-worm. 

This is a worm, which is found in the midst of ice and snow as old as the 
creation, but is difficult to find ; it has forty feet, and forty black spots on its back, 
with two eyes as red as rubies, all ice, without a tongue, and its interior filled 
with an icy fluid ; it shines like a diamond but melts quickly away, because it is all 
ice. In size, it is like those cucumbers which are sold for seed at Lângabestân, 
sometimes larger, sometimes smaller. The ice-worm I brought to Sultân Ibrahim 
was smaller than a cucumber. It is an aphrodisiac, sharpens the sight, and 
makes a man as healthy and vigorous as a new-born child. It is rarely found, and 
falls but to the lot of kings ! It is said that on the Caucasus they are of the size 
of dogs, with four feet, living and walking among the ice and snow. Faith be 
upon the teller ! I have not seen them. 

Above the station of Svileimân vegetation ceases and the mountain is barren. 
KuUei Jehân, the tower of the world, is on the topmost peak of the monk's moun- 
tain (Olympus) whence beneath your feet the clouds may be seen passing over 
the town. It is a journey of two days from Brussa to the top ; being so very 
high it is entirely barren; the mountains of Cütahîa are seen from the south 



evliya efendi. 17 

side ; the mountains of Sogıkl from tlıe East, and from the west side the moun- 
tains of GahpoUs, beyond the White Sea. The summits of the Seven Towers and 
of the Minarehs of Sultfin Ahmed, may be discerned from hence when the sun 
shines on Constantinople. From its height, it is so much exposed to the wind, 
that if men did not chng to, or shelter themselves behind, the rocks, the wind 
would blow them away like cotton. On the highest spot is a burying place, the 
four sides composed of immense stones; it is the tomb of Sa'dan the son of 
Landha, who is said to have taken refuge here from fear of Hamzah. Near it is 
a deep dark cave which leads to seventy or eighty small cells, where Monks 
resided in the time of the Byzantine Empire ; on some of them are inscriptions in 
Greek and Latin, two thousand years old. People who come to the top also 
write their names in this place. We again mounted our horses and came after 
ten hours ride, ascending and descending, to the Victor's height, Ghazi Yaila, 
from whence, after another ride of ten hours, we arrived at Brussa. 

Language, Dress, and Manufactures of the Inhabitants of Brussa. 
There are many thousand rich merchants and learned divines who dress in 
sable pelisses. Being in Asia, the language is related to the Turkish, hence 
they say Ahmed Chepu instead of Ahmed Chelebf; Memet Chepu instead of 
Mohammed Chelebi; Assmîl instead of Ismail; Jafar instead of Ja'fer, besides 
some words and expressions entirely unknown ; young men of the town however 
speak with great purity. Their principal occupation is the cultivation of silk, the 
manufacture of velvets and other stuffs of Bnissa called Sereng and Chatma, it 
is also famed for the manufacture of cushions for sofas. 

The Climate of Brussa. 
The longest day is fifteen hours : the inhabitants are fresh-coloured on account 
of the healthy air, but as Mount Olympus intercepts the southerly winds, the 
air is dull and heavy when they blow. The youth are numerous and have 
been celebrated in many a town-revolt (Shehrengiz). The women are exquisite 
beauties, with well-arranged teeth, and well-arranged words; their hair curled 
and dressed in tresses is celebrated in the poetical expression Kessüî merghüleh. 
The men attain a very old age ; in short the pleasant advantages which this town 
affords are not to be met with elsewhere. The people are of a graceful stature, 
silver bodies, cautious, and so eloquent that when they speak they never fail to 
produce the greatest effect on their hearers. 

The Eatables, Beverages and Fruits of Brussa. 
The first is white bread of the kind called Sumun, which is as good as the best 

VOL. II. D 



18 THETRAVELSOF 

of Constantinople ; then that sort of bread called Cliakil, like white roses ; the 
Gozlemeh, the Kerdeh, a kind of roast mutton dressed over a stove (Tennur). The 
sheep which are very fat come from Mount Olympus. The white Halva of 
Brdssa is also celebrated. 

The beverages are the delicious water of the head fountain Bünar-bdshî and 
seventeen other principal springs ; excellent coffee from Yemen, very good bîiza, 
the sherbet Khanediin-beg (smiling Prince), that of Tîrelî-oghlî, Karan-fillî and 
Shujâb. 

The fruits are forty-day pears, exquisite grapes, apricots, cherries, and chesnuts 
famous all over the world. These chesnuts, weighing forty drachms each, are 
put on spits with the meat, the juice of which penetrates them ; they grow so 
succulent that it is almost impossible to leave off eating them till one dies. The 
seven day mulberries are also famous. The plain of Filehdar is laid out in mul- 
berry plantations, because the chief product of Brvissa is silk, which is said not to 
be equalled by the Persian silk of Shirwan. 

The manufactures are those of rubj-coloured velvet, like that made at Genoa, 
Brussa linen of different colours, aprons called Kirk-kalem, purses of silk, silken 
nets, and finally cushions of cut velvet called Chdtma munakkash katifeh. 

Visit to the Monuments and Tombs of the first Ottoman Sultans. 

The Seljuk family arrived in the country of Rum (the Asiatic provinces of the 
Roman Empire) in the year 476 (1083). They first allied themselves wdth the 
Danishmend family, and occupied with them the districts of Malatia, Csesarea, 
Alayeh, and Konia. The Seljukians took up their residence in the latter town, 
while the Danishmend family resided in those of Sivas and Erzerum. Melek 
Ghâzî died at Nigissar and is buried there ; Ala-ud-din the prince of the Seljuk 
family, called Toghriil-beg, the ancestor of the Ottoman family from Mahân was 
a relation of his, and created him a Beg ; he made some inroads from Konia on 
Nicsea, Brussa and Nicomedia. Ertoghrul-beg, who was invested with drum and 
banner, had not yet the right of striking coins and of the Friday prayer, he was 
buried at Sogudjek near Nicsea. His son Osman-beg was the first absolute 
monarch of the Ottoman family whose name was struck on the coin, and prayer 
said by Türsün Fakîh, 699 (1299). He married the daughter of Sheikh Edebali 
who became the mother of Orkhan, and through whom the Ottoman Sultans are 
related to the prophet. Until the time of Mohammed H. these princes were 
called Beg. Mohammed H. was the first called Sultân by Akshems-ud-di'n and 
whose name was struck upon coins. Selim I. was then proclaimed servant of 
Mecca and Medina by Keraâl-pashâ-zadeh, and Ebüsûd Efendi the famous Mufti 



evliya efendi. 19 

added to the title of Sultdn Suleiman, that of Sultfin of two lands, and Khakân of 
two seas, because he had conquered Baghdad and Rodos, but if he lost either of 
them he was to lose the title also. 

Short account of the Conquests of Osmdn Khdn. 

He conquered the castles of Bilejik, Ainegol, Kara-hissar, Inogi, Iznik, Kopru- 
hissar, Elibad hissar, Castel, Kitah, Bigha, &c. Osmân-beg reigned twenty-one years 
after the death of Sultân Ala-ud-dîn, and died at the age of sixty-nine, after having 
reigned twenty-six years, at the moment Brussa fell into the hands of his son. 

Conquests of Sultan Orkhân. 
The Castles of Yazı, Kogreh, and in Rumeli, Yanbolî, Galibolî, Moderni, Kojâ 
Elî, Iznikmid, Belakabâd, Brüssa, Taraklı, Goinek, Karassî, Balikersi, Bergama, 
Adremyt, Ashlüna, Rodosto, and Bülair ; the last was conquered by Sûleimân-pâsha, 
Orkhan's son, who lies buried there. 

Visit to Sultân Orkhan's Tomb. 

Sultân Orkhân died in the year 771 (1369), he is buried with his father Osman 
beneath a cupola in the mosque of the inner castle ; he died, after a reign of 
forty-one years, at the age of sixty -four ; he was a mild monarch, a father to the 
poor, and a warrior in the ways of God. The divines of his time were David 
Kaissari of Caramania, he was named Kaissari because he was brought up at 
Caesarea, he commented on the text of Mohay-ud-din Arabi and was a second 
Taftazani in mystic science. He was the first Professor (Müderris) of the College 
which Sultân Orkhân built at Nicaea. Mola Ala-ud-dîn commonly called Esvved 
Khojâ (the black master) who commented doctrinally on the work Mof'hni-ul- 
lebîb and also on the book, Wikayit. Mola Jendereli Kara Khalil, who was first 
created Kâzî-asker of Anatolia by Orkhân. Mola Hassan Kaissarî, one of the 
greatest Jurisconsults ; he wrote a good commentary on Andalusian prosody, he 
was a disciple of Mohay-ud-din, and completed his education at Damascus. 

Notice of Hcjji Begtdsh, the great Saint. 

When young he never mixed with other boys but sought retirement and scorned 
all worldly pursuits. He refused to accept the dignity of Sultân which was offered 
him by his father, who died a Prince in Khorassân. Forty years long he did 
nothing but pray and fast, and arrived at such a degree of perfection, that in the 
night, during his sleep, his soul migrated from his body into the world of spirits, 
and he became filled with the mystic science of spirits, and divine knowledge. 



20 THETRAVELSOF 

One clay the men of Kliorassan asked him to perform a miracle as a proof of his 
sanctity ; he then performed many miracles, and was acknowledged by all the 
great men of Khorassan to be their superior. My ancestor, the pole of poles, the 
Sultân of learning, the fountain head of science, the chief of the Sheikhs of 
Türkistan, Khoja Ahmed Yessüî Ibn Mohammed Hanefî, was his disciple, and 
hinted that he had received from him even the gift of direction to bliss (Irshdd), 
and of true Dervishship, which Gabriel brought from Paradise, with its symbols, the 
crown, the habit, the carpet, the lamp, the table, and the banner, to Mohammed 
the true fountain-head of all Dervishship. The prophet delivered the direction 
to Imam All, from whom it came to his son Hossein, who bequeathed it to Imam 
Zein-ul-âbedîn, who left it to Ibrahim Almokerrem, who when in the prison of 
Mervan handed over to Abu Moslim, the crown and gown, carpet and table, lamp 
and banner, the symbols of Dervishship. From him they came to the Imam 
Mohammed Baker, then to his son Imam Ja'fer, and to his son Mxissa Kazîm, 
and from him to Ahmed Yessui the head of the Sheikhs of Türkistan, who 
being asked by his disciples to leave to them the aforesaid symbols, never 
consented till Hâjî Begtâsh made his appearance, who became by the possession 
of it, the pole of the poles (Kutbal-atkab). 

Hâjî Begtâsh of Khorassân was the son of the Seyyid Ibrahim Mokerrem, 
who died in the prison of Mervan, as it has been just said, and there is no doubt 
of his descent in direct lineage from the Prophet ; the history of Ain Alî gives, 
however, the following genealogy : Seyyid Mohammed Hâjî Begtâsh, the son 
of Seyyid Mûsâ Nishabüı î, son of Seyyid Ishak Essakin, son of Seyyid Ibrahîm 
Mokerrem El-askeri, son of Seyyid Miissa Ebî Sebha, son of Seyyid Ibrahîm 
Elmurteza, son of Imam Müsâ Alkâzim, who had thirty-seven children. Hâjî 
Begtâsh's father left Khorassân after his father's death and established himself at 
Nishabur, where he married Khatmeh the daughter of Sheikh Ahmed and by her 
had Hâjî Begtâsh. While yet a boy he was distinguished for his devotion, and 
was entrusted to the care of Lokman, one of the disciples of Ahmed Yessûî, from 
whom he learned the exoteric and esoteric sciences. Lokman had been in- 
vested with the religious habit of Imam Ja'fer by the hand of Bâyazîd Bostâmî. 
With this habit Lokman invested Hâjî Begtâsh. This is the crown or turban 
which has twelve folds in remembrance of the twelve Imams, and the white 
abbâ with sleeves like a jubbeh, which is worn by the Dervishes of the order of 
Begtâsh. By order of Ahmed Yessûî he accompanied Mohammed Bokhara 
Sâltik with seven hundred men, Shems-ud-din Tebrîzî, Mohay-ud-dîn Al-arebî, 
Kârî Ahmed Sultân, and other pious men and Saints into Rum, where the 
Ottoman dynasty took its rise. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 21 

Hajî Begtiish instituted the new militia called Yenîcherî, and having established 
his seven hundred disciples in the towns conquered by Sultân Orkhân, he sent 
Mohammed Bokhara Sârî Sâltik into Dobrûja, Wallachia, Moldavia, Poland and 
Russia. The seven hundred convents of Dervishes, Begtâshî, which actually 
exist in Turkey, are derived from the seven hundred disciples of Hâjf Begtâsh. 
Hâjî Begtâsh died in Sultân Orkhân's reign, and was buried in his presence 
in the capital of Crimea, where a Tatar princess raised a monument over his 
tomb. This monument having fallen into decay Sheitân Murâd, a Beg of 
Csesarea of Sultân Suleiman's time, restored and covered it with lead. If it please 
God we shall describe it in its proper place. Sheikh Seyyid Ahmed Ruffa'f, 
buried at Ladika near Amasia. Sheikh Hassan Rufa'i, buried at Tokat near 
Sunbulli, was the nephew of the former. Sheikh Geigli Bahâ was a Dervish 
of the Begtâshfs. Sheikh Kâra Ahmed Sultân a Persian prince, who when on 
his travels came to Sultân Orkhân, was initiated by Haji Begtâsh, and is buried 
at Ak-hissâr. Sheikh Abdal Müssa Sultân, and Sheikh Abdal Murâd, both of 
Sultân Orkhân's time. 

Short account of Sultan Murdd I. 

He gave caps (U'skufa) to the janissaries, embroidered with gold ; built a 
mosque at Bilejk, another mosque at Briissa and a convent for Postin Push Bâbâ. 
He was assassinated in the year 791, after the battle of Khassova, by Milosh 
Kublaki. A cupola is erected over the spot, which was renewed by my gracious 
Lord Melek Ahmed Pâshâ. 

Tomh of Sultdn Murdd I. Khodavendkidr. 
He is buried on the west side of Bnissa near old Kaplijah, beneath a large 
cupola. His arrow, bow and quiver are suspended over his tomb, with the bloody 
garment in which he was killed, which fills with awe all who enter this monument. 
He was seventy years of age at his death, and had reigned thirty. 

Short account of liderim Bdyazid. 

Besides numerous conquests in Anatolia, he passed seven times in one year 
from AnatoHa into Wallachia, and from the rapidity of his movements obtained 
the name of liderim (lightning). He besieged Constantinople, and established a 
judge there and seven hundred Mussulman houses, from the Flour-hall (U'n-kapan,) 
to the Rose mosque, also the tribunal of Sirkeji-tekkieh. In the year 805, 
following bad advice, he waged war against Timur, and was taken prisoner by the 
Tatars after a long struggle on foot, his horse having been thrown down. Brought 
into Timur's presence, he was well received, but Timur asking what he would 



22 THETRAVELSOF 

liave done to him had he been taken prisoner ; Bdyazid answered, that he would 
have put him into an iron cage and carried him to Brfissa; Timiir being enraged, 
ordered Bayazid to be put into an iron cage, intending to carry him into Persia, 
but he died on the third day of a violent fever. 

His son, Mohammed Chelebi pursued Timiir's army towards Amasia, and had 
tents made of the skins of the slain Tatars, beneath which he sheltered himself 
from the sun. The field of the above defeat is called to this day, in derision, 
Tâshak-ovâ-sî. He took his father's corpse from the enemy, and buried it 
in the mosque he had built at Briissa. Sultân Murâd IV. when he visited this 
tomb gave it a kick with his foot, saying : "What, do you lie here like a monarch, — 
you, who have destroyed the Ottoman honour, and have been made prisoner by 
the Tatars?" At the moment he kicked the coffin, he cried, " Oh! my foot!" 
and from that day was attacked by the gout, which carried him off. He lived 
sixty-seven years, and reigned fourteen ; he was a great Emperor, but could not 
war against fate. 

The Divines of his time were Sheikh Shehâb-ud-dîn Sivâssî, who composed a 
valuable commentary, and is buried at Aya Soluk (Ephesus) ; Khosb-ud-dîn of 
Nicfea, who contended much with Timiir ; Simânezadeh Sheikh Bedr-ud-din Ben 
Mahmud Ben Abd-ul-aziz ; the Mevlenâ Fakhr-ud-dîn the Persian, buried at 
Adrianople ; Sheikh Abd-ur-rahira Ben Emir Aziz Merzifünî, and the Sheikh Pîr 
Eli'as, who is buried at Amasia. 

Short account of Sultân Mohammed I. 

He first shared the Empire with his brethren Suleiman, Miissa, and Issa 
Chelebi, whom he subdued in one year and became absolute monarch. 
He built Yerkoi (Gimgera) on the banks of the Danube. He died in 824, and 
lies buried beneath a painted cupola before his mosque called the green building, 
(Yeshil imaret), he was forty-seven years old, and had reigned seven years. He 
was the first who sent a Surreh, or present of money, by the caravan of pilgrims, to 
the poor of Mecca and Medina. He finished the old mosque at Adrianople, the 
foundations of which had been laid by his brother Mussa, and built a cupola near 
Philippolis over the tomb of Ghazi Mohammed Beg, at the place called Kunis. 

The divines and learned men of his time were Kara Shems-ud-din Semavî, 

famed for his works and travels, who was exiled from Brussa to Zaghrah in Rumeli, 

where he is buried. Sheikh Abd-ul-latif Mokadessi Ben Abd-ur-rahman Ben 

All Ben Ghanem. 

Shoi^t account of the Reign of Murdd II. 

The soldiers having revolted, dethroned him under the pretext that he had 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 23 

grown too old, and put his son Mohammed II., who was only thirteen years of 

age in his place ; but being found incapable to hold the reins, the janissaries again 

displaced Mohammed II. sending him to Magnesia, and recalled old Murad to the 

throne. Afterward in the year 855 they deposed Murad II. for the second time, 

and Mahomed II., then twenty-one years old, obtained absolute sway, and took 

up his residence at Constantinople. His father died the next year (85 G) at Adrian- 

ople, but was buried at Briissa. He lies in more magnificent state than any of the 

Sultans buried at Brussa, his tomb being covered with a golden stuff. He was 

thirty -nine years old when he died, and had reigned twenty -eight years. He built 

the mosque Ujsherfeli at Adrianople, two other mosques, a Dar-ul-hadfth, a 

Bezestan, and the bridge of Erkeneh with a mosque. He was the first who 

assigned a salary to the Seyyids or Sherifs. 

The Divines and Sheikhs of his time were Zekeriah Khalveti, the disciple of Pır 

Elîas, who is buried near him, and Sheikh Abd-ur-rahmiin Ben Hassam-ud-din, 

commonly called Gumishlî-zâdeh ; he was the son-in-law of Pır Elîas, and having 

had the honour of kissing the hands of the three sons of Murad II., he foretold to 

Mohammed II. that he would conquer Constantinople, and establish the true faith 

there. 

Tombs of Ottoman Princes. 

Ala-ud-dîn Pâshâ, son of Osman, who died in 804, lies near his brother Orkhan ; 
Shehinshah, son of Bâyazîd, Governor of Briissa ; Mohammed, son of Bayazid, 
and eight princes, brethren of Sultân Selim I. whom he killed when going to war 
against Prince Ahmed, are all buried near Orkhan ; also their brother Ahmed, who 
was strangled by Sultân Selim, and sent hither. Ahmed's son Murad fled into 
Persia to Shah Ismail, where, at the end of three years, he died, and was buried at 
Erdebü near Shah Safı. Two of his brothers, who had been spared at the inter- 
cession of the Ulemas, died soon after at Constantinople of the plague, and are 
also buried here. Korkud, who, persecuted by Selim I., was taken at Tekkah in 
a cavern with his governor Piâleh and killed (909), is buried beneath a private 
cupola near Murad II. Prince Hassan, the son of the latter and brother of 
Mohammed II., and who was strangled soon after his brother had ascended the 
throne, also Hes buried here near his father ; so also does the unfortunate Jem, 
brother of Bâyazîd II. He left a cup, which, on being emptied, filled itself again, 
an ape who played at chess, and a white parrot, which was dyed black by Sa'dî the 
poet of Jem, and presented to the Sultân, saying the words, " We belong to God, 
and return to him." In the year 1074 (1663) at the time I, poor Evliya, was on 
my journey to Vienna, Prague and Liinjat (?), I conversed with many monks and 
patriarchs, who all agreed that Jem was the son of a French princess, who being taken 



24 THETRAVEI. SOF 

by Mohammed II. at the point of the Seragho, became the mother of Bdyazid and 
Jem. The three brethren of Mohammed I., Issa, Mussa and Suleiman are buried 
beside their father Bâyazîd at his mosque. There are many hundred princes and 
princesses buried at the mosque of Sultân Murîid II. at Bn'issa. Chelebî Sultan 
Mustafa, the son of Suleiman I., who, on the invidious report of his enemies, was 
stran gled by his father, also lies buried in the tomb of Sultân Murâd II., though 
some pretend that he is interred on the east side of the courtyard gate of Eyyiib, 
but that is another Mustafa, who was killed by his father Suleiman, he having had 
two sons of that name. The first six Ottoman emperors are also interred at 
Adrianople, at the heads of their coffins a particular kind of turban is placed, with 
folds and farthingales, after the fashion of Mahân, the town of Khorassan. The art 
of folding them has descended from father to son in one family, from the time of 
the Seljiikians. Mahommed II. wore the Urf (a kind of round turban), and 
the conqueror of Egypt wore the Selîmî ; may it last for ever ! 

Visit to the Tombs of Saints at Briissa. 

Sheikh Geiklî Bâbâ Sultân was one of the followers of Ahmed Yessin, and came 
from Azerbeijân. He used to ride on wild roes in the woods, and load gazelles 
with his baggage after he had harnessed them. He planted a tree near the Serai 
in the castle at Briissa, which has now arrived at a great height. His tomb at 
Briissa in the great convent was built by Orkhân. 

Abdal Mûssa, also a disciple of Ahmed Yessuf, came from Khorassan with Hâjî 
Begtâsh to Rûm. He was a companion of Geiklî Bâbâ, and was present with him 
at the conquest of Brussa, where he was buried in a convent. 

Abdal Murâd Sultân, one of the Saints lost in abstraction (Santons), who was 
present at the conquest of Brussa. He is buried in a convent facing the town on 
the South side, in a pleasant place, which is at the same time a pleasure garden 
for the inhabitants of Briissa. A sword, three cubits long is shown here from 
which Sultân Ahmed I. cut off one cubit's length, which he placed in his treasury. 

Mola Shems-ud-dîn Mohammed Ben Mohammed Ben Hamza Ben Mohammed 
Fanari, the sun of hidden things, and the moon of life, one of the first divines of 
Sultân liderim, has left works on seventy different scientific subjects, but by 
God's will became blind at last. It is related that having opened the grave of 
his master Kara Ala-ud-dîn, a voice was heard saying : " Art thou there ? God 
deprive thee of sight ! " and a whirlwind rising at the same moment blew all the 
dust of the grave into his eyes, by which he became blind. He was one of the 
divines who denied the verse ; " The earth does not eat the flesh of the Ulema." 
Aûz-pâshâ, Sultân Orkhân's Vezir, having a spite against Fanârî, said, " May I see 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 25 

the day on which I shall perform the prayer for the dead over this blind Mollâ's 
grave." This being told to the Molla, he said " God Almighty can yet take away 
the sight of the Pasha, and give me back mine to perform prayer on his grave ; " 
and it so happened that Aûz-pâshd having had his eyes put out by command of 
Sultân Orkhan for a badly executed commission, Fanari had his sight restored to 
him the same night, and performed the prayer of death on the Pasha. He died in 
the year 833, and reposes at Brûssa near his college. 

Shems-ud-din Mahommed Ben Alî, called Emir Sultân, born at Bokhara, came 
first to Mecca, and then to Medina, where the Sherîfs refused to give him the 
portion allotted to the Sherîfs, though he was entitled to it by his descent from 
the prophet through Hossein. The Saint appealed to the decision of the prophet 
himself, and went to his tomb accompanied by his adversaries, where, having saluted 
the grave, a voice was heard, saying : " Health to you my child, Mohammed Ben 
Ali, go to Riirn with the lamp ; " upon hearing which the Sherîfs instantly threw 
themselves at his feet, and Emîr Sultân undertook the journey to Rum, where- 
upon a lamp suspended in heaven became his guide to show him the way, and was 
only extinguished when he entered the town of Briissa. He took this as an 
evident sign that he was to fix his residence there, where he had four hundred 
thousand disciples. The inhabitants of Brussa had seen the lamp for three days, 
and knew by that miracle that he was a great saint. They all became Dervishes 
under his direction. Bâyazîd liderim not only walked on foot by the side of his 
stirrup, but also gave him his daughter Nilüfer Khânum in marriage. Ilderîm 
having built the great mosque U'lûjâmf at Brussa, and having asked Emîr 
Sultân whether it was not a perfect mosque, the Saint answered ; " Yes, it is a 
very elegant mosque, but some cups of wine for the refreshment of the pious are 
wanting in the middle." The Sultân replied with surprise ; " How, would it be 
possible to stain God's house with the liquor forbidden by the law." " Well," 
said the Saint, " thou hast built a mosque, Bâyazîd, and, find it strange to put 
cups of wine therein ; and thou whose body is God's house, more excellent 
than a talisman composed of the divine names, or the throne of God, how is it 
thou art not afraid of staining the purity of this godlike house with wine day 
and night." From that moment Bâyazîd, repenting, left off drinking wine. 
When Timiir marched against Brussa the inhabitants being alarmed, inquired 
of Emîr Sultân what was now to become of the town. The Saint said, " the 
commander of the town having recommended it to the care of Eskejî Kojâ and 
Khizr, they must be informed of it." Ilderîm being defeated, Emîr Sultân wrote a 
note which he sent by one of his Dervishes into the camp of Timiir, with an order 
to deliver it to Eskeji Koja, that is to the chief of the tailors who mend old clothes. 

VOL. II. E 



26 THETRAVELSOF 

Having read the Saint's note, he said, " Emir Sultfin shall be instantly obeyed ; " 
he stuck his needle in his turban, and before he could put up his things in his 
bag, all the tents of the camp were broke up by the power of his command, 
because this old tailor happened also to be a pole of poles, or great Saint. Emir 
Sultcin died in the year 833 (1429), and is buried outside of Briissa to the 
East, beneath a high cupola ; the gates are inlaid with silver, so also is the 
entrance, by which you descend six steps. The walls are covered with variegated 
china (Chînî). The four windows looking westward to the field of Brûssa are 
brass ; four others look towards the Kiblah into the yard of the mosque. The 
great number of suspended ornaments which adorn the interior of the mosque are 
equalled only by those of Medina ; the silk carpets are richer than are found 
elsewhere. The tomb is encircled by gold and silver lamps, candlesticks, cande- 
labras, and vases for perfumes and rosewater. On the coffin lay Korans by the 
hands of Yakut Mostea'-assemî, Sheikh Bekri, Abd-allah Krimi Khâledı, Timûrjî 
Kûlı, Zehebî, Ibn Sheikh-dedeh Mohammed, Kara Hissâri, Hassan Chelebî, &c. 
The coffin is covered with silk embroidered with gold, and at the head a large 
turban reposes majestically. Those who enter are struck with such awe, that 
many do not dare attempt it, but only look into it by the window at the head, and 
recite a Fatihah. On the south side of the tomb is a very elegant mosque, the 
four sides of which are laid out in cells for the poor, who dine here at the imaret. 
When Sultân Selim I., after the death of his brother Ahmed, visited the tomb of 
Emir Sultân, a voice was heard, saying : " Enter Egypt in security," which was 
interpreted as news of the conquest of Egypt, which Emir Sultân promised to 
Selim I., and on that intimation Kemâl-pâshâ-zâdeh instantly said a Fatihah. 

The Mufti of divine secrets, the champion of mystic illlumination, Sheikh Abd- 
ur-rahman Ben Alî Ben Ahmed Al-bostâmî, a great lawyer, who was also a good 
poet, is buried at Briissa. Sheikh Abd-ul-latif Mokadessi Ibn Abd-ur-rahman 
Ibn All Ibn G hanem Al-anssarî, having visited the tomb of Sadr-ud-dm at Konia, 
the dead saint stretched out his hand from the tomb, drew the Sheikh to him on 
the grave, and ordered him to read the Sıirâ Yass. He then built the convent 
Zeiniler, where he is buried. There hved not a greater Saint than him in the 
time of Sultân Mohammed I. 

Mevlana Mohammed Shah Ibn Molla Yegân, one of the U'lemas of Murad I., 
buried at Zeiniler. Mevlana Yussiif Bali Ibn Yegân, who wrote notes on the 
Telvih. Mevlana Seyyid Ahmed Ibn Abd-allah who also wrote notes on the 
Telvih. Mevlana Elias Ben Ibrahim, who wrote an abridgement of the Kodiiri 
Sheik Ak Bi'ik Sultân of the Dervishes Bairâmi. Sheikh Uzun Mosslah-ud-din, 
who died at Tâj-ud-din's tomb at Brûssa, after having read the Koran for the 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 27 

space of forty days. The pole of the spiritiuil world, the mine of divine science, 
Fanârî, a great divine of the time of Murad and Mohammed II., died 834. The 
Santon (Mejzub) Abdal Mohammed on the great road. Sheikh Sultân Ramazân 
Bâbâ, buried in a pleasant meadow at Briissa in a convent of Begtâshîs. 

Sheikh Abu Ishak Kazımı, his name was Ibrahim, his surname Abu Ishak. His 
mother, Shehriâr, was an Armenian princess and married to one of the princes of 
the white sheep (Baianduri.) He was born in the year 352, in the month of Ramazân, 
and was the pole of poles in his day ; he is buried at Erzerilm, inside the gate of 
Tebriz, beneath the same cupola with Murteza Pâshâ, who gave up Erivan to the 
Persians. When I visited this place the keeper was an old woman with a white 
beard, whose story is as follows. At the time of the rebellion of Abaza Pâshâ 
some of his Segbân came to the village Kânkoî, with the intention of ravishing a 
beautiful Armenian girl, she being aware of her danger, turned her face to heaven 
and said, " O Abu Ishak deliver me from these rioters, and I for the remainder of 
my life will watch thy tomb." At that moment a white beard grew from her 
chin, and she thus escaped the pursuit of the Segbân. I have myself seen her 
three times. The chapel in memory of Kazımı, which exists at Briissa, was 
built by liderim ; it is opposite to the burying place of the Camel-drivers. 

Chekirkeh Sultân at Eski Kaplîjah, before the monument of Murad I. Shâdî 
Sultân near Emir Sultân. Abd-allah Efendi. Sheikh Emir Alî Efendi of the 
order of Khalvetis. Karaja Mejid-ud-din. Karan fiUi-dedeh at Hassan Pasha's 
gate. Sunbulli-dedeh at the Tatars' gate. Sheikh Ali Mest in the same place. 
Molla Arab Jebbâri at the foot of the mountain. Molla Ashji-dedeh, Hassâm-ud- 
din Chelebi, Khâliss-dedeh, &c. Molla Khosreu Ibn Khizr, the author of the cele- 
brated canonical work, "Dm-er-u-gurer;" he is buried near Zein-ud-din Hafi. There 
is a small dark cell, wherein he composed this precious work, which I did not 
leave until I had finished the lecture of the whole Koran in it, as an offering to 
the blessed spirit of Molla Khosreu. Sheikh Abd-ul-latif Mokadessi the Imam of 
liderim Khân. Sâurimssakjî-zadeh Suleiman Efendi buried near the old Kaplijah, 
he is the author of the " Mevlûd-nâmeh," or hymns on the Prophet's birth sung on 
his birth-day. Molla Bagdâdi-zadeh Hassan Chelebi Ibn Yiissuf Albagdâdî is 
buried at the convent of Zeiniler, where he lived and died. Molla Hassâm-ud- 
dîn Hossein Ben Mohammed, known by the name of Kara Chelebi-zadeh, buried 
before the mosque of Emir Sultân. Sheikh Mohammed Uftâdeh Efendi of the 
order of Jelvetis, buried in the mosque of the inner castle, with a large convent 
near it. Molla Kemâl-ud-dîn known by the name of Karadedeh, born at the village 
Siivinsa near Amasia; he was a tanner, and did not begin to study until he 
was sixty years old, seven years afterwards he became Professor of the college 



23 THETRAVELSOF 

of Murâd at Brussa ; he lived many years after this, and wrote a great number 
of books; the work " Dedeh-jûngî" is of his composition. He is buried near Emir 
Sultân. The Mufti Azîz Efendi who was Sheikh-ul-Islâm in Sultân Suleiman's time, 
and being exiled to Brussa died there. Molla Alî Ben Sâleh celebrated by the 
name of Vassi Alı, the author of the " Hıımaiûn-nâmeh" (the Turkish translation 
of Pilpay's Fables). Sheikh Nur-allah Ben Ak-Shems-ud-din, who having fled 
from his father to Brussa, accidentally killed himself with his pen -knife, and is 
buried near Zeiniler. Mevlana Abd-ul-ghani Emir Shah, his birth-place was 
Boll and he is buried at Zeiniler. 

There are besides, some hundred thousand great and holy men buried at Brussa. 
Many of their tombs I visited and said a Fâtihah in remembrance of their noble 
spirits, but I do not know their names. In remembrance of those whom I have 
named, I said the Siira Yass, and recommended myself to their favour and 
assistance. I began my travels with visits to many great Saints, and said a 
Fâtihah on behalf of all the Faithful. Health to you, and God's mercy upon them 
all ! During forty days and nights I enjoyed all kinds of pleasure at Brussa, and 
with my companions took leave of our friends on the 20th of Safer 1050; Okji- 
zadeh Aghâ accompanied us as far as the bridge of Nilüfer, from whence we reached 
Modania in four hours. Here we sent back our horses, embarked in a light boat, 
were tossed about by a stormy sea, and at last reached Bozboriin with the greatest 
difficulty at the end of twenty-four hours. It was formerly a good harbour but 
was neglected because it did not afford sufficient shelter. There is a khan and 
a small mosque, some bakers and buza seller's shops, and no other trace of good 
buildings, but it is surrounded with fine gardens. The walls of the mosque are 
covered with inscriptions by passengers complaining of this wretched place, there 
is no possibility of saying a word for it, because all who reach this point storm- 
beaten, have the same cause of complaint. The inscriptions are in different 
languages, all lamenting or cursing this place of Bozborun. One cannot refrain 
from laughing at some of these odd inscriptions, which are both in prose and 
verse. I was obliged to wait here two days, which I spent with ten or fifteen 
gay companions walking amongst the gardens and vineyards, which lie to the 
East, and eating pears. We walked about three thousand paces into the 
district of Armiidli belonging to Brussa, from whence a Sûbâshî is established 
here. It derives its name from the quantity of pears (Armud) which grow on 
all the hills, in the valleys, gardens and vineyards. It is a village of three 
hundred neat houses, faced with brick, a mosque, a bath, three mesjids, a khân 
and ten shops, the air is very pleasant. We spent a night here, and in the 
morning the boatmen advised us to make haste because the wind was favourable. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 29 

which, God be praised, carried us out of this sad whirlpool of Bozboriin. At cape 
Bâbâ-bonm at the foot of Kâtirlî-tâgh we said a Fâtihah in honour of Bâbâ 
Sultân, and beat up towards Constantinople. We arrived at last at Agios 
Stephanos (St. Stefano) which is ruled by a Sııbâshî, under the Bostânjî-bâshı of 
Constantinople, and by a guard of janissaries (Yassakji Kûllüghf), it is in the 
district belonging to the Molla of Eyyiib. In the time of the Infidels it was a 
large town, which was ruined at the siege of the Arabs by Omar Ibn-ul-aziz in 
the Khalifat of Suleiman Ibn Abd-allah. It is now a large Greek village of 
five hundred houses faced with brick. It has a convent, some small streets and 
two churches. We disembarked here and passed the night, walking next day 
along the sea shore for three hours to the garden of Iskander Chelebi, which 
belonged to the Defterdar of Sultân Selim II., who having died without children, 
the garden became an Imperial one. There is an Usta or master with two 
hundred Bostânjî. The Mufti Hossein Efendf, who had been accused by his 
enemies of ambitious and dangerous schemes was first exiled to this place by 
Sultân Murâd IV. and was afterwards seized by the Bostânji-bâshî, strangled and 
buried here. He is the first Mufti in the Ottoman history, who hke the martyrs 
of Kerbela died a violent death ; he could repeat forty thousand Fetwas by heart. 
We took horse here and rode along the shore in sight of our ship advancing by 
the aid of oars, with our baggage. 

Thus returned I, poor Evhya, on the 25th Safer of the year 1050, to Constan- 
tinople, went the same day to my paternal house, and kissed the hands of my 
father and my mother. My father crossing his hands said : " Welcome, welcome, 
traveller of Brussa !" I was astonished to hear this as I had not told anybody 
where I was going to, but my father said: — " In the night of A'shüra the 10th 
of Moharrem, when I was anxious about thy being lost, I performed many 
efficacious prayers, and read the Suna (Ena Atainak) a thousand times. The 
same night I saw in my dream that thou wast gone to Brussa to implore Emir 
Sultan's assistance in thy travels. That same night I gave thee leave to go this 
journey, which may God bless ! but now, my son, sit thee down, touch my left 
ear with thy right hand, and hear my paternal advice." I did so, and he gave me 
many moral maxims, and much good advice on the manner of my travels, 
enjoining me to compose a faithful and detailed account of them ; when he had 
finished he gave me me a strong box on the ear, concluding his lesson with a 
Fâtihah. I kissed my father's hand, who then gave me twelve valuable books 
and two hundred well-coined ducats to provide for my travels, and gave me leave 
to set out for whatever place I liked. I then also kissed the hands of twelve 
great Sheikhs, and to my unspeakable joy obtained their blessings on my under- 



30 THETRAVELSOF 

taking. This gave me great satisfaction, and the same week in the first days 
of Rebf-ul-evvel, I agreed with one of my relations Kül Oghlî Mohammed Reis 
for a voyage to Ismid (Nicomedia). 



JOURNEY TO NICOMEDIA. 

" May God bless and make easy the voyage. Amen 1" On Friday at Yemish- 
iskeleh, after having performed the Friday prayer in the mosque of Akhi Chelebi, 
where I remembered the vision I had had there of the Prophet, whose hand 
I kissed, saying, " Siyahat (travels)" instead of " Shifaat (intercession) O 
prophet of God !" and having given thanks and prayed for health and faith, we 
embarked on om- voyage, saying " In God's name !" (Bis millah). With a 
fresh breeze we weathered the point of the Seraglio, passed Chalcedonia, the 
point of Tener-baghjeh and ran straight before the wind to Darija, a square 
castle on a chalk cliff eighty miles from Constantinople. This castle is built of 
stone, has one gate, which looks on the harbour, thirty houses faced with brick, 
one mosque, but no market or bath, and neither commander nor gamson. 
It is said to have derived its name from the children of Darius, who were im- 
prisoned here in a cave ; it was conquered by Mahommed I. in the year 827 
(1423), is ruled by a Sûbashî and belongs to the district of Gebîzeh. Below the 
castle there are three hundred neat houses faced with brick, a mosque, a khân, a 
bath, and small streets ; its harbour is the port of Gebîzeh. At an hour's 
distance from here the road to Erzeriim and Baghdad passes through mountains. 
The wind not being favourable we rowed to the passage where travellers to Konia, 
Haleb, Damascus and Mecca embark in flat-bottom boats to pass over to Hersek- 
dili on the opposite shore, in order to save the going round the gulf which is 
eighty miles long, and at the end of which is situated Nicomedia. In the harbour 
of Gebîzeh -dill (the passage on this side) are tv/o old khans, two bakers-shops, 
a biiza-shop, two grocers-shops and a fountain, erected by Mustafa Aghâ the 
Bostânjî-bâshî of Sultân Murâd IV. 1048 (1638). Here we again embarked and 
after rowing three hours arrived at the mineral spring (Ichmesu), where we 
disembarked with all our friends, pitched our tents on the shore, and gave our- 
selves up to quiet and pleasure. 

Qiialitles of a Mineral Spring. 
In the month of July annually, many thousand men from Constantinople 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 31 

assemble here, and live merrily under tents during the space of forty days and 
nights, amusing themselves with firing muskets and guns. Sick persons drink of 
the water from the well for three days, which causes vomiting, and relieves the 
stomach of a quantity of offensive bile, while the lower evacuations cleanse the 
intestines of worms and similar matters. It is a white, clear water, with a slight 
bitter taste, and issues from a chalk cliff. The regulations prescribed for its use 
enjoin a three days fast as a preliminary, no meat or any thing salt must be 
eaten ; on the fourth day the patient drinks a cup of water morning and evening, 
taking care to keep himself warm : he continues to drink the water for the next three 
days, taking for food chicken-broth without salt. When the water has had its effect 
fifteen times, further operation is stopped, by drinking soup seasoned with lemon- 
juice. After this regimen the patients embark and go to the hot-bath of Yalova 
directly opposite, where they rest themselves, washing and cleansing their bodies. 
We then re-embarked, and after half an hour's rowing arrived at the village 
of Ainehâjî on the sea-coast, a Turkish village with a mosque and sixty houses. 
Eight hours further rowing brought us to the village of Zeitûn-burnî (Olive 
Cape) a port of Nicomedia, where the ships belonging to the Aghâ of the 
Janissaries take in their cargoes ; we were pleased with the cultivated appearance 
of the country on either side the gulf, and at the end of eight hours more came 
to the large town of Nicomedia. It was formerly a strong built and populous 
place, the ruins of which still remain ; and is said to have been built by Alexander, 
to whom the foundation of Scutari is also ascribed ; and the canal which was 
cut from the lake of Sabanja to the gulf on one side, and from the river Sakaria 
to the Black Sea on the other, causing Koja Ilı and Nicomedia to be completely 
insulated ; but that communication was choked up by Constantine, and Nicomedia 
ceased to be an island. It would be an easy thing to re-establish this canal, by 
which means wood might be procured at a very low price. Nicomedia was con- 
quered by Sultân Orkhân in the year 731 (1330) and destroyed, in order that it 
should never again afford shelter to the Infidels. A large square tower of that 
period is still standing on the sea-coast, garrisoned by seamen, which is now a 
repository for wood and timber. When Orkhân besieged this town he gave 
the first command of his troops to Koja Bai, to whom he said, " Isnim var git," 
(You have my leave, go,) which became the name of the town, by contraction 
of Isnim-git into Ismit. After the conquest of Nicomedia, and Kojâ-Baî had 
subdued the adjacent country, it was called after his name Koja Ilı and Nicomedia 
was made the capital of it ; but by the order of Sultân Mohammed II., Nicomedia 
was added to Anatoli, and many times since has been given as Arpalik to Vezh-s 
of three tails. The imperial Khass amounts to twenty-six thousand, five hundred 



32 THETRAVELSOF 

and twenty-six aspers, twenty-five ziâmets, one hundred and eighty-seven timârs. 
Tlie judge is appointed with three hundred aspers a day, but his annual revenue 
may be reckoned at five thousand, and that of the Pâshâ at twenty thousand 
piastres. The port is much frequented by great merchants; its pubhc officers 
are, a commander of the janissaries and Sipahîs, a Mufti and Nakîb-ul-ishrâf. The 
merchants, most of wliom trade in wool, are richly dressed ; the invalids of the 
janissaries (Oturak) and Kûrijî are wealthy. The town contains three thousand 
five hundred elegant houses with gardens. The largest is the Serai of Sultân 
Murfid IV. which is appropriated to the Emperors, and guarded by two hundred 
Bostdnjis ; the next is the Serai of the Pashci. There are altogether twenty-three 
quarters, three of which are occupied by Infidels, and one by Jews ; and twenty-three 
mosques. At the old market is the mosque of the tribunal with one minareh ; the 
mosque of Pertev-Pasha, with a leaden cupola and one minareh, stands on the 
sea-shore, it was erected by order of Pertev-Pdshâ who was governor here for 
seven years in the time of Sultân Suleiman. It is an elegant, bright mosque built 
by Kojâ Sinan. There is no establishment for reading the Koran or tradition. 
The best bath is also that of Pertev-Pâshâ, it is a fine building, there is good air 
and water, and attentive waiters. The bath of Rostem-Pâshâ, like the former, is 
Sinân's work. The best khân is that of Pertev-Pâshâ with seventy fire-places. 
Besides the khans, two hundred magazines for wood and other materials are in 
the port, one thousand one hundred shops of handicraftsmen, and forty coffee- 
houses, the most brilliant of which is that of the Serdâr, famous for its waiters. 
This town has no stone-built Bezestdn, but many valuable things are notwith- 
standing to be met with in the khans and shops. Near the palace of the 
Emperor is the Imperial arsenal. The houses of the town are all on the side 
of the mountain, with the windows looking towards the sea. The streets are all 
paved with white stone. At the back of the houses the mountain is laid out in 
gardens. The inhabitants are healthy, the air and water being very good ; their 
complexion is white. The woody mountains East of the town are called Aghâ 
Danesî (sea of trees), an immense forest in which it is very easy to lose one's 
way ; here are trees towering into the skies, under which ten thousand sheep find 
shelter in their shade, which the sun's rays cannot pierce. In these thick forests 
are many sawmills and works which must be seen, for they cannot be described; 
they cut trees of one hundred cubits length, and the trees of Yalova are famous 
all over the world. At the end of the gulf are salt-marshes which afford pure 
salt, and are under the direction of a salt-inspector. The white cherries and 
red apples of Nicomedia are famous. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 33 

Pilgrimages of Nicomedia. 

On the west side of the town is the tomb of Sheikh-zadeh Mohammed Efendf, a 
great Sheikh of the order of Khalvetis, and a great alchemist. He distributed food 
and clothes amongst the brethren of his order, though he never liad any fixed 
revenue. I was entertained for ten days in the house of my relation Kiil-oghl' 
Mohammed Chelebi in this town ; then embarked and went to the opposite shore 
only three miles distance, whence after a journey of thirty miles, we reached the 
port of Deal, the further side of which is called Gebizeh's Deal, while this side is 
called Hersek's Deal or tongue. The origin of this tongue of land is ascribed to a 
Dervish, who having been refused a passage by the ferryman, took up earth in his 
apron, and threw it into the water, where it grew out immediately into a point, 
on which he walked to the length of twelve thousand paces, to the great fright of 
the ferrymen, who saw that he was going to unite the two shores and stop their 
living. They ran after him, and did not desist from entreating him, till he left the 
remainder of the sea open, and entered their boat. He is buried at the Deal of 
Gebizeh, on the spot called Deal-baba. At Hersek Deal is a large Khan for travellers 
who wait there for a passage ; Hersek-oghli Ahmed Pâshâ was Vezir to Moham- 
med II., and this Khan, built by him, bears his name. We set sail, and at the 
end of fifty miles reached the castle of Kara Yalavaj, built by a Greek princess, 
and named Kara Yalavâj-oghlı, who conquered it in the time of Osman. The 
castle was destroyed at the siege, which was difficult and prolonged, the ruins 
still remain ; in the time of liderim this castle was said to belong to the 
sanjak of Briîssa. The judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers. 
There is a commanding officer of the janissaries and a Subashi, the town has 
seven-hundred houses, faced with brick, and seven mihrabs. In the Market-place 
is a mosque with a minareh capable of holding a great number of people, one bath, 
three khans and from forty to fifty shops, but the air being very heavy, agues 
frequently prevail. Its yoghiird and fruits are excellent. Having visited all 
that was worth seeing here, we entered our chariots (araba) took a south east 
direction, and at the end of five hours arrived at Germab Jihan-namah, a pleasure 
spot in the midst of thick forests, where we found a couple of hundred tents. We 
pitched ours and entered into conversation with the guests, who come here after 
taking a course of the purgative waters at Deal, to cleanse themselves in the 
hotbath, which was built in the time of Yanko Ben Madian. Helena, the 
daughter of Yanko, being leprous and exiled to these mountains, discovered by 
accident the marvellous quality of these waters ; by bathing in them, she became 
cured of her leprosy in forty days, which was the cause of this building being 

VOL. II. F 



34 TIIETRAVELSOF 

erected. Her father built six cupolas, of which two are yet existing, with a large 
basin beneath, the water of which is extremely hot, but is pleasant when mixed 
with cold. These baths are frequented by a great many people in the cherry 
season. We remained here a whole week, after which we again started, and at 
the end of a five hours journey, came to the castle of Samanlı, which was con- 
quered in Sultan Osman's time by Samdnlî-oghlî from whom it took its name. 
Its castle is in ruins, and there are but an hundred and fifty houses with gardens, 
a mosque and three mesjids, belonging to the district of Yalova. The air is heavy. 
We embarked for the island of Heibeli, distant twenty miles, which is nine miles in 
circumference, and which we have already mentioned in our journey to Brussa. 
Six miles further on is the island Tâshanlî, which derives its name (Hare island) 
from the infinite number of hares, found there ; it is only one mile in circumfe- 
rence, and is uncultivated. The tree Rakita (?) grows on this island. After 
rowing eight miles we came to the island of Bûrghazlî with a strong but small 
castle, situate on the chalk cliffs by the sea-shore. The island is eleven miles in 
circumference, and is called Burghaz from its castle (rup-yoç) it has three hundred 
houses with fine gardens and good wells, and is ruled by a Sûbashî and Yassakji, 
the inhabitants are all Greeks, and are rich masters of boats. The island abounds 
in goats and hares. Their wealth is ascribed by the author of the Tarîkhî Yalovân, 
to the loss of a richly laden Spanish fleet which was wrecked among the Prince's 
Islands in the time of the Greek Emperors, the cargo of which being thrown on 
shore or fished up by divers, enriched the inhabitants of Kizilata (Prince's Island), 
Heibeli (Khalki), Borghazli (Antigone), Tashânlî (Platys or Oxia), and Kanalı 
(Proti). The latter island is eight miles in circumference, has a convent and a 
village of one hundred houses. Ten miles distant from it is Kizilata (the Prince's 
Island), a cultivated island of twenty miles in circumference, with a village of two 
hundred Greek houses. It is called Kizilata or the red island, from the appear- 
ance of its mountains, and is near Scutari. On its four sides Dalians (look-outs 
for catching fish) are established. These islands are seven altogether, ruled by 
the Bostanjî-bâshî, and form part of the Captain Pasha's province, who appoints 
the Sübashî and a Yassakji. These seven islands are eighteen miles distance from 
Constantinople, in a line between Constantinople and Yelova. I passed seven days 
visiting these isles, the weather being unfavourable. At last the wind became 
fair, and I entered Constantinople on the first of Rebi-ul-akhir, after a month's 
absence, landing at Wood-gate. I kissed the hands of my father and mother, 
presented them with some gifts from Nicomedia, and received their benediction. 
Ketânjî Omer Pasha, an old and particular friend of my father having been 
named governor of Trebisonde, he appointed my father as his Kapii Kiaya or agent 
at Constantinople, and I accompanied him on the journey to his government. 



E V L I Y A E F E N D I. 35 



JOURNEY TO BATUM AND TREBISONDE. 

In the beginning of Jemazi-ul-akhir, 1050, after having taken leave of my 
friends, I embarked at the Flour-hall in the ship called Kara-mursal of Fcrtîl-oghlî 
of Trebisonde, and in three hours time arrived at Yenikoi on the Bosphorus, 
which has been already described in the first volume. We there took in five 
hundred quintals of biscuit, and ten boat-loads of ballast. In seven hours more we 
reached the castle of Kavak, which was built by Sultân Murâd IV. as stated in 
the first volume. Here we read a Fâtihah for a prosperous voyage through 
the mouth of the Bosphorus, and, trusting in God, we sailed along the Asiatic 
rocks, and arrived at the harbour of Irva on the frontiers of Koja-Ilî, a district 
with a Subashi, a mosque, a khan, from forty to fifty magazines, and one hundred 
houses faced with brick and surrounded with gardens. The south and south- 
east sides are all gardens. We took in water, and advanced by rowing, along the 
Asiatic shore. At the end of thirty-six miles we came to Shila, a jurisdiction of 
Kojâ-Ilî, here are six hundred houses faced with brick, with a garden to each, 
and a mosque at the head of the harbour. The small town of Kefken has a 
bath, some shops and a khan. One hundred miles further on we arrived at 
the island of Kerpe, which is twenty miles in circumference, but is uninhabited ; 
it is but a mile distant from the continent of Koja-lli. The small town of 
Kandria, with gardens, mosque, khan and bath, is in tiie mountains of Kândrî 
at four hours distance from the island. The river Sakaria here disembosrues 
into the Black Sea ; it rises from the mountains of Cutahia, goes to Kiva, a 
place belonging to the district of Nicomedia, and falls into the Black Sea near 
Kerpe. There being no wind we rowed ten miles further on, and came to 
Akcheshar, a Voivode's residence in Koja-Ilî, here is a judge with an income of 
one hundred and fifty aspers. It was formerly a fine town, but burnt by the 
accursed Cossacks in the reign of Ahmed I. There are now only six hundred 
Turkish houses, some faced with brick, and others of wood ; on the market-place 
stands a brick-built mosque, forty shops but no Bezestân, a bath and three khans, 
one of which was formerly covered with lead. The cultivation of the place is now 
in a very low state. It is the harbour of Boli ; on the shore are seventy maga- 
zines full of wood and timber. Mountain on mountain rises on the east side of 
the town, and gardens appear one above the other ; the people are healthy on 
account of the purity of the air. We passed Eregli (Heraclea) and the tower of 
the shepherds (Chobân Kûlessi) a small castle on a lime cliff, but not garrisoned. 



36 THETRAVELSOF 

Near it is the statue of the builder, very hke life. We passed the rivers TufadJir 
and Bârten, the last of which is a great river, where Egyptian ships enter to be 
loaded. The Castle of Bdrten was built by the Genoese ; and is situated at the end 
of a gulf eighteen miles in depth. We went from hence eighteen miles further 
north, and arrived at Amassra (Amastris) built by the Greek Emperors, the seat of 
a Voivode belonging to the sanjak of Boli. The castle is a strong square building 
on a high hill, it was attacked at different times by the Russians, who were always 
compelled to retreat. It has no Dizdar, but a judge with an income of one hun- 
dred and fifty aspers, and a commanding officer of the janissaries. In the castle is 
a mosque and some niesjids, but no dining or reading establishment. Amassra is 
situated on the east of Sinope, distant five days journey by land, and one hun- 
dred miles by sea. It is also on the east side of Heraclea, at a distance of four 
days journey by land, and fifty miles by sea. The climate and fruits of this place 
are much praised. On the east and west side are two excellent ports, the safest 
refuge in the world ; at the eastern harbour is a bath, and good magazines. The 
river Kayvi forms the frontier between the sanjak of Boli and Kastemûnî. It is 
forty miles from here to the harbour of Kadoz ; at the distance of seventy miles is 
reached the point of Kerenbe, a cape like that of Sinope ; on the rocks are some 
remarkable inscriptions. 

The castle of AineboH was built by the Genoese, and is now the seat of a 
Siibashi, subordinate to Kastemûnî ; the judge is appointed with one hundred and 
fifty aspers. There is a commanding officer of the janissaries, a Dizdar and gar- 
rison. The castle is a strong pentagon on the seashore ; its gate looks to the east, 
the houses are all faced with brick, in the market-place are mosques and 
mesjids, a bath and shops, it is the landing-place of Kastemûnî, but has 
no good harbour. We rowed from hence till we came in sight of the cape of 
Sinope, and anchored before Shâtir-koî, a pleasant village, where all the pas- 
sengers went on shore. The high mountains (Balkan) are covered with tall trees, 
which afford excellent timber for the large ships that are built here. The inha- 
bitants are all ship-builders. Sixty miles to the north, along the seashore, lies the 
village of Istefan belonging to Kastemûnî ; the houses are faced with brick, and 
seven miles beyond is the town of Sinope. 

Description of the Ancient Town of Sinoj)e. 

Omer Ben Abd-ul-assiz, the nephew of Suleiman Ben Abd-ullah of the Om- 

miades, having laid siege to Constantinople without effect, also besieged this 

castle, but retreated without taking it. It was conquered by U'lu-Beg the Lord 

of Kastemûnî, and again in the year 796 by liderim. As it is an extremely strong 



evliya efendi. 37 

fortress, it was with difficulty taken after the third siege. It is a free fief entirely 
separated from Kastemuni ; a Dizdar, Serdar, a judge, Mufti, and Nâkib-ul-ishrdf, 
are the authorities of the place. 

The inhabitants are a commercial people, being mechanics and merchants, with 
some Sheikhs and Ulemas. They commonly wear ferrâjîs of cloth and caftans 
of Bogassin. The mountains on the east and Kiblah side of the town are laid out 
in gardens. The town of Kastemuni is three journies distant on the east side. 
Sinope is situated on a cape of the Black sea, which bears the same name. 
Opposite to it on the European shore of the Black sea are the rocks of Kilghra 
Sultân, and the Black sea appears between them like a straight, wbich widens 
towards Constantinople and Trebisonde. Sinope is five hundred miles distant 
from Constantinople, and lies on the west side of Samsun at four journies distance. 
The castle stands on a high hill with triple walls of Shedad (gigantic or Cyclo- 
pean) and was built by the Greeks. It is seven thousand paces in circumference, 
and has six thousand six hundred battlements, and eight gates, viz. the sand- 
gate, the place gate, the arsenal-gate, the new-gate, the hospital-gate, the gate 
of the inner castle, (Lonja), the Oghran gate, and the gate of the inner castle 
towards the sea. All these gates are of iron and double. The lower part of the 
castle on the seashore is washed by the waves on the two sides, its form is an 
oblong square ; viewed from the top of Mount Biizdepeh it appears like a ship's 
deck divided into three parts. The commander is a constant prisoner, for the 
inhabitants are empowered by an Imperial rescript to kill him if he goes further 
from the castle than the distance of a cannon's shot. The garrison consists of 
six hundred brave warlike men. In the time of Sultân Ahmed, on a dark night, 
the Cossacks took the town by escalade, and the great Vizfr Nassif Pâshâ, was 
put to death for having concealed it from the Sultân. It was retaken from the 
Infidels and garrisoned with fifty additional men, and provided with one thousand 
quintals of powder, a great number of large and small guns, and other arms. 
From that period the watch has been kept nightly by two hundred officers and 
Chauches, and after the music of sunset the guards, cry their " all's well," (Yeg dir 
Allah). The Infidels tried several times to retake it, but were routed and driven 
back in great confusion, and God be thanked ! they have made no new attempt 
since the reign of Sultân Murâd IV. The town is divided into twenty-four 
quarters, those of the Infidels are on the sea-beach ; one thousand one hundred 
Infidels pay the tribute (Khar.ij) and one hundred are exempted because they are 
employed in renewing the fortifications ; there are five thousand and sixty ancient 
houses of stone, with slated roofs, facing the sea to the west. The oldest mosque 
is that in the castle of Ala-ud-din which has a lead-covered cupola, and a minareh 



38 THETRAVELSOF 

one hundred paces long, in a fair proportion, with three gates. The mihrâb 
and the place of the Muezzins are of exquisite workmanship, but the minber is 
so elegant that angels alone could adequately describe it ; I will make the attempt, 
but it will be like a drop in the ocean or a mote in the sun. It was composed by 
ancient masters of six different kinds of marble, which are so well put together 
that even the cleverest artists, such as Jemshîd would be unable to discover the 
joints. All the flowers and blossoms of the earth are here skilfully engraved and 
carved, so that in all Islam there is no minber to be compared with this, unless 
it be that of the great mosque at Brussa, which, nevertheless, cannot compete with 
it in the abundance of floral ornament ; in short, all travellers and artists who 
behold this minber, place the finger of astonishment on their mouths, for it 
seems more like a supernatural than a human work. Being situated in the 
suburb of the Castle, it is always crowded with people whose prayers are put up to 
Heaven. The remaining mosques are the Süleimânie in the inner castle with 
one minâreh ; the new mosque near the gate of the Meidân (Almeida) ; the Ayâ 
Sofiâh, an old mosque faced with brick, the mosque Kefeli outside of the gate 
of the Meidân, and that of Mohammed Aghâ with a well proportioned minareh. 

The Baths are as follows : — The bath in the upper part of the market is a 
double one, that of the lower is a single one like that on the sea-shore, Yalli, the 
building, the air and the water are equally pleasant and agreeable. There is the 
college of Sultân Ala-ud-di'n and sixty abecedarian schools. When I visited this 
town, the inhabitants boasted, that there were two thousand boys and girls who 
had learned reading and knew the Koran by heart. There is an imaret, a house 
for lectures on Tradition, and three for reading the Koran, and one thousand 
shops, full of valuable goods ; provisions, the white bread especially, and beverages 
are good. The harbour is excellent, affording shelter for ships against all 
quarters of the wind ; there is no better port in the Black sea unless it be 
that of Bâliklava ; the best water is found here, and the beautiful symmetry 
of the Turkish youth of both sexes is to be attributed to the mildness of the 
climate. 

I visited the tombs of Sîdî Belâl Sultan, Sübhan Khojâ, that of Jujî Sultân, in 
the green monument within the Castle ; that of Kâzî-Beg Sultân in the college 
of Ala-ud-din, that of Bekir Khojâ below it, that of Imrza Efendi at the Sand- 
gate, and those of Hamza and Emir Efendi near it. 

South of the town is the high mountain called, Buzdepeh (ice peak) opposite 
to which the rocks of Kilghra are seen on the European shore ; foxes, jackals and 
bears abound on this mountain. We spent three days in this town, then re- 
embarked and at the end of three miles came to Findîjâk-âghzî, whose inhabitants 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 39 

are all boatmen and ship-builders. The river Kizil Irmdk here enters the sea, 
it rises from a mountain in the sanjak of Angora, passes under the bridge of 
Chcishnegvi'r to the castle of Osmânjîk, and to Hâjî Haraza near Tüsia, it derives 
the name red river from its reddish colour. Higher up the river in the mountains 
are found cornelians large enough for handles of knives and daggers ; no village 
in the neighbourhood is cultivated through fear of the Cossacks; forty miles 
further on we came to Bafra, the seat of a Sûbashî subordinate to the sanjak 
of Janik, The judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers a day ; 
there is a separate Serdâr (officer of the janissaries). The distance from Samsun 
is a day's journey. Bafra lies south-west of Samsun and at two farsangs distance 
from the Black sea. The Kizıl-Irraâk, which comes from the district of Gunâ- 
nabâd flows on the west side of Bafra, and near this place it is crossed by a bridge 
of fir-trees, which forms a wooden arch from one side of the shore to the other ; 
it is well worth seeing. There are two mosques and two baths at Bafra, and the 
houses are all built of fir. 

Description of the Castle of Samsi'in. 
It was first taken from the Greeks, who built it, by Ala-ud-din a prince of the 
Seljiik family, and afterwards by Sultân liderim ; it is the seat of a voivode sub- 
ordinate to the sanjak of Janik. The judge's provision is fixed at one hundred 
and fifty aspers. Order is kept by a commanding officer of the janissaries 
(Serdâr Kiayayerî), and the commander of the castle. Dizdar, but there is neither 
Mufti nor Nakîb-ul-ishrâf. The inhabitants are all packers and boatmen, no 
great rich men (Awan) but a number of Ulemâs. Every body dresses according 
to his means. The distance between Sinope and Samsun is by sea one hundred 
and fifty miles, and five days journey by land. Sinope lies to the south of 
Samsun, which is a strong fortress on the seashore. In the time of Mohammed 
III. the conqueror of Erla, the Cossacks took this castle and destroyed the 
fortifications in some places, which, after they were driven away, were repaired, 
and the garrison strengthened, with great store of ammunition ; it is now five 
thousand paces in circumference, has seventy towers, two thousand battlements 
and four gates. The river of Chârshenbe-Bazârî, which passes before Amasia, 
disembogues in the Black Sea on the east side of Samsun. It is a large river, 
not fordable, rises in the sanjak of Boli, goes to Tokat, and then passes before 
Amasia; hence originates the proverb coarsely applied by the inhabitants of 
Tokat to those of Amasia; " you drink what we have defiled." The water 
of Samsun is called bad, it is however clear and transparent. The houses are 
faced with brick and surrounded with gardens, it has a mosque and khans, but 



40 THETRAVELSOF 

no college or reading establishment, seven abecedarian schools, a bath, and a 
market, but no port. It is an open place but the anchoring ground good. The 
grapes and pears of Samsun are pickled (tûrshî) and sent in casks to Con- 
stantinople ; its cables, ropes and resin are famous. The town is situated on the 
edge of a gulf. We visited all that was to be seen at this place and then re- 
embarked with our companions. 

Description of the Castle of Onia. 

It was built by one of the Emperors of Trebisonde, was first conquered by 
Keikiibad of the Seljuk family, and afterwards by Orkhân. It is the seat of a 
Voivode subordinate to the sanjak of Jânîk. The judge is appointed with one 
hundred and fifty aspers : a Serdâr and Dizdar are in possession of the military 
power, but there is no Mufti nor Nakib-ul-ishrcif. The castle is a square stone 
building on the seashore ; the houses well inhabited, the mosques light, and the 
markets populous. Having seen all this we re-embarked, and proceeding a few 
miles with a favourable wind, came to Fatsha on the seashore, consisting of three 
hundred houses, a mosque, a khân and a bath. It is a ziamet belonging to 
Janik ; the inhabitants are for the most part Greeks. The cape of Stephan is a 
sharp point advancing ten miles into the sea. The mountains are interspersed 
with well cultivated Greek villages. We passed it and came more northward 
to the castle of Wiina, built by the Genoese, and conquered by U'zun Hassan 
the lord of Azerbeijan, who took this castle together with those of Gumish 
Khânf, Baiburd and Jankha, at a later period it was taken by Mohammed II. It 
is the seat of a Sübashî from the sanjak of Janik. The castle is of a round 
shape, and stands on a hill by the seashore, but it is not strongly garrisoned ; 
the gate looks to the east. It is ruled by a Serdâr, and a judge with an income 
of one hundred and fifty aspers. It has mosques, khans and baths. The 
inhabitants are known by the name of Wiina Greeks and Turks. It is a good 
port, where the largest ships can anchor at any time. We went from hence, 
straight before the wind, one hundred miles to the castle of Giressin built by 
Constantine the founder of Constantinople. It fell into the hands of U'zun 
Hassan, was afterwards taken by the Genoese, and lastly by Mohammed II., who 
ordered his general Mahmvid Pasha to enter the castle in the night, the name 
of the castle is said to have originated from this order, " giressin" (thou shalt 
enter). It is on the frontier of the Pashalik of Trebisonde, to the Khass of which 
it belongs; its public officers are, a judge with one hundred and fifty aspers, a 
Serdâr of the janissaries, a Dizdar of the castle, an inspector of the custom- 
house, a Muftf and Nakîb-ul-ishrâf. It is situated on the seashore between 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 41 

Janîk and Trebisonde, to the east of the latter. By the appearance of the ruins, 
it was a large town when in the possession of the Genoese, but it is now only a 
small one, with mosques and khans, a bath and a market ; the gardens yield fruit 
plentifully. Though the anchorage is excellent, yet the harbour affords no shelter 
against contrary winds. On the west side of it is a small island, where the 
Cossacks concealed themselves when they burnt and plundered this town, which 
is not defended by the Castle. As it belongs to the government of Trebisonde, 
some hundred men of Omer-Pcishâ's suite took horse here and continued their 
journey to Trebisonde by land. We then steered our boat to the north, and 
arrived at the castle of Purpolum, which is a small square castle, situated on a 
hill by the sea-shore, with a commander (Dizdar) and a garrison ; the inhabitants 
are Greeks. We weathered the Cape of Zemreh, where villages are to be seen 
in the mountains. The castle of Küreli is a district belonging to Trebizonde. 
The castle is situated on a hill by the seashore. Further on we came to the 
station of Popoli on a great gulf, where traces of ruined castles are to be seen in 
many places. Further to the north is the castle of Kelpe, a district belonging 
to Trebisonde. The castle stands on a high hill by the seashore, and was built 
by the Genoese. The castle of Bozıır-bürnî is a small square castle on a rocky 
cape, called the point of Bozur, which was the name of a monk who built it. 
The castle of Akche-abâd, a large district belonging to Trebisonde. The castle 
is a strong pentagon on the seashore, also built by the Greeks. Pulta Bazari is 
the seat of a Siibaslu and Naib subordinate to Trebisonde. A fair is held here 
every week which is visited by many thousand inhabitants from the neighbouring 
villages ; it belongs as Wakf to the foundations of Khatiinieh the mother of 
Selim I., the Sûbashî is at the same time the Mütevelli or administrator of the 
Wakf. The port is one of the most celebrated in the Black sea on account of its 
safety. The torrent of Kalatîmâna, which rises in the mountains of Trebisonde, 
enters the Black sea near the harbour of Pulta. The valley of Seredere is 
enlivened by cultivated villages, whose inhabitants go in boats to the market of 
Trebisonde, to the south of which these places are situated. 

Description of the Town and ancient Fortress of Trebisonde, the Capital of the 
Lezgians ; God guard it from all mischief! 

It was built by the Greeks and was conquered by U'zun Hassan, the Prince of 
Azerbeijan, but retaken by the Greek Emperors at the time of Timiir's invasion, 
until, in the year 878 (1473), it fell into the power of Mohammed II. He brought 
forward an immense army by way of Jankha, and gave battle to U'zun Hassan 
in the field of Terjidn, where forty thousand of U'zun Hassan's men were slain, 

VOL. II. G 



42 THETRAVELSOF 

and he himself fled to the Castle of Azerbaijan. Since the victory at Kossova of 
Sultan Murad I. no greater victory had been gained. Mohammed II. conquered 
the town of Trebisonde thirteen years before ; its name was spelt Tarbefzün (joy 
increasing). Mohammed II. fixed his residence here, coined money, had public 
prayer performed in his name, and remained here three years. He subjected the 
northern provinces of Georgia, Mingrelia, and Abaza, established his son Bâyazîd 
here as commander, and went himself to his third residence, Constantinople. 
Bâyazîd II. having ascended the throne in his father's place, gave the government 
of Trebisonde to his son Selim I. who twice passed over to the Crimea, and 
heading the Tatars led them against his father. Being defeated in battle, once at 
Varna, and once at Adrianople, he left his son Suleiman his Lieutenant at Tre- 
bisonde, and retired in disguise into Persia, where he played at chess with Shah 
Ismail, then travelled over Baghdad, Meshhed, Mecca and Medina to Egypt, con- 
versed there with Ebii Sa'iid Jârehî, and Mezruk Kafâkî, who said " O Selfm go 
into Rum and Persia, and then come to Egypt." After three years travel he returned 
to Trebisonde, from whence, keeping up secret intellligence with the janissaries 
and with Mengli Gerai Khdn, he led a Tatar army against his father, whom he 
vanquished at Chorli, and banished to Dimitoka, where he died at the village of 
Hawsa. Sultân Selim remained absolute monarch, and immortahsed himself by 
the victories of Chaldir and Egypt. 

Siileimfin was brought up at Trebisonde, which has been the seat of four 
Ottoman Emperors. In remembrance of his youth spent here, he sent his mother 
to this place and raised it to a separate province, with the addition of the sanjak 
of Batiim. It is a Beglerbeglik of two tails, but was given more than once to 
Vezirs of three tails as arpalik, in the reign of Murad IV. and Ibrahîm. The 
Khass of the Pâshâ consists according to the Kanun (law) of forty thousand 
aspers. Two Sübashî are attached to this place, and the Pâshâ may get, in a 
fair way, every year, nineteen thousand piastres, but if he is severe, even thirty 
thousand piastres. There are five sanjaks, viz. Jânkha, Batiim, Zır, Gonia, and 
Trebisonde, which is the chief place. The feudal officers are a Defterdar of the 
Timars, a Kiayâ of the Defter, an Inspector of the rolls (Defter-emini), and a 
Kiayâ of the Chaushes ; an inspector of the Chaushes is also appointed here. 
There are forty-three ziâraets, two hundred and twenty-six timars in the sanjak 
of Trebisonde, and thirteen ziâmets with seventy-two timars in the sanjak 
of Batum, altogether one thousand eight hundred well-armed men, besides a 
thousand Jebelis of the Pâshâ, so that the whole including the officers amounts 
to three thousand men. They hold villages and land on condition that they 
should go to war under the command of the Pâshâ, which if they do not they 
forfeit their leases. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 43 

Begs of Abaza Tribes. 

The tribe of Jajlar, of Erlan, of Chândalar, of great Chândalar, of Kechilar, of 
A'rtlar, of Kamishlar, of Sujelar, of Boziinik, of Kûnassî, of Ashufli, of Yokarûlî, 
of Jembeh, and of Suntija. There are seventy Abaza tribes, who have made 
obeisance since the time of Sultân Suleiman, and who every year in token thereof, 
send in a tribute consisting of boys and girls, camphor, candles, pelisses, and a 
thousand pieces of coarse linen for towels for the Imperial kitchen, to the Pâshd 
of Trebisonde, who then renews the treaty of protection with tliem. Envoys 
come every year from Mingrelia with this tribute to Trebisonde, according to the 
constitution of Sultân Suleiman. The Judge, a Molla with five hundred aspers, 
extends his jurisdiction to forty-one districts, and makes annually a revenue of 
eight thousand piastres. 

The Commanding Officers and Magistrates of Trebisonde. 

These are the Pâshâ, Mufti, Nakib, and instead of the Serdâr of the janissaries 
a Chaush of high authority, a Kiaya-yeri of the Sipâhîs, a Subashi, an Ayak Nâîb, 
a Mohtessib, an inspector of the Custom-house and. of the fish-market, a Shah 
Bender or chief of the merchants, an inspector of the dyers, of the wine, and 
wax, in short seventeen public magistrates appointed by an Imperial rescript. 
The inhabitants also possess an Imperial privilege which allows them to kill the 
Jews who enter the town, the reason of their being thus empowered shall, if it 
pleases God ! be detailed in another place. The town is situate on the eastern 
side of the Black sea and is surrounded by delightful gardens. The distance from 
Constantinople is exactly a thousand miles. The mountains of the Lezgis are 
towards the south and the east ; the name Lezgi has been corrupted into Laz. 
Mohammed II. having conquered this town, colonized it from all quarters and 
rendered it a populous place ; the inhabitants are Lezgis and Janissaries, who 
inherit this right from father to son. Their names are, Alî, Well, Khodaverdî, 
Ja'fer, Peshir, Fesli, Memf, Meizer, Fakhzâd, and Memet, with the word bâshâ 
added to the end, which is pronounced here pâshâ. The surnames are, son 
of Fertul, Fodiil, Fazar, Kashûmbûr, Katraz, Kalafat, Kosdûd, Jûndah, Aliali, 
Sürmeneli, Pîpolî, Kashîd-bârî, Siâmî, Jorkâjî, Khângî-chîchû, Kotûzmeslî, A'âli, 
Gûnelî; the names of the women, Onıkhân, Esma Khân, Râbieh, Assieh, Hânifeh, 
Afıfa, Saikha, Fâtima, Khûftî, Tûnti, Gulshâkhî, Mihrmâh, Khiva, Khüma, Zâkhila, 
and A'nifah ; the names of the slaves, U'ssuf, Paivân, Kananan, Allah -kûlî, Rostem, 
Apârtî, &c. These names were originally pure Arabic names, but are spelt in 
such a way by the Lezgians, that they appear quite strange. Many of the 



44 THETRAVELSOF 

inhabitants of the order of the Dervishes Gulsheni wear necklaces of coral, jasper 
and turquoise. Both Prose and Poetry are cultivated to a high degree, and there 
are in our age no less than eleven poets, every one of whom is the author of a 
Divân or alphabetical collection of Ghazels (Odes). 

Praise of the Poets of Trebisonde. 

Ghanayf Efendi was Secretary to Tayem-Pashâ, and afterwards to Melek Ahmed 
Pasha. He knew the dictionaries of Kamiis and Shemii by heart, as well as the 
discourses of Urfi and Tuzûlî. Ghanayî went with Melek Ahmed Pasha to his 
government of Rumeli, and is buried at Sofia in the mosque of Dervish Mohammed 
Paslm 1021 (1612). Alî-jânî succeeded to his father's office. He left three 
volumes in vei'se and prose, in comparison with which Weissi himself is but a 
stammering child. 

Form and Size of the Town, and Description of its Monuments. 

It consists of two great castles between the edge of Mount Bozdepeh and the 

shore of the Black sea, and is divided into three parts ; the first is the lower 

castle., the second the middle castle, and the innermost or tower castle, it is 

extremely strong being protected by mount Bozdepeh. The ditch is very deep, 

and seventy paces broad, all cut in lime-stone ; inside this castle is a mosque, 

barracks for the garrison, magazines and storehouses. On the north side a 

gate leads to the middle castle, which is the only open gate ; a second secret gate 

(Oghrun Kapii) I's always kept closed. The middle castle is an oblong square 

enclosed by walls. The gate on the east side which leads from the tower or 

innermost castle is called the New Friday's gate, the second gate is also at the 

end of the same wall. The tanneries are outside of it, and it is therefore called 

the tanner's gate. In front of it flows a rivulet which rises in the mountains 

of Bodzepeh and the Lezgian mountains on the east, and passes through the 

tanneries into the sea ; it sometimes swells into a furious torrent. In the centre 

of the tanner's market is a large bridge built of stone by U'zun Hassan the lord of 

the castle, it Hes to the east of Erzerum. The third gate of the middle castle is 

on the western wall and is called the prison gate, where the malefactors and 

debtors are confined. From this gate you pass over a stone bridge to the gate 

Za'anus. The fourth gate is on the northern side of the wall, and leads to the 

lower castle, or third division of the town, and is therefore called the lower 

castle gate. 

Description of the Lower Castle. 

The north wall abuts on the sea, the castle is of a square form, nineteen 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 45 

thousand paces in circumference. It has also four gates, viz. — the gate of Za'anus 
next the prison gate close to the walls, leading to a long bridge ; the gate of 
Sûtkhîîneh leading to the quarters of the Christians ; the gate of Mevluz which 
signifies in Greek (?) a small stone, from the abundance of pebbles that lie on the 
shore. In the language of the Lazes, Mevluz is the name of spurs or piers which 
are raised to support ruined walls. The walls of the lower castle extend on both 
sides to the sea, so that the town is closed against hostile invasion, by a wall 
running along the seashore. The fourth gate is that of Mum Khâneh or the 
wax fabric, because all the candles, of which a great number are made at 
Trebisonde are manufactured outside of this gate. Three quarters of the town 
are inhabited by Moshms and Christians, but by no Jews. The houses rising one 
above the other are all faced with brick and look to the north or west. 

Description of the Mosques. 

In the centre of the castle was an old Christian church, Mohammed II. having 
conquered the town in the year 865, turned the mihrab from the east towards 
the Kiblah. Its mihrab and minber are of ancient workmanship, and on the east 
side is an oratory (mahfil) of most elegant carving. The wood is cypress, nut, 
and box ; it is always closed, and reserved entirely for the Emperor's use. There 
are besides three other mahfils or oratories supported by pillars in this mosque, 
where people are also allowed to pray when there is a great crowd. It has two gates, 
an elegant minareh, and cells for students in the courtyard outside ; it is covered 
with lead. In the west suburb are also four mosques, and two in the eastern ; 
the mosque of the tower castle is a beautiful structure with a minareh much 
ornamented. The mosque of Khatiinieh was built by the mother of Selim I. who 
was born here, it is extremely well endowed, the market called Piilta-bazari 
belongs to its foundation, with many cultivated villages. The cupola is illuminated 
by candles every night, its elegant minareh pierces the sky. The gate and walls 
of this mosque are built of black polished stone, and white marble, in alternate 
rows ; it was built in the year 920. The mosque of Suleiman Beg on the west 
of the mosque of Khatunieh, but at a mile distance from it on the place of Kawak, 
has one minareh covered with lead. 

The mosque of Aya Sofiyâh is on the seashore on the west side, it was built 
in the time of the Infidels. Kurd Ali-beg took it out of the hands of the 
Christians, in the year 951 (1573), and adorned it with a fine minber and mahfil ; 
it is beautified with many marble and granite columns, which cannot be described 
with sufficient praise. The mihrab and minber are in the ancient style, and it is 
surrounded by vineyards and plantations of olives. 



46 THETRAVELSOF 

The mosque of Wardogdi-Beg stands half a mile distance south of the mosque 
of Khatiinieh in the quarter of Tekfur -serai, it was raised from a mesjfd into a 
mosque by Torghiid-beg in 985 (1577). It has a well proportioned gate and 
mincCreh. The new mosque was formerly a church, and stands in a lofty 
situation. The mosque of iskender Pâshâ, known by the name of Kâfir- 
Meidânî, (the Infidel's place) has its cupola entirely covered with lead, with a well 
proportioned minareh. 

Description of the Scietitific Colleges, Baths, Marhet-places, 8çc, 

Outside of the courtyard of the mosque of the middle castle is the college of 
Mohammed II. with a great number of cells and students. There is a general 
lecture (Dersî-a'âm), the lecturer holds the degree of a Molla ; it is a mine of poets, 
and meeting-place of wits. The college of Katunieh is adorned with cells on four 
sides ; the students receive fixed quantities of meat and wax for their subsistence. 
The college of iskender Pâshâ on the north side of the mosque, that bears the 
same name, is richly endowed with stipends for the students. The reading-houses 
of Trebisonde are those of the middle castle, at the mosque of Mohammed II., 
where reading after the manner of Ibn Kether is introduced ; that of Khatunieh, 
where works on the Koran are read after the seven established methods of Jeserf 
and Shâtebieh ; and that of iskender Pâshâ close to its mosque. The abecedarian 
schools for boys are that of Mohammed II. in the middle custle ; the school of the 
new mosque, a school so blessed, that a boy who has been taught here to read the 
Bismillah (in God's name !) cannot fail to be a learned man ; the elegant school of 
Khatunieh on the west side of the mosque is built of stone, with a cupola, where 
orphans are supplied with mental and bodily food, with dresses on great festivals 
and presents besides ; and the schools of iskender Pâshâ ; these are the most 
celebrated. 

There is a pleasant double bath for the use of both sexes, in the middle castle 
near the gate which leads to the lower castle. 

The bath of the tower is on the north wall of the innermost or tower castle ; it 
is a single one, and is said to have existed in the time of the Infidels. The bath of 
the imaret, built by Khatunieh mother of Selim I. The bath of the lower castle is 
a single one, that of iskender Pâshâ is double ; the bath of the Infidels is between 
the New Friday quarter and the Infidels' place, and the bath of Tektür-seraî. 
There are besides at Trebisonde two hundred and forty-five private baths, and a 
great number of Khans. Tlie Khân of Khatunieh has a stable equal to that of 
Antar, which will accommodate one hundred horses ; besides many other Khans 
for merchants and single persons. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 47 

Of the Market-places, the first is outside of the gate of the wax-manufactory. 
There is a well-built Bezestân where the Arabian and Persian merchants reside, 
who are extremely rich and wealthy. In the middle castle the market called the 
small market, is furnished with every thing ; its shops amount to the number of 
eighty. 

The Imdrets are those of Mohammed II. in the middle castle, accommodating 
both rich and poor. The imaret of Khdtunieh, close to the mosque, is not to be 
equalled, even at Trebisonde ; passengers and boatmen may dine here at their 
pleasure ; there is an oven for baking white bread, and a cellar (kılar) for keeping 
the provisions of the imaret. Near the kitchen is the eating-place for the poor, 
and the students have a proper dining-hall. Every day, in the morning, and at 
noon a dish of soup and a piece of bread is provided for each, and every Friday a 
Zerde Pilaw, and Yakhni (stewed meat) ; these regulations are to remain in force, 
as long as it pleases God. 

Description of the complexion of the Inhabitants of Trebisonde. 

The climate and the air being extremely favourable, the inhabitants are all jolly 

merry fellows, who think of nothing but eating and drinking, of amusement and 

pleasure. Being all idle amorous fellows, their colour is red, and the women are 

fair, coming from Abaza, Georgia and Circassia ; every one a moon or a portion of 

the sun. 

Occupations, Guilds, 8^c. 

The inhabitants are divided from the earliest period into seven classes. The first 
are the great and mighty Princes and sons of Princes (Beg and Beg-zadeh), who 
are dressed in magnificent pelisses of sables. The second are the Ulemas, the 
sheikhs and pious men, who dress according to their condition and live on endow- 
ments. The third are the merchants, who trade by sea and land to Ozakov, into 
the country of the Cossacks, into Mingrelia, Circassia, Abaza and the Crimea ; 
they dress in ferrajfs of cloth and dolimans called kontosh. The fourth are the 
handicraftsmen, who dress themselves in ferrajfs of cloth and bogâssîn. The 
fifth are the boatmen of the Black Sea ; they have their peculiar dress, with iron 
buckles, shalwars, dolimans of cloth, and a kind of lining (astar) wrapped round 
the head, ready, thus accoutred, to trade or to fight at sea. The sixth class are 
the men of the vineyards, because the mountains of Bozdepeh are all planted with 
vines, and in the register are set down no less than thirty-one thousand gardens 
and vineyards, so that if only one man is reckoned to each garden, there are 
thirty-one thousand gardeners, but in some there are two and three. The seventh 
class are the fishermen, a calling in which many thousand men are employed. 



48 THETRAVELSOF 

Description of the principal Arts and Handicrafts. 
The goldsmiths of Trebisonde are the first in the world. Selîm I. being brought 
up in this town was taught the art of a goldsmith, and cut dies for the coin of his 
father Bâyazîd, so skilfully, that they appeared as if engraved in marble ; I 
saw some of this coin at Trebisonde. Suleiman (the great) himself was the 
apprentice of a Greek called Constantine, who was the foster brother of Yahya 
Efendi, who is buried at Beshik-tash. From this time the goldsmiths of Trebi- 
sonde became the most famous in the world, and work vases for rose-water and 
incense, swords, daggers and knife-handles in most wonderful perfection. The 
knives of Ghorghür-oghlî are the most famous of all ; the hatchets of Trebisonde 
are a new and clever invention. The inlaid work of pearl-shells, with which 
tables, pulpits, inkstands, sand-boxes and chairs are ornamented in such perfection, 
that they cannot be equalled in any country, except it be by the pearl-shell work 
of India. 

Eatables and Beverases. 

The water of Trebisonde is fresh as the spring of life ; the must of the raisins 
of Bozdepeh is sweet, and gives no headache to those who drink it ; the sherbets 
called the triple, the muscat, and the clove wine are the best. The gardens 
produce most exquisite fruit ; fine flavoured giapes, cherries red as woman's lips, 
pears of different kinds, apples called Sinope, figs called Bâdinjîan-Injur, which 
are not found so sweet any where else, different kinds of lemons, oranges of a deep 
purple colour, pomegranates and olives, of which alone there are seven sorts to be 
found nowhere else except at Damascus and Jerusalem. One of the small sorts 
is eaten before it is quite ripe and resembles a black cherry; this is also an 
exclusive production of Trebisonde. Another fruit, which is called the date of 
Trebisonde is roasted on stoves, and is exported to many places ; it is a sweet 
fruit, and has two or three kernels. The ruby-coloured pink which grows here, is 
pecuhar to this place, each blossom is like a red rose, and perfumes the brain 
with the sweetest scent, and weighs, without the stalk, from five to six drachms. 

The fish which are worthy of mention are Lorek-bâlighî, Kefâl-bâlighî (Cepha- 
lus), the Kalkân-balighî (Rhombus), which if eaten by women renders them pro- 
lific ; the fish called Kiziljeh-tekerbalik, with a red head and delicious to taste ; 
the gold fish, the Sgombro which is taken in the season Erbain (forty days). 
But the most precious of all, which frequently causes bloody strifes and quarrels 
in the Market-place, is the Khamsî-bîîlighî taken in the season of Khamsan, (the 
fifty days when southerly winds blow) ; these fish were formerly thrown on the 
shore at Trebisonde by virtue of a talisman erected, as is said, by Alexander, 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 49 

before the gate of the town, representing a fish of this kind in brass on a column 

of stone; but on the birth-night of the prophet, when all talismans lost their power, 

the same happened to this at Trebisonde ; thus the fish are no longer thrown on 

the shore, but the sea abounds with them during the said fifty days. At this season 

boats loaded with these fish arrive in the harbour, and the dealers in fish cry them 

in a peculiar manner, at the same time sounding a kind of horn or trumpet ; as 

soon as this sound is heard, the whole town is in an uproar, and people who hear it, 

even when at prayer, instantly cease, and run like madmen after it. It is a shining 

white fish of a span's length, and is an aphrodisiac of extraordinary potency; 

strengthening and easy of digestion, does not smell like fish, creates no fever 

in those who eat it, and also cures sore mouths. If the head of this fish, 

Khamsî-bâlighı, pronounced Khapsi-bâlighî, is burnt, serpents and other venomous 

reptiles are killed by the smoke. The people use it during forty days in all their 

dishes, to which it gives a peculiar flavour, it is thus used with yakhni', roasts, 

pies, and baklava (mixed pies), a dish called pilegi is made of it in the 

following manner, the fish is first cleaned, then cut into slices on which is laid 

parsley and celery, then another layer of fish, the best oil is then poured on it, 

and it is cooked over the fire for one hour, it thus becomes quite a luminous dish, 

which may be said to illuminate those who eat it. But however this fish may 

be dressed and eaten, it is extremely useful to the stomach and the eyes, and is 

a dish of friendship and love. God the Almighty has blessed this town with 

all kinds of rare trees, including box, cypress, and Turkish nut. It is wonderful 

that in the mountains of Erzerum, situated a great deal further to the south, all is 

winter and storm, while here are roses, syringas, lemons, oranges, and other sweet 

fruits. The winter and the air is mild, and the nature of the people partakes of this 

happy equality of the seasons ; they are kind to strangers, but the Greeks and the 

Lezgians, the Chichu and Chifta are extremely troublesome people ; the language 

of the Lezgis cannot be written or expressed in Turkish orthography ; they have a 

peculiar dialect, which even the inhabitants of Trebisonde do not understand 

without an interpreter ; they are for the most part boatmen, who navigate the 

river Chorogh to Mingrelia, carrying boxwood and slaves, with which they trade 

to the harbour of Trebisonde, one of the best of anchoring grounds and ports ; 

it is open to the west, and looks towards the harbour of KafFa in Crimea, three 

hundred miles distance. 

IValhs of Trebisonde. 

On the place of Kawak outside of the gate of Za'anus, the Pashas play jerid 
with their troops on days of recreation. Three masts are erected in the centre, 
one of them having a golden top which is shot at by arrows. There have been no 

VOL. II. H 



50 THETRAVELSOF 

Jews at Trebisonde since the time of Sultân Selîm, who was governor of the town, 
the following circumstance was the cause ; a Dervish discovered on a piece 
of leather (saffian), that was handed about for sale, an inscription, written in 
a way not to be observed by every body, which implored the assistance of all 
righteous Moslims, to deliver two innocent Moslim youths tyrannically shut up in 
the Jewish tanneries. The Dervish having explained the inscription to Prince 
Selfm, a general search of all the Jewish tanneries took place by an armed 
force, when not only the two brothers, lost many years before, but many other 
Moslim boys were found, on whose backs the Jewish tanners had worked in 
tanning their skins. This discovery occasioned a general slaughter and banish- 
ment of the Jews, none of whom have since dared to show their faces at 
Trebisonde, the inhabitants of which town are a religious and devout people. 

Praise of the River Khosh-oghldn. 

It rises in the province of Erzerum, in the southern part of the District 
Kerkdeh, from the mountain called Yailak-mesjidi, and after supplying water to 
many gardens, passes on the right side of Trebisonde into the sea. On the 
mountain whence it issues, stands a castle built by one Khosh-oglan of the 
Chobanian family, but the mountain itself is called Aghâj-bashtâghî by the 
inhabitants ; it is passed on the way from this town to Baiburd by a gate. 

f^isit to the Monuments of Sultans and Saints. 

The mother of Selîm I. is buried before the gate of Za'anus beneath a high 
cupola, ninety men are appointed there to be monument-keepers and readers 
of the Koran, which is I'ead through three times a day. She was a pious lady, a 
second Rabia Aduyeh. The cupola is covered with lead as well as the mosque 
near the monument. God's mercy upon her ! I remained three months at 
Erzerum making the acquaintance of all learned and distinguished men, and then 
accompanied Hossein-agha, the kiaya of Ketanji Omer Pasha, who set out with 
presents on an embassy to Mingrelia. 



JOURNEY TO GEORGIA AND MINGRELIA. 

We embarked in Lezgian boats with an escort of two hundred men, and, trusting 
in the Lord, sailed from the harbour of Trebisonde to the north. The station 
of Menzil Degermen Deressi is near Trebisonde, and is a large harbour. From 
thence we sailed northward to Shana where there is a harbour called Rutha. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 5] 

The forests are principally hazel, the nuts of which are everywhere famous. At 
the end of some miles from this place we arrived at the castle of Siirmena, built 
by the infidel Greeks, and conquered by Mohammed II. from whom it was taken 
by Hersek-oghlî ; there is a Sübashî, a judge with an income of one hundred and 
fifty aspers, a Dizdar and a garrison ; it has an excellent harbour sheltered against the 
wind from all quarters except the north-west, but when the wind blows from that 
quarter three or four anchors are required to enable ships to ride in safety. The 
district of Mahnuz consists of sixty villages belonging to Trebisonde, the whole 
mountain is covered with box-trees, the wood of which is made into handles for 
spoons. There is the large village Kalipravülî, whose inhabitants are all Chichii, 
and the large place of Khoban on the seashore, surrounded with gardens ; the in 
habitants of which are Lezgians. The strong town of Konia in the sanjak Batum 
belonging to Trebisonde has thirteen ziamets and seventy-two timars, the militia 
is ruled by a Cherî-bashî and Ala'i-Beg, who in war time commands eight 
hundred men, three hundred are the Pasha's private troop ; the garrison of the 
fortresses on the frontier consist of a Dizdar and five hundred men. The jud^e 
has a salary of one hundred and fifty aspers, but his revenues are in partibus, 
because the inhabitants are all Chıchû Lezgîs, who can only be controlled at 
the point of the lance. The revenues of the judge may amount to one thousand, 
those of the Beg to seven thousand piastres ; the castle originally built by the 
Infidels, stands on a high square hill, it was conquered by Mohammed II. and has 
been many times plundered by the Cossacks. The houses are faced with brick, 
as are also the mosque and khans. It lies on the river Jûrûgh, the spelhng of 
this word is corrupted from Jıiı-rûh, which rises in the mountains of Jânkha- 
Kawih'-hissar and Shin-kara on the west side of Erzerum, passes through Baiburd, 
waters the country of the Lezgians, and enters the Black Sea near the castle 
of Konia. 

It has neither ferry nor bridge, but is a river like a sea, covered with many 
thousand Lezgian boats, trading on this river to Mingrelia with salt, iron, and 
different sorts of linen, and bringing box, wax, honey, with slaves of both sexes, 
from Mingrelia and Georgia to Trebisonde. From Konia we advanced to the 
north, and only disembarked at the place Kemerler, then entered the river 
Jûrûgh, and sailed eastward for one day. 

Description of Mingrelia. 

The sanjak of Konia ends at Khaneda the frontier of the tribe Ada Khosh 
of Mingrelia. The mountains are covered with box, and the gardens are planted 
with box-trees. We slept one night in the village of the Beg, who did every thing 



52 THETRAVELSOF 

to treat us kindly. We saw more than seventy Mingrelian villages, each one like 
a town, and then returned to Konia ; our companions went back to Trebisonde, 
but I was commanded to go with the company of the Zenberekjı-bâshî of Konia to 
the siege of Assov. 



JOURNEY TO AZAK (ASSOV) 1050. 

We embarked with three hundred fusileers of the janissaries, and five rowing 
boys of my own, in ten Lezgian barks called Munkesileh. These boats are made 
of the large plane-trees growing on the river Jûrûgh, and consist of three planks, 
two of which form the sides, and the third forms the bottom ; the sides are lined 
with reed twice as thick as a man's wrist ; this lining of reed keeps them afloat 
in the storms of the Black Sea, and they swim like sponges ; they have neither 
stem nor forecastle, but are equal on both sides, and are called Munkesileh. On 
these boats I left Konia with a good wind, passed the river Jiirugh and arrived 
at the harbour Sofari on the frontier of Mingrelia. The landing-place (iskele) 
of Khandra has uo port (liman). The landing-place Siiri has an old ruined 
port. The landing-place Yarissa is a ruined castle where goats are now kept. 
The landing-place Raijeh is without a port, but has an old ruined castle. These 
five landing-places are all on the frontiers of Mingrelia, they are only visited in 
the summer time by the merchants who carry on the slave trade. The mountains 
are inhabited by forty or fifty thousand warlike Mingrelians. We passed the 
said five landing places, and came next day, at a hundred miles distance from 
Konia, to the great river Fashechai (Phasus). The Fasha (Phasus) is a great 
river like the Danube, in some places a mile, in others but half a mile broad, and 
from eight to ten fathoms deep, fresh as the spring of life ; it disembogues in a 
gulf at the north end of the Black Sea, one thousand three hundred miles from 
Constantinople. It rises between MingreHa, Georgia, Thâgistân, Kabartaî, and 
Circassia, from Mount Caucasus (Kuhal-burz), Ubiir, and Sadasha, and passes 
between Mingrelia and Abaza into the Black Sea. On the east side are the 
Mingrelian villages, on the west the Abaza ; and both shores being covered with 
thick forests, the two people mutually steal their children of both sexes and sell 
them as slaves. We passed the Phasus, marching to the west, and for a whole 
day went along the shore of the Black Sea. 

Description of the Land of the Abdza. 
It forms the northern shore of the Black Sea, begins at the mouth of the 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 53 

Phasus, and ends at the castle of Anapa near the island of Taman. The following 
tradition is related of the origin of Abfiza. According to the most authentic 
historians Adam was created in Paradise in the true Tiitar form, and having after 
his exile met Eva on mount A'arafât, they begat forty thousand children all in 
the form of Tatars. Adam having spoken Arabic in Paradise, forgot it when 
on earth, and began to speak Hebrew, Syrian, Dehkili (?) and Persian, which 
languages were spoken till the deluge, after which mankind divided into seventy-two 
nations and as many languages. The first who invented new languages was Edrîs 
(Enoch) who first wrote and bound books, and hid them in the pyramids, whence 
they were taken out after the deluge by the philosophers, who by this means mul- 
tiplied the languages to the number of one hundred and forty-seven. Ismail re- 
trieved the Arabic and Persian originally spoken in Paradise, and Esau brought 
forward the Turkish as the language of Tatars ; the people belonging to them are : — 
the Hind, Sind, Moghânî, Kurds, Mûltâns, Banians, and twelve nations of fire 
worshippers, with as many languages ; the Noghai, Heshdek, Lipka, Chagatai, 
Lezgi, Georgians, Mingrelians, Shûrshâd, Dadian, Ajikbash, Armenians, Greeks, 
Turcomans, Copts, and Israelites or Jews. The Franks divided into Spaniards, 
French, Genoese, Portuguese, Venetians, Tuscans, Servians, Bulgarians, Croats, 
Italians, &c. Four children of Menuchehr, the old Persian king, having fled 
towards Erla (Agra), and being asked who they were, answered, " we are four" 
(Men char is) which being corrupted remained the name of their descendants, 
Majâr. Of the Arabs forty tribes first settled in Egypt, such as the Mogrebi, 
Fess, Merakesh, Afenii, Maibornu, Jichel Khan, Aswan, Sudani, Fiinji, Kara- 
manki, Boghaski, Miinji, Berbers, Nubians, Zenji, Habeshi, Gulapshi, Alewi, 
Rompi, the Arabs of Yemen, Baghdad, Mekka, Medina, Badiah, and Omman. 
All the Arabic tribes amount to three thousand and sixty ; some say more. The 
principal, most noble and eloquent of them, is the tribe Koreish Hashemi of which 
the Prophet was born, for whose sake God created time and space, and who is 
entitled the Lord of Arabs and Persians. 

But to return after this digression to the origin of the Abaza ; it is related by 
authentic histories that in the year 25 of the Hejira, in the Califat of Omar, 
there was an Arab called Basha Melek who then ruled Yathreb, Batha, Aden and 
Saba, and had five sons ; the first was called Jebel-ul-himmet ; the second Arab ; 
the third Kisu who had three sons named Kais, Mevâlî, and Tai ; the fourth 
Lazki ; and the fifth Abâzî. After the father's death, the principality of the tribe 
devolved on the eldest son Jebel-ul-himmet, who, having by accident, knocked out 
the eye of an Arab was sentenced by Omar to lose one of his own. Jebel-ul- 
himmet on the same night took with him his four brethren, and sought refuge at 



54 THETRAVELSOF 

Antioclıia, with the Emperor Heraclius, who gave him the mountains of Syrian 
Tripolis. He there built the town of Jebelheh which still bears that name. 
Having undertaken some predatory excursions from thence towards Damascus 
and Medina, Khaled Ben Welid and Eswed Ben Mokddd overpowering him with 
their forces, obliged him to fly. He embarked and went to Albania, where he 
took up his residence in the mountains of Avlonia, the inhabitants of which are 
now called the Koreishite Albanians : their songs have Arabic tunes, and they 
derive their origin from Jebel-ul-himmet, who is buried near Ilbessdn. His 
descendants became apostates, and dwell in the mountains of Dukat (Ducato) 
between Avlonia and Delonia. They are of a tawny colour like the Arabs, and 
hairy. So far of Jebel-ul-himmet. His brother Arab, and his three nephews 
Kais, Taf, and Mevâlf were carried by Khaled Ben Welid prisoners to Hedjaz, 
where Kais and Tai became masters of the tribes that bear their names. Arab 
their uncle became master of Oraman, their father Kisu and his two brethren 
Lazkf and Abazi fled from Khaled Ben Welid, first came to Konia and then 
to Constantinople, where having heard, that Moavia the son of Ebi Sofiân was 
approaching Constantinople, he sought shelter at Trebisonde. Here the banks of 
the river Jürügh within the castle of Konia was assigned to the Lazkis (Lezgis) 
who are also of Arabic descent. To the brother Kisii was assigned the Circassian 
mountains, who, therefore, as well as the Lezgis boast of being Koreishites. 
Abazi got the country which actually bears his name, and thus the Circassians, 
Lezgis, Abaza, Albanians, the Arabic tribes of Tai, and Kais are all branches 
of the Koreish family. So God populated the earth, God does what he likes, 
and commands what he pleases ! The principal tribe in Abaza are the Chach, 
who speak Mingrelian, which is spoken on the opposite shore of the Phasus ; they 
are warlike men, in number about ten thousand, who follow more than one 
rehgion, and are an unruly set of people. Their mountains are very fruitful, 
particularly in nuts, hazel-nuts, and apricots ; they bear the same arms as the 
Arabs, arrows, bows and lances, have few horsemen, but valorous footmen. 
Their harbour Lakia lies two journies to the west, three hundred miles from 
Trebisonde, but, on account of the heavy southerly and easterly gales, no ship 
can pass the winter there. Further to the west on the seashore is the village 
Khafal the frontier of the tribe Arlan, consisting of ten thousand warlike men ; 
their harbour is called Lâchigha ; we remained here a night ; it is a pleasant 
harbour both in winter and summer. We travelled two journies further to the 
west to the frontier of the tribe Chanda, fifteen hundred valiant men, true Abazas, 
they are called the mountain Chandas, and their harbour Kakur. The village 
Khâke, near it, surrounded with gardens, faces the sea. Three journies beyond, by 



evliya efendi. 55 

the seashore, are the great Chandas, twenty-five villages, fifteeti thousand men ; 
their harbour is called Chandalar, but it gives no shelter in winter. Behind these 
mountains is the land of the Mamshiikh Circassians. From the Chandas we 
marched a day's journey towards the west, by the seacoast, and came to the 
tribe Kechilar ; their country is like a paradise ; it consists of seventy-five 
villages which furnish two thousand marksmen ; its waters are pleasant. The great 
river Passu flows from the Caucasus, and goes into the Black Sea ; it is a fresh 
stream, which aflx)rds no ferry in summer, but is a safe shelter for ships in winter. 
Both shores are laid out in gardens by the people of Kechilar, who may bring ten 
thousand men into the field, the greater part horsemen. They are a very rich 
and rapacious people. We remained guests in the village Hâka in the house of an 
Abaza, called Zeperaha, the janissaries our companions made an entertainment often 
sheep, on which we feasted, and then proceeded two journies westward to the tribe 
of A'rt, who are more numerous than the Kechilar, but they are neither so brave 
nor so rapacious, most of them are merchants trading in fur. They feed a great 
number of swine. They know neither religious book nor sect, but keep their word ; 
their number amounts to thirty thousand. Their Beg accompanied by from forty to 
fifty armed Abaza brought us twenty sheep and three roes, as a present to welcome 
us ; he wore a coat called Kilchakli-gebe-chekmani, carried a bow and arrows in 
his hand, and wore a sword ; he was a stout young fellow. All his servants wore 
long hair hke himself. The landing-place of this tribe is called A'rtlar ; we 
passed a night there as guests ; it is an open place, ships therefore cannot lie 
there in the winter. Another landing-place is called Liush, where ships lie for six 
months. 

To the north, in the midst of mountains, is Sadsha, the land belonging to 
Sidî Ahmed Pasha ; the inhabitants speak well the language of both the Abaza 
and the Circassians ; to the latter their country adjoins, they are seven thousand 
brave stout men. The Abaza and Circassians are continually on their guard, but 
keep up good intelligence by trading together to the landing-place at A'rt with 
slaves and wax. The Circassians (^Takaku) also come in ships, and trade in safety. 
We went three stations further to the west, along the sea-coast, through a woody 
tract, with high mountains, between which are many cultivated villages, to the 
tribe of Kamish, ten thousand brave men ; they defeated the tribe of A'rt many 
times, and took their Begs prisoners, because these Abazas steal each other's 
children, and a man who does not steal and plunder is thought to be bad 
company, so that they give him not their daughters in marriage. In these 
mountains of Kamish swine are fed to the size of asses ; the landing-place is not 
much frequented on account of the riotous character of the people. Among these 



56 THETRAVELSOF 

people of Kâmish the children of the Abaza are sent from Constantinople and 
Cairo ; they have a Mesjid, the air is pleasant, the villages all face the Kiblah and 
the south. The market is held at the landing-place. Three stations further to 
the west we came to the tribe of Svljalar, ten thousand brave men ; the ground 
being very rocky there are few houses. There is a landing place, but I do not 
know its name. We remained as guests one night in the village of Hâdeka. As 
there happened to be a wedding, they feasted us with a great many dishes, fine 
girls and boys waited on us, and the next day the Aghâ of Konia, our companion, 
gave to the master of the house a turban, which was valued as much as though it 
had been a crown, because having neither market, nor khân, nor bath, nor church, 
they know nothing of cultivated manners. Their villages of from forty to fifty 
houses are situated in the mountains. Ships of all countries bring powder, lead, 
muskets, arrows, bows, swords, shields, lances and other weapons, old shoes, 
borders of cloth, linen, bogassin, kettles, hooks, salt, soap and similar articles, and 
take in exchange, without using money, slaves, butter, wax and honey. From the 
Suchas we went further on two stations to the west, along the seashore, to the 
tribe of Dembe, who furnish two thousand armed men. We remained three days 
at their landing-place and exchanged our old cloth for slave girls and boys. I 
myself bought an Ab<Cza boy. The fourth day we marched two journies to the 
west to the tribe of Bozdiik, the Beg of which commands seven thousand men. 
We found at their landing-place ten ships from Constantinople and many of our 
friends, the meeting with whom was a great treat to us. Mengeli-geraf Khân 
led three thousand men of the Bozduk to the war of Astrachan, which being 
ended he gave them a Yiird (Camp) in the Circassian mountains of Obur where 
they remained. They are a brave people speaking the Abaza and Circassian 
language. The Bozdiik of Abaza and Circassia are separated by Mount Obur ; 
the distance between them is three stations. They mutually steal each others 
children and sell them. Two journies further along the seacoast is the old 
ruined castle of Osowish, where we passed a night as guests. The inhabitants 
make bows and arrows; the Beg has three thousand men in his service, who 
carry muskets ; the landing-place of the castle is called Girmen Sowish. Bears, 
swine, foxes, jackals, and woodcocks are found in great numbers in the moun- 
tains. These Abaza people have a strange mode of burying their Begs ; they 
put the body into a wooden coffin, \vhich they nail on to the branches of some 
high tree and make a hole in the coffin near the head, that the Beg, as they 
say, may look up to Heaven : bees enter the coffin and make honey, entirely 
wrapping the body up in it ; when the season comes they open the coffin, take 
the honey and sell it, much caution, therefore, is required to be used in pur- 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 57 

chasing the honey of the Abâzas. We here bought some more slave boys, and 
went two journies towards the west to the tribe of Ashagali, whose Begs can 
bring two thousand brave men into the field, but they are all thieves, and dreaded 
by the Ab^zas themselves. There is also a ruined castle here, the landing-place 
of which is called Ashagali, much frequented by the ships of KafFa and Taman, 
but they cannot remain here in the winter. One journey further to the west, is 
the village of A'atima belonging to the Ashaghlis ; there are amongst them many 
Mussulmans of the Abaza of Top-khanah. From hence Circassia is distant but a 
day's journey. Two journies further is the tribe of Sûksû, their Begs command 
three thousand armed men ; they have horses of high breeding. The landing- 
place is Hârdena. The river called Suk has no ferry, it issues from the mountains 
of Circassia and flows into the Black Sea ; there are some wealthy persons amongst 
them. Two journies further on is the tribe of Kûtassî, whose Begs command seven 
thousand armed men. They have magazines covered with mats. In the port a 
great number of ships from KafFa and Taman are found. We met some acquain- 
tances here from the Crimea, the horsemen of which country are in continual inter- 
course with Circassia. On account of the facility of communication the people are 
wealthy ; they also sow corn, the rest of the Abaza sow millet, which multiplies a 
hundred fold. The houses of the Kûtassî are covered with reed ; a cluster of ten 
houses is called a Kabak, the four sides are circumvallated like a castle, and their 
dogs watch like lions around it, they are obliged to do so, as all their dwellings are 
in the woods, and each village is afraid of the other. The Kûtassî are bounded 
by the Shana Circassians ; they are only separated by a mountain, which is a day's 
journey across ; they speak the Circassian language. Thus the country of the 
Abâzas extends from the Phasus along the seacoast forty days journey in length, 
and in breadth from five days journey down to one, as is the case in the distance 
between the Kûtassî Abaza and the Shana Circassians, These forty days journey 
are marked by forty large rivers, which issue from the mountains situated between 
the Abaza and Circassians, and run into the Black Sea. Altogether seventy high 
mountains, with two thousand villages, of which I know nothing, as I did not visit 
them. Within this country are some hundred thousand men, without law or 
religion, who, however, if you call them infidels will kill you, and if you call them 
Moslims are delighted, but if they become real IVIoslims, they are very good ones. 
They are a wild roving people descending from the Arabs, Koreishites, from 
Abaza, 

The tribes of Abaza in the mountains are the Posûkhî, seven thousand turbulent 
men ; Akhchissî, ten thousand men ; Besleb, seven thousand five hundred brave 
people ; Mukellebeh, thirty thousand men ; Waipigha, one thousand men ; Jagh- 

VOL, II, I 



58 THETRAVELSOF 

ras, eight hundred weak men ; Ala Koreish, five hundred men ; Chichakores, 
three tliousand men ; Macha, two thousand men ; and Panchâresh, four thousand 
men ; these ten turbulent tribes never mix with the Abazas of the coast. The 
bravest and best of them are the Sadasha. On the coast and in the mountains 
there are altogether twenty-five tribes. 

Specimen of the Ahdza Language. 
One, if; two, weba ; three, ikhha ; four, beslina ; five, khoba ; s\x,fiba ; seven, 
bezba ; eight, aha ; nine, sheba ; ten, zoba ; eleven, akzuba ; twelve, webazoba. 
Come, wai ; go, üchi ; seat, otûi ; get up, okil ; don't go, omchin ; boy, arish ; I 
go, sichdb ; wife, abharesh ; I don't go, sikijdn ; why, ûzû. 

Specimen of the Sadasha Abdza. 

One, weh ; two, toka ; three, sitte ; four, pali ; five, ashü ; six, korn ; seven, 
ipli; eight, ogha ; nine, ipfi ; ten, zû ; eleven, ivehzti ; twelve, tokazü. Bread, 
sakha ; meat, gha ; water, beri ; cheese, feh ; curd, chehwdh ; pear, kha ; raisin, 
mosû ; figs, lakhmak ; chesnuts, akshii ; salt, laka; seat, otuz; get up, odeto ; 
don't go, onike ; I go, sikü ; where do you go, sioken ; I am busy, I go, süwü 
shakagh sikü ; bring a girl, zinje doko ; I found no girl, but a boy, zinje dokalmet 
zeni okhad, Sec. 

There are many other languages and dialects besides, but I have quoted only some 
words which I acquired in the course of trading ; I have written them as I could, 
but there is a great difference between the speaking and writing, the pronunci- 
ation being extremely difficult, like the chirping of birds. A great deal of judgment 
and sagacity is required to converse with them, but a traveller who knows some- 
thing of the world, and of God, and desires to travel quietly, must have a sufficient 
idea of every language to understand whether good or evil is intended to him, 
whether they are going to offer him bread or a box of the ear ; the proverb says, 
" Men speak according to their intellect, and, therefore, it is very prudent to 
learn some languages for the use of the world ;" such a man easily makes his way 
through strange countries, and returns safely into port. 

We left the harbour of the Kûtassî, and at the end of two days journey along 
the seacoast, reached the castle of Anapa. It is said that Alexander the Great, 
when commanded by God to build the wall of Gog and Magog, arrived at this place, 
he was so much pleased with its air and situation, that he built here a pentagon 
castle of immense stones (Shedâdî, Cyclopean) ; the room of the divân was paved 
with rubies, emeralds, turquoises and cornelians, and for that reason was called the 
Castle Kevherpai Anapai. It afterwards fell into the hands of the Genoese, and 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 59 

when Timur laid waste the towns of Dadiân, Ileshdek, and other towns amounting 
altogether to the number of seven hundred, in his expedition against Tokhatmish 
the Lord of Crimea, he also wasted the suburbs of the castle of Anapa, but the 
castle itself was spared. In the reign of Sultân Bayazîd II., the great Vezir Gedek 
Ahmed Pâshâ, leading the expedition against KafFa, took this castle also from the 
Genoese, and put troops into it. It is situated at the extremity of the Cape which 
divides the territory of the Abdza from Circassia, on a clay cliff; it is a strong 
castle without a garrison, and has been several times ransacked by the Cossacks of 
the Tanais. Outside of the castle are one hundred and fifty houses built of reed; 
this village is called Kabak. North of the castle are the mountains of Anapa. The 
ships which go to Assov sail past these mountains, which extend as far as the 
Cossacks of Assov. The castle of Anapa is well built, and in such good preserva- 
tion, that it appears as if it had just come out of the hands of the builder. Sheep 
and goats are kept inside during the winter. According to the description of 
Demir-oghli Osman Pâshâ, Anapa is the seat of a Voivode of the sanjak of Tamân 
in the province of CafFa. The people of Shefâkî, which is the name of the 
inhabitants, only pay their tithes at the point of the halberd, and are three 
hundred rebellious subjects. This castle has a large port where a thousand ships 
tied together with one rope may ride in safety. It is a large harbour, sheltered 
against the wind from all quarters. There is no port like it in the Black Sea ; a 
kind of pearl was formerly fished for here ; the shells still lie on the shore ; 
another reason why the castle is called Kevhergân (jewel-mine). The Russians 
anchor here every year, without the least apprehension, and fish for pearls. If 
this castle was put into good condition, with a sufficient garrison and ammunition, 
it would be easy to keep all Abaza and Circassia in complete obedience. The 
Noghais also bring merchandise to this port in complete security. 

While I, poor Evliya, was remaining at Anapa with the Yenicheri-agassi of 
Konia, the Imperial fleet made its appearance in the Black Sea, and came to 
anchor at noon in the port of Anapa. They stayed three days, during which 
time all the small craft which had been left behind arrived, and took in water. 
I and the Aghâ of Konia waited on the Kaima-kâm of the Aghâ of the Janissaries 
with some presents. I then waited on the Lord High Admiral Deli Hossein 
Pâshâ, who assigned me a tent and rations, made me his Miiezzin and gave me 
a passage on board the galley of his Kiaya Well. On the following day the 12th 
Sha'bân, 1053, the Imperial flag was hoisted, and at noon, the gun for departure 
being fired, we left Anapa and made sail for Assov. 

Sultân Murad IV. had planned a great expedition against the Maltese, who 
alone remained to be subdued after the conquest of Baghdad, when he was 



QQ THETRAVELSOF 

removed by death ; amongst the fleet fitted out for the purpose there were two 
immense large ships, called Kara Maona, of three hundred guns. After his death 
the Infidels everywhere raised their heads against the Ottoman Empire, and 
the Khan of the Crimea reported to Kara Mustafa Pâshâ, the great Vezir of 
Sultân Ibrahîm, that the Russians had overran and plundered the districts of 
Crimea and Assov. At last one hundred thousand Cossacks took the fortress 
of Assov after a siege of forty days. Eighty thousand Cossacks remained in 
possession of it, and one hundred and fifty boats, maimed by the rest, infested all 
the shores of the Black sea. This news having spread to Constantinople, Imperial 
rescripts were sent throughout the whole of Rumeli. Kojâ Gurjî Canaan Pâshâ, 
the governor of Ozakov, and the Governor of Rumeli with twenty-eight sanjak 
Begs, forty thousand Tatars of Biijak, and forty thousand infidels of Moldavia 
and Valachia, and twenty thousand Transylvanians, surrounded the fortress of 
Assov on the land side. On the seaside came the Imperial fleet of one hundred 
and fifty galleys, as many frigates, two hundred shaikas and karamursal, alto- 
gether four hundred ships having forty thousand men on board, which had 
weighed anchor in the port of Anapa, passed the mouth of the river Kuban, and 
the castle of Tamân ; on our left hand was the Crimea with the point of Kilissejik, 
and opposite on the right, the point Chucka on the peninsula of Taman, These 
two points are but a mile distant, and the inside of this strait is called the sea 
of Assov. We entered it with a favourable wind, and came to an anchor in the 
port of Balisira. Here all the ammunition and provisions were embarked in 
small boats, called sandal, sacoleva, sarbuna, and tiuibaza, and carried thirty 
miles further on to the castle of Assov, because galleys and chaiks drawing five 
feet water cannot be used here, as the water is but from two to three feet in depth. 
Balisira is on the western extremity of the steppes (Heihat Sahrassî) a lonely 
place; but the army and fleet having arrived, many thousand houses for men 
and wares were built, and it had the air of a large town, being the harbour of 
Assov. There arrived here from Circassia, which belongs to the Governorship 
of Caffa, of the tribes of Shagak, Shana, Meshükh, Takafer, Bozûdûk, Pultakaî, 
Khatukaî, Kabartai, and of the troops of Shâm-khâl Sultân the Lord of Taghistan 
forty thousand men, excellent troops, with seven thousand waggons, which served 
to transport a part of the munitions and provisions to Assov. The troops 
entered the trenches on the 21st of Sha'aban, and the 25th of the same month 
arrived from Anatoli seven Vezirs, eighteen Begler-Begs, seventy Sanjaks, .and two 
hundred Ala'i Begs with all the Zaims and Timariots, who vvith their men (Jebelli) 
were forty-seven thousand men. The Tatar Khân was ordered to keep the 
look-out, and he surrounded the camp with his army of Noghai, Kechin-noghai, 



evliya efendi. 61 

Shedâk-noghaî, Urûmpit-noghaî, Shirînlî, Manssurlî, Sebhunlî, Mankitlî, Nakshi- 
vânli, Chekcshke, Irbâtlî, U'li, Olânlı, Badrâkli, Arslân Beg Ilı, Chobân Ilı, Devi 
Ilı, Nevruz Ilı, ali Tatars. 

On the same night the Infidels in the fortress, made an immense noise by shouts 
and fireworks, which was caused by the arrival of ten thousand Cossacks, who 
came by the Tanais to the assistance of the castle, and did not cease firing all 
night, so that seven hundred men were killed. The next day the Tatar Khân 
and the Pasha of Silistra placed watches on the shore of the Tanais to prevent 
further reinforcement of the Infidels, foraging parties were sent out, the trenches 
opened in seven places, and on the side of the monument of Yogûrdî-Baba pushed 
to the edge of the ditch. The camp of the Moslims was out of reach of the 
cannon-shot from the castle. Next day Hossein Pasha prepared twelve large 
cannon for the attack in the trench of Yogurdi-Baba ; and at the same time 
the Admiral Seyawush Pasha landed troops from a hundred boats, who entered 
the trenches from the side of the water tower. These boats (firkata), guarded 
the side of U'luton, Deriton, Kanlijah, Uzegi and the island of Timur. Above 
the water tower the troops of Anatoli with eight large guns, and ten regiments of 
janissaries entered the trenches ; at those on the south was posted the troops 
of Karamanla with six regiments ; on the western suburb of Tayâk, the governor 
of Silistra Canan Pâshâ led ten regiments of janissaries, one of armourers, and 
one of artillerymen, with ten large guns in the trenches. In short the castle was 
battered on seven sides by seventy large and small cannon, and the Infidels firing 
on their side, a terrible contest ensued during seven hours till daybreak, with an 
incredible noise and roaring. In the morning seven hundred martyrs were found, 
whose goods were consigned to the revenue. The fire was renewed, and the 
houses of the town dashed to pieces, but the walls having been strongly built by 
the Genoese, continued to resist. This lasted seven days, during which the 
Commander-in-chief continually made the round of the trenches, encouraging the 
Moslim warriors with words and presents, and carrying every thing on with 
dehberation. Several breaches being opened some volunteei's ascended one of 
them, without order, and planted the Ottoman banner on the wall, which being 
seen by the Cossacks, they rushed on in superior numbers, and crushed many 
of them by throwing down a leaden basket. The rest, however, defended their 
post so well on the walls, that in the end the Ottoman banner was planted on 
seven places, and the Mohammedan prayer proclaimed. The Infidels getting new 
strength and rushing on like a herd of swine, with the cry " Ne bose," drove back 
the Moslim victors, so that many standards and bodies remained on the breaches, 
and the victors solaced themselves with the idea that the conquest was predestined 



62 THETRAVELSOF 

for another day. For ten days more the Infidels were kept in continual anxiety. 
Four thousand Cossacks who came to the assistance of the fortress in forty boats 
(firkata) were attacked by Canan Pdshâ, who brought his guns to bear upon 
them so completely, that more than a thousand men perished, and the Moslîms 
made an immense booty, which was some comfort for the hardships they had to 
struggle with. They rejoiced in the idea that the general assault was near, 
because of all the towers of the town there now remained but one, all the rest 
having been levelled with the dust by the seventy pieces of artillery. But the 
Infidels now intrenched themselves underground like so many Ferhads, and again 
fortified themselves in such a manner, that whenever an attempt was made to 
overwhelm them by a mine, they averted it, and threw the earth dug up for an in- 
trenchment into the river. They were most able miners also, and continued to 
make mines even underneath the river, with resined boats. Thus they stopped the 
Ottoman army for the space of forty days, during which, notwithstanding great 
vio'ilance, many thousand Infidel Cossacks found means to enter the Castle by throw- 
ing themselves naked into the Tanais, and swimming across under water with a 
reed in their mouths ; their arms and ammunition were put into leathern jacks, which 
they threw behind them while swimming, and thus relieved the fortress. To 
prevent this the Moslims shut the Tanais with a wall of stakes impenetrable 
even to fish, and by this means got great riches from the Infidels, who now 
having lost all hope of succour continued the war underground, killing a great 
number of the besiegers. A rumour began to spread that the Czar of Russia was 
coming with twenty thousand men, and this rumour, though it was only an 
invention of the enemy, caused a great deal of disturbance. A great council of 
war of all the commanders and officers was assembled to take into consideration, 
that though there was now no walls left, yet it had hitherto been found impossible 
to take the Castle ; that a sedition of the janissaries, who are not obliged to 
continue above forty days in the trenches, was to be feared ; that the winter was 
drawing near, when the Sea of Assov freezes, when all communication would be 
intercepted, and no safety for the fleet after the day of Kassim (S. Demetrius) ; 
that there would be no shelter nor provisions for the army, the country of the 
Infidels being on the north, and the salt steppes of Heihat on the east and south. 
After a long consultation, in which all these topics were touched upon. Canan 
Pasha and Piale Aghâ, the Kiaya of the Arsenal, proposed to fix the general assault 
for the next morning. The Fâtıhah being read on this resolution, great joy was 
spread in the Ottoman camp ; seven thousand swords, two thousand shields, two 
thousand muskets, five thousand bows, forty thousand arrows, six thousand 
halberds, five thousand granades, and many thousand other articles of arms were 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 63 

distributed amongst the army, the cannons fired from seven sides and the shout 
of Allah raised so that it filled the steppes of Kipchak. Tlie Moslims rushed into 
the castle and penetrated into the inmost recess of it, where they hoisted the 
banner and proclaimed the prayer of Islam. 

The guns were now silenced, and the swords alone were clashing. During 
seven hours and a half the Mussulmans were raging in the castle like wolves 
amongst sheep, and stained with blood like butchers. It was a complete vic- 
tory to which none can be compared excepting those of Kossova and Mohacs. 
The rest of the Infidels hidden beneath the ground, now set fire to the mines, 
and sent by that means great numbers of the Moslim besiegers to Heaven ; others 
shot them from the loopholes so that they were in great distress. It being now 
near sunset, and the victors being exhausted by fatigue and hunger, were called 
on to retire by the Chaiishes, who admonished them to leave the end to the 
next day. They carried an immense deal of booty with them, arms of all kinds 
and three thousand heads of Infidels, besides one thousand and sixty prisoners. 
A general salute was fired, and the martyrs buried, after the funeral prayer was 
said over them. The wounded and maimed received pensions, and were given 
into the hands of the surgeons. Those who brought heads received a reward 
of a hundred piastres, and those who had made prisoners were allowed to keep 
them. Chelenks, ziamets, timars, and all kind of military rewards were dis- 
tributed, and the property of seven hundred janissaries who were killed was 
made over to the revenue. Of the troops on the seven sides of the attack one 
thousand two hundred men became martyrs and ascended to Heaven. On this 
night the Infidels made incredible efforts to repair the works of the castle, by 
raising walls and digging ditches, opening loopholes and pointing guns. The 
foundations of the castle resembled the wall of Gog and Magog, to the great 
consternation of the Moslims, who solaced themselves, saying : " Man proposes 
and God disposes," recommending their business to God. They continued the 
war, but not with the same unanimity, though not with less zeal than before. A 
great council of war was held, under the consideration that there now remained 
only forty days to Kâssim (S. Demetrius). The result of the council was, that 
Gerai-Khan, with seventy thousand regular troops, and eight hundred thousand 
horse, was ordered to ravage the provinces of Russia. So they did, and this 
Tatar army returned on the 14th day to the Ottoman camp at Assov, with forty- 
five thousand prisoners and two hundred thousand horses as booty, besides a 
great number of valuable things, pelisses, rich cloth, &c. By this arrival, the 
hearts of the Moslims were coiTiforted, and those of the Infidels afiiicted, when 
they saw the triumphal procession with the prisoners fettered, and the crosses 



64 THETRAVELSOF 

upset. Since the time of Jenguiz Khan the Tatars had not made a richer booty. 
This sight raised a howl among the Infidels in the castle, who pierced the skies 
with their lamentations. The same night seventy Infidels, hungry and sad, left 
the castle, and were brought into the presence of the Commander-in-Chief, 
Hossein Pasha. Some of them embraced the Islam, and received presents, then 
were sent altogether to tlie castle of Khoros Kermân near Assov. 

By this immense booty every thing became immensely cheap in the Ottoman 
camp, so that a horse was sold for one piastre, a girl for five, and a boy for six 
piastres. The safe return of the Tatar army was celebrated by a triple salute 
of muskets and guns, and the whole camp illuminated during the night. But 
winter drawing near, a new council was held, all the seniors of the regular troops 
and of the Tatars agreed, and signed unanimously a petition of three hundred 
signatures of Vezirs, and officers of all ranks, saying : " that for this year it was 
impossible to take the castle, that one of the Russian Capitals had been laid 
waste, that seventy thousand Infidels had been taken prisoners, and more than 
one hundred thousand destroyed by the sword." At the same time two of the 
prisoners, who had been instructed accordingly, were sent back into the castle to 
say ; " that if the Turks had intended to take the castle, they might have taken it 
in a month, but their object was to pillage the Russian countries, and to return 
with a rich booty, which they had now accomplished." The same night as the 
messengers went off to Constantinople there was such a hard frost that all the 
Moslim warriors thought they could not stand it, and by this specimen found out 
that the salt steppe of Heihat was as unmerciful as the Black Sea. At last the despair 
of conquering the castle becoming general, the whole army at once resolved to 
raise the siege. The trumpets were sounded, the artillery and ammunition 
embarked and carried to Balisira, where the fleet was lying at anchor. The 
army returned by different ways, some by sea and some by land, to Constan- 
tinople ; some by the desert of Kipchdk in six days and nights to the river Kûbân, 
to Circassia, Tainan and Crimea ; some through the steppes (Heihat), returned by 
the north into their native country Circassia. When the Imperial fleet weighed 
for Constantinople I got permission, from the Commander-in-Chief Hossein Pâshâ, 
to accompany the Khan of Crimea into his country, and the Imperial fleet sailed, 
trusting in God, through the sea of Assov. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 65 



JOURNEY TO THE CRIMEA. 

I left Assov in company with the army of Gera'i Khân of eighty thousand men, 
and twenty thousand Infidels of Moldavia and Valachia, and crossed the Tanais with 
them, which disembogues at the end of the sea of Assov. The water being 
shallow in the great Don, it was passed by eight hundred thousand horsemen 
without the least difficulty, the water reaching only to the stirrups. The Tatars 
tied their jacks and luggage to the tails of their horses, and in the space of twenty- 
one hours, the whole army reached the opposite steppes of Heihat. 

At the station of Bûrebaî, opposite to the western side of Assov, a branch 
of the Don flows in its way to the sea of Assov, where it disembogues in three 
different channels ; as it runs through reeds for a great distance, it is not very 
sweet : the complexion of the inhabitants on its shores is yellow, and they have a 
kind of excrescence or crop on the neck. The whole army halted here, as on a 
pleasant flowery meadow, and three hundred horses were slaughtered and eaten 
up that evening. It was here that I ate horseflesh for the first time. Though I 
belonged to the Tatar Khân, yet I lived with Kia Beg of the tribe of Mâssûrlî, 
who have their Yürds (encampments) in Crimea ; the district of Mankis Eli on the 
side of Gozlava is their Yiird. Their horses are extremely fat, and their flesh can 
hardly be distinguished from roes' flesh, and is easy to digest. Next morning the 
kettle-drums beat, and after a march of nine hours we arrived at the river Sud, 
which the whole army crossed, and halted on the other side, but the ground being 
extremely marshy, one hundred horses and fifty slaves were lost in the marshes. 
This river issues from the western mountains of Russia and here enters the sea of 
Assov. The name Sud or milk-river is derived from its whitish colour, which it 
contracts from the different metallic strata over which it passes in its course. It is 
not good for drinking, and causes crops or swellings on the necks of those who 
drink of it. There are seventy cultivated towns and villages on both sides of this 
river, but they are not very flourishing on account of the depredations of the 
Crimea Tatars. These places all belong to the Russians. 

We left this place and came to the river Mus, a large river which we passed over 
with the greatest difficulty at this cold season, the arms being all put in leather 
jacks. It is fresh water like that of the Don, Dnieper, and Danube, and contains 
excellent fish. It comes from the northern mountains of Russia. We crossed it, 
and next day when the Kettle-drums were beaten for departui'e, the snow had 
fallen three cubits deep. We slept that night on the snow of the field of Kipchdk, 

VOL. II. K 



66 THETRAVELSOF 

and arrived next day at the station of Bûrûmbai ; here we slept again on the 
snow, and on the following day after sixteen hours ride, reached the frontier of 
Crimea. 

The moment we entered the castle of Ordghzi, Kara Rejib Aghd, the Courier of 
the great Vezîr Kara Mustafa Pushd, with twenty horsemen arrived from Constan- 
tinople, and after having heard the sad story of the impossibility to take Assov, 
took letters from the Khan, and returned to Constantinople. I poor EvHya entered 
the town of Bagcheserai with the Khân, and was assigned a house there on the 
borders of the valley ofChûrûksü (rotten water) where I quietly passed the winter 
without travelling one step. But the Khân to prevent the Infidels sending 
reinforcements to the castle of Assov, made three excursions with between forty 
and fifty thousand horsemen even up to the guns of Assov, bringing back prisoners. 
His Vezir (the Kalgha Sultân) made also three expeditions into the interior of Russia, 
and returned with ten thousand slaves and a great deal of booty to Crimea. In 
the beginning of spring came Hassan Aghâ the Chamberlain of the Sublime Porte 
bringing to the Khân twelve thousand ducats as boot-money, and an Imperial 
diploma commanding him to be ready to take the field, with the commencement of 
the fine season, against Assov. The Khân received the orders with all signs of 
submission and duty, the horses were put to feed in the meadows for forty days, 
after which the army broke up again to return to Assov, the garrison of which, 
weighing all the hardships of siege, their losses, and the impossibility of holding 
the fortress finally against the Ottoman power, abandoned it and fled with their 
arms and effects to different other Castles. 

The Tatar Khân having arrived on the border of the river Sud, heard of the 
flight of the garrison from some prisoners he had taken, and made the greatest 
possible haste to reach the fortress. He found it empty, not only of men, but 
also of animals, neither dog, cat nor mouse being seen ; only one Genoese tower 
remained standing. The Tatar Khân then sent the welcome news to Constantinople, 
On the eleventh day some Russian spies coming from Constantinople were taken 
and brought before the Tatar Khân. They confessed freely and openly, that 
there were forty spies at the Port, who, having been aware of the immense 
preparations of the Ottoman Army, had given notice to the garrison to leave the 
Castle, and that arriving there themselves, they had fallen into the hands of the 
Tatars. These three spies were beheaded. On the 13th day of this month the 
Ottoman army arrived with great pomp, commanded by Chowan Kapüjî-bâshî 
Vezir Mohammed Pâshâ, and found the fortress empty. They ascribed it at first 
to some infernal stratagem of the Infidels, and waited three days, on the fourth 
day Moslim prayer was proclaimed, and all the Moldavians and Valachians were 



EVLIYAEFENDI. Ö7 

commanded to work on the foundations and to build them anew. They dug 
three days till they came to springs of water ; the ships were all busy carrying 
stones from an old Convent in the island of Timiirlenk, and the work of buildine 
was begun. In one month two towers were finished, stronger than the former 
Genoese towers, and the histories of Crimea record the date of its building and 
name of the builder. It was declared the seat of a Sanjak Beg belonging to the 
government of KafFa, a Begler-Beg was left as commander with twenty regiments 
of Janissaries, six regiments of artillerymen, ten regiments of armourers, seven 
thousand Tatars, seven Sanjak Begs, and twelve Alai Begs, with twenty-six 
thousand men ; seventy large guns on the bulwarks, and three hundred small ones 
on the border of the ditch. The complete repair and fitting out cost the sum of 
five thousand purses. During its building the Tatars made seven inroads into 
Russia, and returned with from fifteen to twenty thousand prisoners to the Ottoman 
camp, so that the prisonei's were sold for no more than ten piastres each. At 
last the King of the Muscovites imploring pardon and crying out. Âmân ! Aman ! 
(pardon O Family of Osman !) sent ambassadors to Constantinople. The building 
being nearly finished, the Commander-in-Chief Mahommed Pasha returned to 
Constantinople, and the rest of the army got permission to return to their homes. 
I again followed the tribe of Mâssûrlî, and came with them to Crimea. We took 
our pleasure for twenty days in Bagcheserai, then got permission from the Khân 
to return to Constantinople, with a present of a purse of piastres, three slaves, a 
sable pelisse, and a caftan. The Kalgha Sultân and Nûr-ud-dîn Sultân (the two 
first dignities of the Tatar court) and fourteen Aghâs, gave me a slave each, 
so that I had a number of slaves and four purses of money ; to these slaves I added 
the eighteen which I had acquired on my travels from Trebisonde to Mingrelia and 
Abaza, took leave of the Khân and all the great men, and mounted on the horses 
of the Kalgha-Sultân, began my journey in company with some friends, who 
remained with me till we arrived at Kâchidere. There we parted, all my friends 
returned to Bagcheserai, and I continued my way to the south for the space of 
six hours to Baliklava. 

Description of the Castle of Baliklava. 

Prevented by warlike expeditions from visiting with leisure the curiosities of 
Crimea, I dare not give a description of it ; such is also the case with the castle 
of Baliklava. Having embarked here with three hundred persons on board of the 
Shaika of U'cheli Sefer Reis, I slept on board, troubled by heavy dreams ; on the 
next day I went on shore, to do away the evil of the night by some alms, and 
next day got clear of the port in an evil hour, succeeded, as the text of the Koran 



68 THETRAVELSOF 

says, by worse days. One day and one night we went straight before the wind, 
and were then about the middle of the Black Sea. The mountains of Bâliklava 
and Suluyâr had disappeared, neither were those of Sinope and Amassra to be 
seen, and we were tossed about without well knowing where we were going to. 
All at once an easterly gale sprung up with thundering clouds, at the appearance 
of which the boatmen changed colour, and began to wring their hands ; they 
looked at the compass, and then on each other, and already made up their minds 
to lose their souls. An old sailor said to them ; " Lads (Dais !) don't you see 
the forerunners of a tempest, what are you afraid of? Lower the topmast with 
the sail." This they did, but the ship going too heavy, they threw the bags, 
mats, casks and trunks that were on deck into the sea ; they stowed two hundred 
young prisoners below (Enbar) and closed the hatches. Thus the ship was 
lightened, but still terribly tossed by the effect of the currents. Verse : — 

" If in the storm my bark drives on the strand. 
What shall I do ? none can the winds command." 

On the fourth of Safer of the year 1055, the storm began to buffet us most un- 
mercifully, nothing but thunder and lightning, hail and torrents of rain pouring 
down on us for three days and nights. The sailors exhausted by fatigue all 
crept into one corner of the ship. Of the passengers, some were vomiting, some 
praying, some vowing victims and sacrifices, some alms and pilgrimages. I, poor 
Evliya, said : " Come, Servants of God, come and pray with me the Sura Ikhlâss 
(deliverance) which God may be pleased to grant to us." All having began to 
recite this Sura fervently, the weather cleared up, the storm ceased, but the 
tossing of the ship continued in a most dreadful manner; the ship now touched 
the highest heavens, and now descended into the deepest of hells. The waves of 
the Black Sea towered before us like the perpendicular walls of Mount Bisûtün. 
At last we opened the magazine (Enbâr) and threw all the heavy merchandize 
into the sea, but again to no purpose. We saw that the rudder was going to 
break, and to prevent this all tlie sailors united and began to cut with hatchets, 
first the stays, then the mast, which in falling into the sea killed eleven men. 
Until their bodies were thrown overboard, there was such a howhng in the ship, 
that every body despaired of life, and felt that he must give up his soul. At this 
moment there again came a puflP of wind (Sighinak) which threatening to tear 
the ship asunder drove all the prisoners and slaves crying and lamenting out 
of the magazine ; some held together, clasping one another, some stripped naked, 
and all endeavouring to lay hold of a plank or a cask. I, poor Evlîyâ, feeling 
myself in a state of agitation continued to pray the Sura-Yass, and recommended 



evliya efendi. 69 

all my things to God by saying the verse : " I recommend my business to 
God," and that : " Who fears God shall find a place to walk out, and shall find 
his lot provided, from whence he did not expect it ; and who trusts in God shall 
not be abandoned by him." While repeating these prayers I saw that some Infidels 
(prisoners) got hold of the launch, and let it down by ropes, at the same time some 
other sailors were throwing themselves on the other side, with planks, into the 
sea. I, and seven of my companions watching the moment of the launch going 
down threw ourselves into it ; the Infidels instantly cut the ropes, and two of 
them, attacked with a knife Ramazân Chelebî of Aintab. My seven companions 
immediately drew their swords against the eight Infidels who had raised their 
hands against us, and killed four of them ; the four others throwing themselves 
into the sea from fright, we remained masters of the launch. We threw all 
heavy luggage overboard, and the launch being now light and tossed by the 
waves, I saw how the great ship was cleft asunder from stem to stern, and three 
hundred and fifty passengers, merchants, and four hundred slaves were spread 
over the sea, some going to the bottom, some trying to be saved by swimming, 
some on planks, and some trying to reach our boat, of whom we took in the story- 
teller Emir Chelebî. When we laid hold of him, others came up swimming, and 
we were soon convinced, that if we took them in we should all go to the bottom 
together, we, therefore, sword in hand, kept off all those who offered to lay hold 
of the launch. The wreck of the ship had now disappeared with all the men, and 
while we continued tossing up and down, our turbans heavy with the water, we 
perceived the Judge of Menkub, Alî Efendî, swimming like an angel of the 
Ocean. By the hand of Divine power he was brought near our boat, and we 
took him in, so that there were now ten of us in it. We continued to pray 
the Sura-Yass, and drove on, baling out the water, and all despairing of life. 
Thus we drove a day and night, all shivering with cold, naked and starved, crying 
and lamenting. The story-teller and the judge were attacked by a fit of apo- 
plexy, we threw their corpses into the sea, and were reduced as before to eight 
persons ; but we had the misfortune to have a large piece of timber twenty cubits 
length and one yard in breadth, which drove along with the boat, touching it from 
time to time without our being able to prevent it. 

On the third day at noon a wave came which upset the boat, and I fell head- 
foremost into the sea; being a good swimmer I worked with all my strength, 
recommended myself to the Lord, to the intercession of the Koran, and all the 
Saints, all the great and pious men I had hitherto known on my travels, and by 
this kind of effort, keeping my head clear, I swam undaunted. I saw that the large 
piece of timber, which had before swam alongside our boat, was passing near to 



70 



THE TRAVELS OF 



me, and instantly laid hold of it, encircling it like a serpent. Driving in this 
way, shivering and starved, all at once I heard a noise behind me, and looking 
round I saw two Georgian boys, two Circassian girls and a Russian slave, who 
had all laid hold of the long piece of timber on which I was driving. I was much 
afraid that their weight would sink the timber, and was just thinking how to get 
rid of my companions in misfortune, when an empty cask driving by, the Russian 
slave wished to get hold of it, and threw himself into the sea for that purpose, but 
not being able to reach it he was drowned, and only the four slaves remained. 
The storm was now completely clearing-up, the sea going down, and the next 
day land coming in sight, we were thrown on the shore exhausted and half-dead. 
I threw myself on the ground, to praise God and to thank his infinite mercy, who 
having taken away from me eighteen slaves acquired in my travels in Mingrelia 
and Abaza, again made me a present of four slaves, two fine boys and two pretty 
girls. Being thrown into an inlet of the rocks, some good people gave us dresses 
to cover our nakedness, and hoisted us up the rocks which appeared to pierce 
the skies. Having asked where I was, I was told that these were the mountains 
of Kilghra in the sanjak of Silistra. Thus I had been driven three days in the 
boat from the moment the ship went down, and after the boat was upset, twenty- 
four hours on the timber, till I was thrown on the shore at Kilghra, with the 
Dervishes of which place I immediately began a devotional conversation, and 
occupied the cells, which they assigned to me and my slaves. 

Description of the Convent of Kilghra Sultdn. 

This building is ascribed to Sari Saltik Sultân, who having been ordained a 
Dervish in the town of Yassu by Ahmed Yassın, came with Hâjî Begtâsh and 
three hundred poor people to Sultân Orkhân, and was sent after the conquest of 
Brussa into Russia and Poland, Bohemia and Dobruja. Haji Begtâsh gave him a 
wooden sword, a carpet, a banner, a drum, kettle-drum and trumpet. Kilghra 
Sultân with seventy disciples spread the hide (on which they sat) upon the sea, 
and went, praying, drums beating and banners flying, from Rumeli to Crimea, and 
from thence to the people of Heshdek in Moscovy and Lipka in Poland. At 
Danzig he conversed with Svîty Nicola the patriarch, whose name is the same as 
Sarı Sâltik whom he killed, adopted his habit, and by this means converted many 
thousands to Islam. Thus he travelled many years under the name of Sâri Sâltik, 
and being himself yellow-coloured (as Sâri Sâltik was) he obtained from Ahmed 
Yassiii the name of the yellow Beg. But his proper name is Mohammed 
Bokhara, and he settled afterwards at Paravadi. The King of Dobruja requested 
a miracle from Sâri Sâltik in confirmation of his mission. There was then in 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 7I 

Dobrüja a terrible dragon, to which even the two daughters of the King were 
allotted as food. Sciri Sciltik agreed to deliver the two girls, on condition 
that they with their father would embrace Islam. He went to the column to 
which they were tied as victims for the dragon, accompanied by his seventy 
Dervishes, who were beating drums and swinging the banner ; untied the Princesses, 
and then waited with his wooden sword, expecting the dragon himself, mean- 
while the seventy Dervishes beat the drum. The dragon coming near, Sâri 
Sâltik addressed it with the verse of the Koran beginning; — " Greeting on Noe 
in both worlds," and then cut off three of his heads, so that the dragon fled with 
the remaining four. Sari Sâltik followed him up to his cave, at the entrance 
of which he cut off the remainder with his wooden sword, and followed the 
dragon into his den. The beheaded dragon began to struggle with the Saint and 
to press him against the rock, which gave way so wonderfully as to receive the 
Saint's body, which place with the marks of his hands and feet are still actually 
shewn. The dragon having exhausted his strength fell to the ground dead, and 
the Saint, with his bloody breast and bloody wooden sword, now led the two girls 
to their fixther the king. Previous to their arrival a cursed monk, who had shewn 
to Sâltik Sultan the road to the column, and picked up there the tongues and 
ears of the three heads cut off, had laid them before the king, boasting that he 
had killed the dragon. Now, though the daughters asserted the contrary, yet the 
monk persisting in his boast, the Saint proposed as a proof, to be boiled with the 
monk in a cauldron, and though the monk did not like this kind of trial, yet by 
order of the king he was obliged to undergo it. Sârî Sâltik was tied up by his 
Dervishes, and the monk by his companions, and both put into a cauldron heated by 
an immense fire. It was at this hour that Hâjî Begtash, who was then at 
Kirshehri in Anatolia swept with a handkerchief a dripping rock, saying : " My 
Sâltik Mahomed is now in great anxiety, God assist him !" Ever since that day 
salt-water has dropped from that rock, and from thence the salt called Hâjî 
Begtash is produced. The place where this cauldron was heated is shewn at the 
present day, and the mountain is called the mountain of the cauldron Kazan 
Balkanı'. The cauldron being opened Sâri Sâltik was found sweating and 
saying : " Ya Hayî, O all vivifying ;" and of the monk nothing remained but 
black coals and burnt bones. The King of Dobruja moved by this miracle, 
instantly embraced Islam, with seven thousand of his subjects ; he sent ambas- 
sadors to Sultân Orkhân, and received from him in exchange, the appointment 
of a Judge, a tail and a banner. His name was Ah Mokhtâr, In the same 
year Sâri Sâltik made his will, wherein he commanded seven coffins to be made, 
because seven kings were to contend for his body after his death. This hap- 



72 THETRAVELSOF 

pened indeed as he foretold, because being washed after death and put into the 
coffin, seven kings claimed to have the true body, which was found in every 
one of the seven coffins when opened. The seven kings who desired to be pos- 
sessed of the true body were the King of Muscovia, where Sari Sâltik is held in 
great veneration under the name of Svîty Nicola ; the King of Poland, where his 
tomb is much frequented at Danzig ; the King of Bohemia, where his coffin is 
shewn in the town of Pezzunijah (?) and in Sweden at Bivanjah (?) The fifth 
King was of Adrianople, where his tomb is in the Convent of the town of Ba- 
tûria which is now a large place called Baba-eskissi, and is visited by those, 
who travel from Constantinople to Adrianople. The sixth King was that of 
Moldavia, who buried it in a shady place near the Castle of Bozâk, where Bâyazîd 
II. after the conquest of Akkermân, built a mosque, an imaret, a college, a bath, 
a khan and a monument for Sâri Sâltikdedeh ; this town is called Babatâghî ; a 
pleasant town all belonging to the endowments of Sâri Sâltik. The seventh coffin 
was taken possession of by Alî Mokhtâr the converted King of Dobrûja, who 
buried it at Kilghra in the cave of the Dragon, and hence he is called Kilghra 
Sultan ; Kilghra signifies in Latin a seven-headed dragon, it is the purest Latin. 
Of these seven burial-places of this Saint, three are in the Ottoman Empire, from 
which he is called Baba Sultân at Babatâgh ; Sâri Sâltik Sultân at Baba-Eskissî ; 
and here, Kilghra Sultân ; in Christian countries he is generally called St. Nicolas, 
is much revered and the Christian monks ask alms under his auspices. 

The Convent is situated on a cape which extends into the Black Sea like the 
proboscis of an Elephant. The ships that sail from Constantinople to Kara 
Khirmen, Kostenji, and Kill pass along these rocks of Kilghra directly opposite to 
those of Sinope, and if the weather is clear, are mutually seen from both shores. 
The cave in which Sâri Sâltik killed the dragon is at the same time his burial place. 
The convent was built by Alı Mokhtar ; the wooden sword of the Saint, his swing, 
half-drum, kettle-drum, drum, banner and sanjak are kept here, numerous cells 
surround it, occupied by learned and virtuous Dervishes, who reside here on their 
hides, all true Sunnis and faithful believers, more than one hundred. They read 
with me more than eight months according to the method of Hafss. The windows 
of the Convent, and of the monument, all look towards the sea. The mag- 
nificent kitchen like that of Keikavus is worth seeing ; day and night the fire is 
kept up on the stove for passengers and strangers, they have no endowments but 
live on alms ; they are all purified by mystic divine love. To the right and left 
of the mountain are many wells in the rocks. The rocks being perpendicular 
like those of Mount Bisûtûn are excavated at the base. The projecting rocks are 
so lofty that ships with topmasts an hundred yards high may enter here, and come 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 73 

to an anchor. The masters of these ships take in barley and wheat whicli is 
brought in waggons to the mouths of the aforesaid shafts which are cut in the 
rock, and poured down them into the holds ; these shafts were cut in ancient 
times by Infidel stonecutters, who were like so many Ferhâds ; and it is a 
peculiar sight not to be seen elsewhere, and saves a circuit of between three and 
four hours in bringing the barley to the foot of the rock. There are no such 
high and dreary rocks any where in the Black Sea. During southernly and 
easternly gales, the sea produces a roaring in the excavations, which is heard as far 
as Iflatar and ilhanlar near Silistra, a day's journey from hence. On the top of 
these rocks are nests of eagles each as large as a sheep, they are even killed and 
eaten by some for mutton. Near the Convent is the Castle of Kilghra, which 
was taken by Miissa Chelebî out of the hands of the Infidels. It belongs to the 
district of Bâlchik in the government of Ozakov. It is a small but strong square 
castle on the seashore, twenty paces in circumference, with a gate opening to the 
west, it has neither mosque or khân, commander or garrison. Being situated on 
a limestone cliff it has no ditch on one side ; on the east side is a precipice of one 
hundred fathoms ; the lower part of this castle is also excavated, like the rocks of 
the convent. When Nassif Pasha Zadeh Hossein was governor of Ozakov, these 
shores were sometimes infested by the Cossacks and Infidel Russians, who made 
prisoners of the inhabitants. Hossein Pasha then renewed this castle at his own 
expense, and garrisoned it, so that the shores were protected from inroads ; but 
the Great Vezir Kara Mustafa Pasha, having taken away the garrison in order to 
mortify Hossein Pâshâ, the castle remained deserted. Praise be to God, that after 
having escaped the dangers of the sea, and being delivered from it before, as the 
bird of the soul left the cage of the body, I passed eight months here in sweet 
conversation, till at the commencement of the spring I took leave of my friends 
and returned to Constantinople. 

Return to Constantinople. 

In the spring of 1054, 1 took leave of Kilghra Sultân and embarking with my 
four slaves coasted the shore of the Black Sea, so that at the least storm I 
could come to an anchor. Thus I passed on my road, Kavarna, Bâlchik, Varna, 
Ahieboli, Sîzebolî, Missivra, Bûrghâs, Chenkina, the island of mirrors (Aina 
adassi or Inada) and the strong castle of Torkoz. Near this place is the flowery 
meadow, and pleasant place of Skumrf-jair where the janissaries and kürûjis are 
encamped, and from hence watch over the security of the adjacent villages, because 
some years ago these shores were infested by Cossacks. From hence we came to 
the black stones (Cyanies), a rocky ground outside of the mouth of the Bosphorus. 

VOL. II. h 



74 THETRAVELSOF 

It was changed into stone by a woman's distaff, and is a curious sight. We passed 
it, and in God's name entered the channel of Constantinople, anchoring before the 
Castle of Kavak. I went on shore, and thanked God for the happy escape from 
the dangers of the Black Sea. The length of the Black Sea from the Bosphorus 
to Trebisonde at the mouth of the Phasus is fifteen hundred miles, the shores 
of the Abaza are seventeen hundred miles, and to the corner of the sea of 
Assov two thousand miles ; seventeen hundred large and small streams fall 
into it. The largest is the Danube, which receives seven hundred rivers in its 
course, and disembogues into the Black Sea by five branches, at Kili, Tûlja, 
Siilina, and Kara-khirmen ; the Phasus, and Chürûgh on the Asiatic side. The 
Kuban near the castle of Tamân, the river of Assov, the river of Ozakov, and 
the Dniester ; on the Asiatic shore the Kizil Irmak, the Wesnesday river, and the 
Sakaria. From Constantinople to Caffa is reckoned one thousand miles, to 
Baliklava eleven hundred, to A'kkermân fifteen hundred, to Varna five hundred ; 
from the point of Kilghra to that of Sinope five hundred, from the mouth of 
the Bosphorus to Amassra one thousand, and to Heraclea one hundred. The 
whole circuit of the Black Sea, with that of Assov, is six thousand and sixty 
miles, and if made by land is one hundred and fifty days or five months journey, 
each day's journey to be reckoned twelve hours. As soon as I arrived at 
Constantinople I hastened to Eyyûb to read once more the Koran there, having 
performed which I went to my parents, who received me with the greatest kindness. 
I swore never to try the navigation of the Black Sea any more. May God guard 
from its misfortunes all the faithful people of Mohammed. I then became the 
Imam of the Inspector of the mouth, and soon found by the presents from my 
friends, compensation for the loss I sustained in the Black Sea, of my eighteen 
slaves and other things. 



EXPEDITION AGAINST MALTA IN THE YEAR 1055 (1645). 

The Kizlar Agha of Sultân Ibrahim Sunbul Aghd after his dismissal from the 
Serai, embarked for Egypt with fifty fair slave girls, and as many boys, and forty 
horses of the best breed, in the Caravel of Ibrahim Chelebi. He stowed all his 
riches for three months into the six magazines of this Caravel, and went on board 
with five hundred armed men of his suite, three hundred merchants, two hundred 
sailors, and Ezuî Mohammed Efendi who was exiled into Egypt ; altogether one 
thousand three hundred persons, who sailed on Friday, trusting in God. Near 
Rodos they met six Maltese Galleys, with whom they had an engagement of 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 75 

twenty four hours, during which the horses getting loose increased the confusion 
of battle. The Caravel was dismasted and dismantled, and except two hundred 
men all the rest fell martyrs. The owner of the ship upbraiding the Kizlar Aghâ, 
said unto him : " Cursed Arab did I not tell thee not to put horses into the ship, 
but rather to take in stores and ammunition ; but thou didst obtain an Imperial 
order, hast overloaded the ship, and in that way given up to the Infidels." Thus 
saying, he with his sword severed the Kizlar Aghd's head from his body, and was 
himself at the same moment cut into pieces by the suite of the Eunuch, who 
rushed on him with drawn swords. The Infidels witnessing this fact, boarded the 
ship, fought for three hours more on board of it, made the rest of the men including 
Ezîrî Mohammed Efendi prisoners and took the ship directly into the harbour of 
Canea, where they came to an anchor. Here they remained a month selling the 
horses and slaves, and violating all the girls. Some prudent monks and patricians 
said : " Woe to us, better would it have been not to see this Ottoman ship in this 
town, with its horses and girls, because a prophecy exists, that if this happened, 
the island would fall into the hands of the Moslims." This rumour being spread 
was the cause of many famihes emigrating from the island, the population of which 
then consisted of four hundred thousand Greeks, and seventy six towns and castles 
were garrisoned by sixteen thousand Soldiers. This is the account obtained at that 
time by my Lord Alî Aghâ the inspector of the custom house. The Emperor 
being much hurt at the unhappy accident of the Kizlar Aghâ, immediately sent 
for the Venetian Bailo, accusing him and his whole mission with a breach of the 
peace, by allowing the Maltese to sell Ottoman goods in their harbour. They 
kissed the earth and said : " Gracious Emperor, our capitulations stated, that if 
your Imperial fleet conduct prizes of Infidel ships into our ports, we are to 
receive thein as guests. God forbid that we should intend to break the peace, we 
were forced by the Maltese Infidels to admit them." The Emperor then asked, if 
they would assist him with men and ships ; they promised readily to furnish three 
hundred ships, on which they were invested with robes of honour, and lulled by these 
means into the sleep of hares. Three thousand purses were issued from the 
Imperial treasury for the preparations for war, and Kapijî-Bâshîs sent to one 
hundred and fifty districts on the side of Jâînak, Sinope, Amassra, Ergelf, Koja Hi and 
Isnikmid, to buy and get ready timber for three hundred ships. From the mountains 
A'alemtâgh and Kapûtâgh (in the neighbourhood of Constantinople) wood was 
brought in abundance, so that all the magazines of the arsenal were full of it. The 
ship-builders of all the Islands were called in, and every week a galley was launched. 
An Imperial High Admiral's Ship (Bashtarda, Head tartana,) and ten Maunas were 
built, and the Arsenal swarmed with busy men. Vezirs were sent into Rumeli 



76 THETRAVELSOF 

and Anatoli to collect armies, Khassekfs and the standard-bearer of the prophet 
were dispatched to Algiers, Tunis, and Tripolis, with twelve thousand ducats of 
powder-money, and Imperial rescripts exhorting them to join the Capitan Pâshâ 
in the spring. It was generally reported, that this expedition was planned against 
Malta, but the Emperor, the Vezir Kara Mustafa Pâshâ and the Mufti were alone 
in the secret. The following was the Fetva proposed and given by the Mufti. 

Query : — If the Infidels are possessed of a land, which was formerly in the 
possession of Moslims, if they have defiled its mosques, colleges and oratories 
with their superstitions, if they plunder Mussulman merchants and pilgrims, 
can the Emperor of the Islam, moved by his zeal for the house of God, wrest 
these countries from the hands of Infidels, and add them to the Mussulman 
territory ? 

Atiswer : — God knows every thing best. Peace with the Infidels is but legal, 
if advantageous to all Moslims, but if not, it is not legal at all. As soon as it 
is useful, it is also allowed to break the peace, be it concluded for a fixed time, or 
for ever. This is justified by the example of the Prophet, who having con- 
cluded peace with the Infidels, which was broken by Alî in the 6th year of the 
Hejira, took the field against them in the 8th year, and conquered Mecca. The 
Emperor has but imitated the Sunna of the Prophet. God bless his victories. 
This was written by the poor despised Abu Sa'id. 

The Emperor took this Fetva and stuck to it like to a cable of safety ; he went 
the same day to visit the tomb of Eyyub, was twice girt there by the Mufti with 
the sword of Omar, in anticipation of victory, and then went to the Arsenal, where 
two hundred galleys were fitted out and filled with troops. Fifty other galleys 
were ready at the landing-place of the Flour-hall ; thirty-six regiments of janis- 
saries, ten of artillerymen, and ten of armourers, were embarked in great transport 
ships, Mauna. The governor of Rumeli with the troops of twenty-four sanjaks, 
with all the Timariots and Zaims forming an army of twenty-two thousand, and 
with the Jebellis of twenty-seven thousand men, was ordered to repair to the 
Dardanelles ; the troops of Morea, Sirmium, Semendra, Bosna, and Herzogavina, 
were ordered to embark at the castle of Benefshe in the island of Morea. The 
governor of Anatoli with the army of his fourteen sanjaks, and the men of one 
hundred and ninety-nine military fiefs, amounting to five thousand five hundred 
and eighty-nine men, with the Jebellis and the household of the Pâshâ, altogether 
twenty thousand men, were also commanded to the Dardanelles on the Asiatic 
side. The governors of Damascus, Haleb, Diarbekr, Mera'ash, Adana, Karaman, 
Sivas, and Trebisonde, with seventy thousand men received similar orders. At the 
same time that the Kapîjî-bâshis and Khassekis, who had been sent to collect 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 77 

those troops, reported that they were ready at the Dardanelles, the cavalry had 
been embarked at Constantinople. At the beginning of spring, the whole fleet 
was ready, consisting of two hundred galleys, tartanas, galliots, twelve large 
Mauna, one hundred Firkata, Caravella, galleons, pinks, Butâj, Shaitie, Shaika 
and Karamursal, with a great number of pioneers and miners on board. Alto- 
gether seven hundred ships, were anchored before the point of the Seraglio. 

At the Sinan Koshk the U'lemas and all the great men waited on the 
Emperor ; the Vezirs, Begler-begs, Captains, Aghâs, and Colonels, going to war, 
one thousand seven hundred individuals, were invested with magnificent dresses. 
The Commander-in-Chief Yûssûf Pâshâ, the great Vezîr Kara Mustafa Pâshâ and 
the Mufti alone remained with the Emperor, the rest having already gone on 
board. Sultân Ibrahim took the Vezir and Commander-in-Chief each by the 
hand, went with them into a corner, and said : " Yûssûf, where art thou going 
to," Yûssûf Pasha answered, " To Malta if it please God," and Ibrahim replied, 
" If it please God, by the destination of the all vivifying, all standing, have I 
given to thee the destination to go to the island of Crete. Keep this a secret to 
thyself, and continue to say thou art going to Malta ; take that direction with 
the fleet first, remain a couple of days on the shores of Morea, and then sail 
back to Candia ; disembark the troops before daybreak, and take possession of 
St. Todero, so as to have a firm post, from whence to begin the siege of 
Canea. These are my instructions, if thou return victorious, (if it please God) 
I'll reward you to a degree that you shall appear with a brilliant face before God. 
Keep your secret well, according to the maxim, which commands every man to 
hide three things, Zeheb, Zehâb, and Mezheb, viz. his gold, his walks, his sect." 
After this instruction Yûssıif Pâshâ was invested with two golden robes one above 
the other, and Sultân Ibrahîm said ; " Go now with God, who will assist 
thee." He went on board the High Admiral's ship, Bashdarda, and the 
astronomers of the Court having fixed the favourable moment for getting under 
weigh, the Commander-in-Chief gave the order to the High Admiral, and at the 
same time five hundred clarions sounded ; from the Admiral's ship the shouts of 
Allah Î allah ! pierced the air, and the skies were rent with the noise of muskets 
and guns. The shouts and salutes were repeated three times, and the Admiral's 
ship took the lead, the music playing the tune Segah. Passing the Sinân-koskh 
the Commander-in-Chief saluted the Emperor and the Great Vezir, and the other 
ships followed like a row of cranes, keeping up such a heavy fire, that the birds of 
heaven found themselves so many salamanders in the midst of fire, like Abraham 
in the oven of Nimrod. I, poor Evliya, accompanied this expedition as Chief 
Moezzin of the Commander-in-Chief, Yûssûf Pâshâ, was messmate of Ibrahim 



78 THETRAVELSOF 

Chelebî, Clerk of the Treasury, on board of the Bashdarda, and passed my time 
pleasantly eating dates and diavolini (Kotrobunîit). 

Station of Gallipolis. 

The fleet anchored here after a salute fired from the fortress, and repeated by 
the whole fleet. The Mussulman victors all went to the arsenal to hasten the 
embarkation of the European troops on board of fifty barbaresque vessels, and 
on the opposite side in the harbour of Chârdâk, the Asiatic troops were also 
doing the same. In twenty-four hours every thing was completed, and next day 
the fleet weighed anchor again amidst the noise of muskets and guns. We passed 
Tenedos (Buzja Ada) ; ten Firkata were sent on ten miles a-head to keep a good 
look out. Their captains were invested with robes of honour, and promised 
to be made Begs of the Imperial arsenal (post captains). We passed Tine 
(Istendil) which belonged to the Venetians, who sent presents on board the 
Admiral's ship, but no notice was taken of them, and we sailed by. We passed 
Thera (Değirmenlik), an Ottoman island belonging to the khass of the Captain 
Pasha, weathered the point of Temashalik (Sunium), passed Athens, the castle 
of Termish in Morea, and stopped at Napoli (di Romania), a strong castle at the 
end of a great port, where we took in provisions for the troops of twenty-seven 
Rumelian sanjaks ; we did the same at Benefshe, which is an open place with no 
port; passed Candia, taking no notice, as if we were going to Malta, passed 
Cerigo and Cerigotto also belonging to the Venetians, the fortresses of Coron and 
Modon, and the island of Borak, a small island near Morea, till we came to 
Navarin. This is a large port defended by two castles, one on the shore, the 
other on high rocks. Here we came to anchor and discharged the lading of ten 
heavy transport ships (Chakâlgemî) of the Arsenal, shifting their cargoes of 
troops and artillery on to lighter ones. During our stay here, the commanders 
of Zante and Cephalonia, Venetian Islands, sent presents of powder and lead to 
the Commander-in-Chief, wishing him a happy voyage and success in the ex- 
pedition ; seeing that every thing was directed against Malta, they returned with 
great satisfaction. We took on board here three thousand brave Albanians, and 
also took in water, because a great fresh water river disembogues into the sea at 
the extremity of this port. 

On the third day the flag was hoisted, the trumpet of departure sounded, and 
nine hundred small and large ships left the port. The two captains Karabatak 
and Dûrâk with ten small Firkata were at the head, as look-out ships, leading 
towards Malta, which was thought by the whole of the fleet to be its destination. 
At noon the Commander-in-Chief turned round on a sudden, made signals for 



E V L I Y A E F E N D I. 79 

the whole fleet to do the satne, and again passed by Cerigo, the Castle of which 
now began to light fires, and fire signal guns. At sunset we were before Candia, 
and before daybreak the whole fleet anchored opposite the castle of St. Todero on 
the north side of the island at the harbour of Suda. Troops and two light guns 
(culverines) were disembarked with the necessary ammunition, the castle assailed, 
and in less than two hours forced to surrender. At sunrise the Infidels marched out 
and were embarked in ships for Cerigo. The ships were now secured in the port, 
and large guns placed behind gabions to defend them. The two governors of 
Karaman and Adana were left in garrison, and the whole fleet anchored at the 
harbour of the Lazaret, close to Canea. The whole army disembarked with their 
tents, seventy great guns (Balyemez), forty falconets, and two hundred small 
guns (Shâhitop) and encamped out of reach of gun shot. The fleet anchored 
in the port of the Lazaret safe against all possible winds, and the Begs (Captains) 
of the Barbareses received orders to cruise with seventy Firkata. The Shaikas 
and Kara Mursal also now disembarked their cargoes, and the governor of Sivas 
was commanded to watch over the security of the port, which is situated on the 
west side of Canea. Praise be to God, it was taken very easily. It is situated sixty 
miles distance from Cape Kabâjâ in Morea, and its conquest as well as that 
of St. Todero, was first thought necessary for the facility of passing troops from 
Morea. Great batteries were raised and furnished with large guns to protect 
the fleet lying in it, meanwhile Firkatas were keeping the open sea at twenty and 
thirty miles distance as guardships, (Karaul Kullik). 

Siege of the Fortress of Canea. 

The camp being pitched round the Castle of Canea at a gun-shot's distance, 
and every man having taken his post according to the orders of the Commander- 
in-Chief, the janissaries first entered the trenches. The next day the Commander- 
in-Chief held a grand review in sight of the Infidels, and in defiance of them, who 
were confounded at this show of the Ottoman power. As soon as he had 
dismounted at his tent, forty thousand men with shovels and axes began to work 
on the trenches at seven points round the fortress. (1) On the south side the 
Aghâ of the janissaries, in whose company the Commander-in-Chief himself 
entered the trenches. (2) The governor of Anatoli, with ten regiments and the 
Zagarjî-bashî. (3) The governor of Rumeli with ten regiments headed by the 
Samsünjî-bashî. (4) The governor of Sivas with five regiments headed by the 
Khasseki. (5) On the east side at the silver bulwark, the Barbareses opened 
the trenches. (6) On the west side at the golden bulwark, the governor of 
Haleb, with three regiments of Zenberekji. In short, the attack was carried on 



80 THETRAVELSOF 

from seven points. The north side bordering on the sea and the port was alone 
unable to be attacked by trenches, which were opened on all other points of the 
compass. The Infidels having enjoyed peace ever since the conquest of Cyprus, 
their artillery and arsenals were in the highest state of perfection. During seven 
days and nights they fired forty thousand guns and many hundred thousand 
musket-shot ; seven thousand men became martyrs being killed in the trenches, 
and their property taken possession of by the fiscus. But the Moslim victors 
encouraged by the presence and the gifts of the Commander-in-Chief, advanced 
with undaunted steadiness, and arrived on the tenth day at the edge of the ditch 
Seven batteries with large guns were battering the walls on seven sides. During 
twenty days and nights the fire continued to rage from both sides. The Moslims 
at last began to raise mounds of earth on the side of the sand bulwark, which 
being perceived by the garrison, they burned the Moslims with shells and 
grenades. This way of continuing the siege above ground being found im- 
practicable, it was carried on by mines under ground. On the west side of the 
town, where the Lazaret is estabUshed, a mine of three mouths was blown 
up, and with it seventy yards of the wall, with all the Infidels upon it, who were 
sent through the sky to hell. The Infidels witnessing this artful mining, 
imitated it, they passed under the ditch and blew the mounds of earth with a 
couple of hundred men into the air ; so that the air was obscured by the dust for 
more than an hour's time. The Mussulman victors not caring for this, exhorted 
one another, and the volunteers brought in heads and prisoners whom they 
caught at the breaches. The Commander rewarded those who brought heads 
with fifty, and those who brought prisoners with an hundred ducats, making them 
besides a present of the men and distributing ziamets and timars. 

The Faithful devoting themselves with heart and soul, penetrated sometimes 
into the interior of the fortress, from whence they brought heads and prisoners, 
and amongst the last even the son of the commanding general. But this day 
was a bloody one, which cost many lives. 

One day an Infidel descending on a rope-ladder, came into the Commander-in- 
Chief's tent, and said he had good news to tell him, if he would promise the 
safety of his house and family. The Commander-in-Chief granted immediately 
what he asked, and promised to give him the command of the Infidels besides. 
He then confirmed his promise by an oath, and tied a handkerchief of pardon 
round his neck. Then the Infidel said that there were two parties in the castle, 
the Greeks who wished to surrender, and the Venetians who wished to defend 
themselves to the last man. The latter were assembled on the side of the 
harbour, where the fortress had not yet been battered, he advised, therefore, to 



evliya efendi. 81 

disturb them by a battery raised on that side, and to throw into the Greek quarter» 
some arrows only, with flattering promises to the Greeks. This advice having 
been followed, ten Greeks came, who embraced Islam, and received Mussulman 
names. The siege was, however, continued with the same zeal. On the east 
side of the harbour a great bastion was raised, from which the high houses 
and palaces of the Infidels near the port were battered, and where cries and 
lamentations pieixed the skies. The same day orders were issued to all Captains 
of the Navy, and to the Begs of the Barbareses, to keep a good watch, and twelve 
Maunas were ordered to batter the port, and the sea side of the town. This 
raised a great outcry there, but some of the shots injuring the camp, other orders 
were issued to the chief gunner of the fleet. The Infidels never relaxing in their 
fire and their stratagems, there was no day without a couple of hundred falling 
martyrs. It would be too tedious to relate all the memorable events of this siege ; 
in short, one day the Infidels seeing forty thousand brave men with drawn swords 
and heavy shields, ready to assail the walls, hoisted the white flag of surrender, 
crying, " Aman, âmân, O exquisite family of Osman !" No regard being paid to 
this, and the firing continuing as before, some Captains came out by the breaches, 
asking for a respite of ten days. The Commander-in-Chief answered, " You 
will walk out to-morrow, or all fall victims to the sword." This was agreed to. 
Some of them remained in the tent of the Commander-in-Chief, some went into 
the castle and returned with the answer, that next morning they would all be 
ready to surrender. The Janissaries, Sipahis, Jebejis and Topjis, instantly took 
possession of the walls and the artillery, and during the night, the Infidels were em- 
barked for their cursed country. The next day the Islamitic prayer was proclaimed, 
salutes of guns and muskets fired, and those salutes repeated thrice from time to 
time during three days. The ships of the Infidels steering eastward to the Castles 
of Retimo and Candia, their General when he saw and heard these rejoicings, 
when he heard the profession of Islam proclaimed from the belfries, when he saw 
the crosses upset and the green banner of Mohammed waving on the spires, 
could not bear such a sight, but blinded himself. The whole fleet now entered 
the harbour, and messengers were sent to Constantinople with the good news. 
Seventy-seven tartanas and galleys, and fifty barbaresque ships, came to an 
anchor. All the stores and ammunition were disenibarked, and large batteries 
raised on the shore to mount the guns on. The troops were occupied in cleansing 
the trenches and ditches, and repairing the walls ; thus the castle became ten 
times stronger than it was before ; all the churches were converted into mosques, 
and the first Friday prayer performed in the mosque of Sultân Ibrahim. The 
streets were adorned with shops and lighted with lamps during the night. The 

VOL. II. M 



82 THETRAVELSOF 

clarions sounded after the prayer was performed, the shouts of Allah pierced 
the skies, and a triple salute was fired, the report of which shook not only Rome 
and Irak, but the whole of earth and Heaven. 

The sixth day after the conquest of the castle, a fleet of a hundred sail bearing 
the Venetian, Tuscan, and Popish flag came to the assistance of it ; but when 
they saw the port full of the Ottoman fleet, and the ships of the Barbareses 
cruising before it, when they saw the belfries turned into minarehs, and the 
Crescents in the place of the Crosses, they sighed heavily, " Good-by Canea! 
Good-by Canea !" and sailed in despair for Siida. The Ottoman victors found in 
the conquered fortress all the slaves and girls of the late Kislar Agassi embarked 
on board the galleon of Ibrahim Chelebi, all his precious things, and high-bred 
horses ; they revenged the blood shed, and turned the Convents of their monks 
and nuns into those of Dervishes. The contest at this siege was scarcely so 
heavy and bloody as at the sieges of Assov, Erivan and Baghdad, which have been 
celebrated by eloquent writers. The Commander-in-Chief sent messengers and 
letters to nine towns and fortresses of the island, and to the Rayas in the interior 
of the island in the mountains of Assfakia, summoning them to pay ti'ibute, to 
surrender to the Sultîîn the keys of their castles, and to enjoy ease and plenty 
under the protection of the Emperor; threatening those who would not comply 
with this demand, with the havoc of their lands, slavery of their families, and 
death to themselves by the sword. Within seven days came three hundred 
deputies from all places and villages in the island to pay obeisance and bring 
presents. The rest of the island not having submitted, the Vezirs and Begler- 
Begs received orders to send the Ottoman victors to collect the legal tithes. 
From seventy to eighty thousand men were immediately dispersed over the seven 
hundred and seventy miles of the island, taking booty, day and night, in the ways 
of God. Gold, silver, brass vessels, fine boys, and pretty girls, were carried in 
immense numbers to the Ottoman camp, where there was such an abundance that 
a boy or girl was sold for eighteen piastres. Some thousand men of the army, 
seeing such plenty, settled in the island. Kuchuk Hassan Pasha with seventeen 
Begler-Begs, seventy Alai-Begs, and all the Zaims and Timariots, remained at 
Canea, besides the garrison of regular troops, consisting of twenty-seven regiments 
of janissaries, ten regiments of artillery, ten regiments of armourers, four re- 
giments of cavalry, and three thousand men, Egyptian troops ; altogether 
seventy-seventy thousand men. In the castle remained seven thousand seven 
hundred Azabs, and forty ships were left for the transport of troops from Men- 
keshe, besides fifty firkata manned with an hundred stout lads. 

The Commander-in-Chief, Yûssûf, took leave of all the Vezirs and great men. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 83 

and weighed anchor with a favourable wind, and sailed for Constantinople. He 
passed with a fleet of two hundred sail before Cerigo and Cerigotto, destroyed 
the repairs of the Mainotes at the Cape of Maina in Morea, with the Castle ofKilli 
situated on the same point ; passed the Cape of Capospada, and the Castle of 
Menkeshi, and came to anchor at Napoli. After a stay of three days a council 
was held, and it was resolved to lay waste the Island of Istendil (Tine), belonging 
to the Venetians. At the moment the fleet was sailing, an Imperial rescript 
arrived from Constantinople congratulating the Commander-in-Chief on his victories, 
and rewarding him with an Imperial robe of honour, and a sword and cutlass set 
with jewels. The same day the Island of Tine was plundered, but no great booty 
found. Its castle being strong and high, the signal of departure was immediately 
given, and the southerly wind being favourable, in the course of ten days we 
touched at different places, such as Chios, Lemnos, Mitylene, and Tenedos; 
these castles were put in repair, and garrisoned with the necessary number of 
troops. From Tenedos we arrived at Gallipolis, where we took water, and where 
the Commanders received strict orders to be watchful. From hence, in two days 
and one night, we reached the Prince's Isalnds, in sight of Constantinople, and 
next day arrived at the Seraglio point, with such demonstrations of joy as cannot 
be expressed. The conqueror of Canea, Yûssûf Pasha, kissed the ground before 
the Emperor, was decorated with Imperial robes of honour, and offered a 
treasure worth that of Egypt, and youths like those of Paradise, besides an 
infinite number of presents. But he was afterwards calumniated and killed. 
When Sultan Ibrahfm saw his body, he said, " how white he was !" and fell a 
crying. He added, " My Yûssûf, may those, who have played thee this trick 
soon share thy fate !" and, while saying so, he looked at his favourite Jinji Khoja. 
His death caused general complaint and lamentations, and there was but one 
voice of sorrow. God's mercy be upon him ! 

Cause of the Death of Yiissi'if Pctshd. 

Envious calumniators informed the Emperor, that Yûssüf Pasha had secreted 
from the treasures of Canea three great tubs of gold, three millions of money, 
and a golden column ; that he had not given a drop of the ocean nor an atom 
of the sun of his treasures to the Emperor. After his death nothing was found, 
and the column wrapt up in felt, which had been said to be a golden tree, 
was found to be a column of yellow stone, which was afterwards used to support 
the oratory of the mosque built by the mother of Mohammed IV. It is a stone 
more precious indeed than gold and jewels, because persons afflicted with jaundice 
are cured by touching it three times on a Saturday. This is the stone which 
caused the death of Yûssüf Pasha. 



84 THETRAVELSOF 

" The servant proposes and God disposes, and the tongues of the people are 
the pens of God." When Sultân Ibrahim disclosed the secret of the expedition 
to Yussilf Pâshâ on his departure, he said, " If thou returnest victorious I'll 
reward thee according to thy merits:" and indeed it happened so, because 
the conquest of Canea, an enterprise so difficult, was granted to Yûssûf Pâshâ 
before the arrival of the enemy's fleet by a special favour of God, and no reward 
could equal such merit, but the glory of Martyrdom. He was beloved of God, 
who first granted him the conquest and then the Martyr's crown. Praise be to 
God that I, poor Evliyfi, witnessed such a famous siege, and returned safe to my 
native city. I kissed my parents' hands, who wished me joy on my safe return. 
My father said, " The campaign thou hast made now renders my going into 
the field superfluous." I said, " My dear father, you have grown old, you have 
been present at seventy battles since Sultân Suleiman's time. Pray now for 
your beloved son, who shall go into battles instead of you." I kissed his hand, 
and he then told me the following story, exhorting me to listen to it with the 
ears of my soul. 

" In the year when thou wast born, my son, in the reign of Sultân Ahmed I. a 
great assembly of seven hundred Vezîrs and great men was held at the Hippo- 
drome in order to lay the foundation of Sultân Ahmed's mosque. They dug 
from forty to fifty cubits deep, and the walls of the foundations having reached 
the level of the earth, the Ulemas and Astronomers were assembled, and with 
the prayers and ceremonies usual in similar cases the position of the mihrâb 
determined. Kalender Pâshâ was named inspector, Kara Sunbul Alî Efendi, the 
Secretary, and our Khoja (Evliyâ's reading-master) Evliya Efendi, imâm of the 
foundations ; the Sheikh of Scutari, Mahommed Efendî, was named the Sheikh ; 
Mahmud Chelebl, Kara Mahmud Agha, and forty other men with fine voices, the 
Moezzins of the foundations. One day Sultân Ahmed came, and pitched his 
tent on that part of the courtyard of the mosque, where there then remained only 
a single painted Koshk belonging to the Serai of Koja Mohammed Pâshâ. Here 
the Sultân gave a feast to all the Vezîrs and great men of the capital, which 
surpassed even that which was given at the feast of circumcission of Sultân 
Ahmed. The assembly having retired, there remained in the Sultan's tent, only 
Mahmud Efendî of Scutari, Evliya Efendi my master, Kara Sunbul Alî Efendi, 
Ibrahim Efendî the senior of the surgeons, Dervish Omar Gulshenî one of the 
favourite singers and I, thy poor father, sitting on our heels. The Sultân said 
unto us, " If it please God this mosque shall be finished, and be a fine praying 
place, but it requires to be well endowed." Evliya and Mahiuud Efendi of 
Scutari said, " My gracious Emperor, undertake a military expedition, and then 



evliya efendi. 85 

devote the revenues of the conquered land to your new built mosque, as your 
ancestor Suleimdn did, who having in person conquered Rodos, Stancio, and 
different other islands, devoted their revenues to his mosque, which is, therefore, 
the best endowed of all the Imperial mosques. If your Majesty should undertake 
an expedition against Creta (Kirîd), you would protect the passage of Ottoman 
merchants and pilgrims from the ships of the Infidels. The senior of the surgeons, 
Ibrahim, and Mahmiid Efendi of Scutari said a Fâtihah for this good intention, 
the seven prayers of which were repeated by all present, who finished it by 
saying, ' If it please God our prayer shall be granted.' 

" Sultan Ahmed then said, ' But, learned gentlemen, we are at peace with the 
Venetians, is it decent for a Shehin-shah (king of kings) to encroach on treaties of 
peace ? Under what pretext shall we break it, particularly now, when Anatoh is 
kept in rebellion by Kara Yaziji, Safd Arab, Kalender-oghli and Jennet-oghlî, 
against whom myVezîr Murad Lala is marching ? How shall I then think of the con- 
quest of Candia ? ' Evliya answered, ' My Emperor, on the third day all the rebels 
shall be beaten, and you shall receive the good news on the twelfth, they shall 
pass away Hke a torrent ; Murad Pasha shall fill wells with their dead bodies, and 
obtain in history by this deed the name of Murad Pasha the well-maker (Kiiyiiji).' 
This prediction was accomplished by the news that Murad Pasha had filled all the 
wells near Haleb and Azez with the bodies of the rebels. Mahmud Efendi of 
Scutari availed himself of this opportunity to remind the Emperor of the project of 
the Cretan war, and suggested to him, first to send an embassy to the Prince of 
Venice to ask that he should give up the island of Creta. Sultân Ahmed, being 
pleased with this idea, sent Kûrd-Chaûsh, a good and eloquent speaker, with 
presents, as ambassador to Venice. He made great haste, and at the end of seven 
days arrived at Venice, making his public entrance on the eighth, and read his 
letters in public council ; the Senate consented to the demand, and letters were 
made out, with which Kûrd-Chaûsh was sent back ; having kissed the ground 
before the Emperor, the letters were read by the Interpreter in presence of 
Mahmud Efendi of Scutari, Evhya, Sunbul Alî, Ibrahim, Toghani, Ismail Efendi 
the Commentator on the Mesnevi, Jûnûbî the Sheikh of the Mevlevi's at Kâssîm 
Pasha, Dervish Omer Gulsheni, Guzelji Gıüâbı, Kûzû Alî Aghâ, Abdî Agha, and 
of me, thy poor father, m the following form and tenor, * You have asked from 
me the Principe, your most humble servant, the island of Creta, with six hundred 
thousand inhabitants, seven hundred and seventy villages, and of seven hundred 
and seventy miles circumference, with seven mines of gold, silver and other metals, 
which we are ready to give.' At these words all those who were present read the 
Fatihah, and the Mohammedan shouts (Allah Î Allah !) rent the air. 



80 THETRAVELSOF 

" The end of the letter said, ' But we poor fellows, giving to you, great 
Monarch, an island as rich as that of Creta, we beg of you the favour to make us a 
present of the ports of Acra, Saida, Beirut, and of the old seat of our rehgion, 
Jerusalem. It is only for this purpose we can cede to you the island of Creta, and 
it would be more reasonable to dehver your hereditary countries from the rebels, 
who infest it, than to form such strange demands : — Our comphments to you ! ' 
Ahmed hearing this answer was deeply afflicted, and began to cry. Mahmüd 
Efendi said, ' Why should your Majesty be afflicted ; they began by saying, that 
they were ready to give up the island, it is God who has dictated these words to 
them, according to which they shall be obliged to yield the island.' A Fatihah was 
said, and the Mahommedan shouts (Allah !) repeated. Then they said, ' If it 
please God, it shall most certainly be conquered,' and saying so, they changed the 
conversation. When this letter was again read at the Divân, the Emperor 
happened to be in his innermost garden at the place called ChemensofFa, con- 
versing with the abovenamed learned and virtuous gentlemen. At this moment 
the gate of the innermost Harem opened, and the Kislar-agassf walked out, 
followed by seven Princes, who kissed the hands of the Emperor, and then of the 
Sheikhs, who were with him, and the Sultân said, ' Gentlemen, the Princes my 
sons, are your most humble servants.' He then ordered that they should play 
before him, to dissipate the melancholy which the answer of the Venetians had 
caused. They played ball, and Pi'ince Osman, the strongest and stoutest of them, 
was superior to the rest. Coming near his father's throne, he asked him, ' My 
Osman ! wilt thou conquer Creta ? ' The Prince answered, ' What shall I do with 
Creta ? I will conquer the land of the white Russian girls, and shed blood there.' 
Saying so, he continued to play ; Evhya Efendi, praise to God, the innocent boy 
could not reach the meaning of the Emperor's words. Mahmüd observed, that he 
had understood well the word Creta, but that there was something mysterious in 
his answer about the white Russian girls. Now Prince Osman came up pursuing 
his brother Mohammed even under the throne, where Mohammed sheltered him- 
self, and having crept forth again, the ball, which Osman threw at him, touched 
his gilt turban, and hurt his neck so that blood was flowing, and he turned giddy. 

" Sultân Ahmed said, ' Look Mohammed, Osman is thy brother, and yet he 
has hurt thee, this is the course of the world : strike him in your turn.' He wiped 
his blood off, and having seated him at the foot of the throne, he asked him, 
'Will you conquer Creta, Mohammed ?' Mohammed said, ' I will, but my brother 
Osman sheds my blood ; if it is not me, another Mohammed will finish the con- 
quest begun by me.' The Senior of the Surgeons, Ibrahim said, ' Praise be to 
God, what secrets are revealed to-day 1 but nobody yet understands them.' Now 



evliya efendi. 87 

the Princes continued to play at ball ; Bayazid and Siileimc'in were chasing each 
other, when all at once, Prince Murad sallied forth from the place called the black 
cypress, and threw a ball at them, which hurt them both, so that blood dropped 
from their noses. Sultân Ahmed said, ' My Murad, why dost thou beat thy 
brethren so.' The Prince replied, ' It was not my intention, but such is the play 
of the woi-ld, I was obliged to do it because they gained upon me, and were going 
to take my place ! ' Omer Gulsheni said, * There is also some mystery in that.' 
Now came Prince Ibrahim in a ruby-coloured dress : Sultân Ahmed asked him, 
* Where have you been my Ibrahim ? ' 'I,' said he, ' have taken the ablution of 
martyrdom, and am now come to wrestle and play with all my brethren.' He 
entered wildly and threw a ball at Sultân Osmân's head, so that he knocked off his 
turban and set him crying. Prince Murad now threw a ball at Ibrahim, which he 
received undaunted, feigned to direct his ball at Bayazid, but turned round 
in a moment, and threw it at Murad with such violence, that he was for some 
time senseless. Ibrahim now ran to his father's throne, sat at the foot of it, 
and said, ' Have I not aimed a good ball at Murad,' and then fell to indelicate play. 
Murad was crying on the ground, saying, ' I had rather died, than have been 
beaten in that way by Ibrahim ! ' The play continuing, to the surprise of all the 
beholders, Murad again pursued Ibrahim, and threw the ball at him, which 
he received as boldly as the first time, and retreated under the throne, from whence 
he then issued without his turban and in a state of undress. Sultân Ahmed 
caught hold of his ear, and said, ' Wilt thou conquer Creta, and make of it an 
endowment for my mosque for Mecca and Medina,' The Prince said, ' If God 
assists me, and helps me, in God's name, and if it pleases God, my son Yüssûf 
shall conquer it under Yüssûf the Prophet's favour ! ' All who were present now 
said a Fatihah that this might happen, and Sultân Ahmed said, 'Now, how curi- 
ous it is, that I am fallen into melancholy since the Venetian letter has been read, 
that wishing to divert myself with my children's play, they got bloody necks and 
noses, and made me more melancholy than before, till Ibrahim has at once chased 
away my spleen by saying that he will conquer Creta by his son.' God's mercy 
on Sultân Ahmed ! All that had been foreshewn in this play, really happened. 

" 1. Sultân Osman who hurt his brother Mohammed's neck, ordered him to be 
executed when going to Khotyn, 

" 2. Sultân Osman, who was hurt by Ibrahim's ball in his groin, died after his 
unsuccessful return from Hotyn, at the Seven Towers, when one Piniâl tortured 
him till he died by compression of the scrotum. 

" 3. The two Princes, Bayazid and Suleiman, overtaken by Murad at the black 
cypress, were strangled in the same place, the blood dropping from their noses, by 



88 THETRAVELSOF 

Sultân Murad's order in the year 1045, when he sent Beshir Aghâ to Constanti- 
nople with the news of the conquest of Erivan. They were buried in their father 
Ahmed's tomb, twenty-one years after this play had happened in their father's 
presence. 

" 4. The ball received by Ibrahim from Murad foreboded that Ibrahfm' would 
be, as he was, Murad's successor. 

" 5. Ibrahim's indelicate play at the foot of the throne, showed the luxury of 
his reign passed in weddings and pleasure parties. 

" 6. His having then said ; ' woe to my cullies,' was the forerunner of the 
infamous disease of which he died. 

" 7. The reply given by Ibrahîm, when coming forth from beneath his father's 
throne, and saying, that he would conquer Creta with his son Yûssûf, is to be 
understood of Yüssûf Pashd the Commander-in-chief of the expedition to Canea. 

" 8. God knows my son (continued Evliyâ's father) whether the name of 
Yûssûf may not be applied to Ibrahim's son, who shall finish the conquest of 
Creta begun by his father. 

" My son, all these mysteries I witnessed in Sultân Ahmed's presence, and have 
waited ever since for the conquest of Creta promised by Sultân Ibrahim to his 
father, and now fulfilled accordingly. I, thy poor father, was present at the prayers 
then said at the suggestion of this conquest, and thou my son hast witnessed the 
fulfilling of it. If it please God, thou shalt witness also its entire conquest." 

It was in this manner that my father. Dervish Mohammed, the chief of the 
goldsmiths at Constantinople, related the story of the Princes. God's mercy upon 
him ! As some thousand descriptions of the siege of Canea exist, I would not ex- 
patiate too much on this subject, but have related what I witnessed in a plain way. 

Jowanji Kapûjî Mohammed Pâshâ the great Vezir being deposed, he was named 
Commander-in-chief at Creta, and the Vezirat given to the Defterdar Sâleh Pâshâ, 
who bestowed on his brother, Murteza Pâshâ, the governorship of Bude with three 
tails ; and on Ibrahim Chelebi, who had been Khazinedar, the governorship of 
Baghdad. The son of Sâleh Pâshâ, Chelebî Mohammed, known by the name of 
the hanged Defterdâr-zadeh Mohammed Pâshâ, was made Aghâ of the janissaries, 
with the character of Vezir, but, as he did not accept of it, he was sent as Com- 
mander-in-chief to Erzerûm. I, poor Evliya, was appointed clerk at the custom- 
house of Erzerûm, Moezzin and companion to this Pâshâ. He was a man of 
agreeable conversation, great acquirements in all sciences, generous, brave, a poet 
and statesman. He bestowed on me rich presents, and I prepared my tents for 
the journey to Erzerûm. I was invested with a robe of honour (caftan) in Sultân 
Ibrahim's presence. He said unto the Pâshâ, giving him the Imperial rescript. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 89 

" Thou art my absolute Vczir and Commander against the Persians ; if they should 
become rebels, all the army of Anatolia as far as Erivan is under thy command." 
He gave h im five purses, fifty mules and as many camels for the journey, a 
splendid tent, and two sable pelisses. We passed under Sultân Ibrahim's blessing 
to Scutari, where we pitched our tents at the place called Aghâchairî. The same 
day, Cherkess Derzi Mustafa, one of the Imperial armsbearers (Silahshor), was 
sent express to Erzenim to Malatialf Silihdar Suleiman Pasha. During our stay 
at Scutari, the treasurer of the Pâshâ Dilber Chelebî was deposed by an Imperial 
firman, and his place given to Ah' Aghâ one of the relations of the Pâshâ; we 
remained a week at Scutari, and then, on the first day of Rejeb, set out on our 
journey for Erzerum. 



JOURNEY TO ERZERUM. 

Having remained a month in Scutari, the buildings of which town have been 
minutely described in our first volume ; the news arrived that the Mossellem 
(substitute of the Pâshâ) had happily taken possession of the governorship ; the 
Pâshâ immolated victims, and everybody rejoiced, because the principal reason 
for conferring this governorship on Defterdar-zadeh was the rumour which pre- 
vailed, that Abaza Pâshâ the famous rebel, whom Sultân Murad had spared, 
contrary to the wishes of the troops, had returned from his travels in Africa and 
India, but most happily Suleiman Pâshâ, the governor of Erzerum (predecessor 
of Abaza) killed this pretender and sent his head to Constantinople, and the 
Mosellem, Mustafa Aghâ, took possession of the governorship. We set out from 
Scutari in the early part of Sha'abân, and arrived at the end of seven hours march 
at Pendik, a great village on the seabord, it belonging to the foundation of Kirechji- 
bashi at Scutari. Its numerous gardens supply the Capital with vegetables. Here 
our master received from the Great Vezfr Sâleh Pâshâ, ten purses, ten horses, and 
a great number of other valuable presents. From hence the quarter-master 
(Konakjf) and chief of the cellar (Kilârjî), with the inspector of the kitchen 
(Mutbakhemini), and the purveyor at market (Bazâra giden), led the van with 
five hundred men and a tail. 

Gehize. 
This was formerly a large town. At the time when Sidi Battal besieged Con- 
stantinople, a great convent existed at Constantinople, within the gate of Sîlîvrı, 

VOL. II. N 



90 THETRAVELSOF 

at tlie place now called the mosque of Koja Mustafa Pâshd. Hardn-ur-raslud, 
built a fortress here and garrisoned it with three thousand men, in order to keep 
the infidels in check. The inhabitants of Gebîze having killed some men belonging 
to Sidf Battal, who commanded the garrison of the said fortress, he laid the town 
of Gebize in ruins, and retired to Malatia ; traces of this havoc are still visible. 
It was conquered by Mohammed I., who destroyed the castle, that it might not 
be a refuge for the infidels ; but Sultân Mohammed II. rebuilt it after the conquest 
of Constantinople. It is now a jurisdiction of one hundred and fifty aspers in the 
sanjak of Koja I1Î. Mustafa Pdshâ, who built the bridge which bears his name in 
Rumeli, built a mosque here, whose administrator (Muteveh) is at the same time 
commanding officer of the place. It lies an hour's distance from the sea, at the 
top of a dry mountain ; there are about one thousand houses with gardens, in the 
ancient style, three mosques, the largest of which covered with lead, outshines 
the mosques of the Vezirs at Constantinople ; it was built by Mustafa Pâshâ, the 
builder of the bridge called by Sultan Suleiman, the bridge of the illiberal 
(Namerd), who when governor of Egypt had the finest stones cut in plates to 
adorn this mosque, and made a stone candelabrum of them, which has no equal in 
the world. The stones came direct from Egypt to the landing-place of Darîjî, 
where they were disembarked. The interior of the mosque is lined with marble 
and granite to the height of three men, which is not to be seen in any other 
mosque in the capital. The minber (pulpit), mihrdb (altar), and mahfil (oratory) 
of the Moezzins are of most excellent workmanship, which is impossible to 
describe to those who have not seen it. It was built by the architect Hassam, 
the first assistant to the architect Koja Sinan, who showed his skill here most 
minutely. The windows on the four sides are composed of small painted glass, 
which in sunshine illuminates the mosque with a most delicious light, therefore it 
is that you read on the middle vault the verse of the Koran, " God is the light of 
Heaven." The interior of the cupola is adorned with circles of lamps and a 
great number of suspended decorations. The Egyptian carpets on the floor vie 
with those of Isfahan. The pulpit of the preacher (Kursi) is inlaid with pearl- 
shell. Outside of the walls is a delicious garden, where flowers and odoriferous 
herbs fill the air and brain with perfumes, and nightingales enrapture with their 
warbling notes. The mosque has but one gate opposite the altar; on the 
threshold is written the chronograph in the writing of Kara Hissârî Hossein, and in 
the mosque seventy Korans are kept, each of which is worth an Egyptian treasure. 
A copy of Yakut Mostea-assemi, hke that which is seen here on the left of the 
altar, is not to be found elsewhere, except it be at the mosque of Sultân Ahmed at 
Constantinople. On both sides of the gate are six cupolas supported by as many 



evliya efendi. 91 

columns, and the cupola immediately over the gate is the seventh. The Harem or 
courtyard, as spacious as those of imperial mosques, is adorned with trees, the 
minareh, with one gallery, is well proportioned. Close to the mosque is a Cara- 
vanserai, affording accommodation for three thousand men, and two thousand 
horses, with a stable appropriated for camels. In the dining-room (dar-ul-ita'am), 
old and yonng men and women dine in plenty ; and at the Caravanserai, every 
evening, every fire-place is furnished with a dish of soup, a loaf of bread, a candle, 
and a bag of forage for every horse, ass, mule or camel. A bath is attached to it, 
covered with lead like all the other buildings of this foundation. Besides this 
Caravanserai thei'e are forty large and small khans, and one hundred and eighty 
shops, all the work of Sinan ; the mosque in the market is an old simple building ; 
the houses are all faced with red bricks, the water of the wells is a little thick, but 
the air is good. 

We advanced from hence five hours towards the east to the Castle of Helke or 
Herke, conquered by Mohammed I. with considerable loss of men. It is a nice 
small castle, of immense stones, built on the seashore, on a cliff between two 
vallies. Its gate opens to the north and has no houses within. The district 
belongs to the sanjak of Koja Ilı. At the end of eight hours journey along the 
seashore, we arrived at Isnikmid (Nicomedia), which has been already minutely 
described in our former journey. After a day's rest we again started and came, at 
the end of six hours march, to Sabanja, called so from Sabânjî Koja, who first 
cleared the thick woods here by the plough. In Suleiman's time it was cultivated, 
and Sâri Rostem Pasha founded a khan here with one hundred and seventy fireplaces, 
a pleasant mosque and bath covered with lead, and about one thousand houses 
faced with brick built by Koja Sinan. The administrator of these endowments of 
Rostem Pasha, is at the same time the first public oflBcer of the place. Besides its 
white cherries, it is renowned for its white bread, Sumiin, which is baked in a 
shop underneath the bath, and which keeps its flavour and does not become 
mouldy for the space of six days. It has often been sent by couriers to the Shah 
of Persia, has arrived fresh, and obtained general approbation. Its good qualities 
are due to the water. 

Praise of the Lake of Sabdnja. 

Its circumference is twenty miles, and seventy-six villages adorn its shores. 
The people who drink of its water are of ruddy complexion, and the products of 
the land are abundant ; there are no vineyards, but a great number of gardens. 
On the borders of the lake there are melons and water-melons of such a size that two 
make an ass-load. On the lake are from seventy to eighty kaiks and boats, which 



92 THETRAVELSOF 

are employed in the passage from village to village, and for the transport of wood. 
There are a great number of most delicious fish. Its depth is twenty fathoms, the 
water is clear and brilliant, and excellent for washing without soap. It is this water 
which gives a whiteness resembling cotton to the bread Sûmûnî. On the east 
side of the lake, at two hours distance, passes the river Sakaria, which disem- 
bogues into the Black Sea in the province of Koja Ilf at the place called Irva ; it 
would require but little spirit of enterprise to unite the lake with the sea, by means 
of this river, a branch of which goes down to the salt-marshes of Nicomedia. As 
early as the reign of Mohammed III. a great number of workmen were employed 
in establishing a communication between the gulf of Nicomedia and the lake of 
Sabanja, but the undertaking was given up at the request of the inhabitants. If 
the Sakaria were united with this lake, and the lake with the gulf of Nicomedia, this 
town would be quite an inland port ; the timber and wood might be brought down 
to Boll, and it would cost no more than five aspers the quintal. God make it easy ! 
We marched to the eastward six hours, along the seashore, through thick forests, 
called " Ocean of trees," and crossed the Sakaria by a wooden bridge ; this river 
issues from the mountain Chifteler, passes through Koja Ilı, and goes into the 
Black Sea near Irva. 

The Statio7t of Khandak-bazdrt. 

A small place belonging to the territory of Koja Ilı, with woods, mountains, 
gardens, a mosque, a khân, a bath, a market, a judge appointed with one hundred 
and fifty aspers, an ofiicer of the janissaries, and a Sûbashî. In the woody marsh 
here, is a long wooden bridge (causeway) famous all over Arabia and Persia. We 
marched twelve hours further on through thick forests, and came to Dûzje-bazâr, 
the first place belonging to Boli, in a mountainous region, with a mosque and two 
khans founded by Shemsi Pasha, who also paved the road. In the neighbourhood 
are many villages. 

West of this place on the side of Akcheshar, and two hours beyond the river Melân 
is the place of U'skiibi, a khass of the territory of Boli, with a mosque, a khân, and 
a bath. Nine hours further on we reached Boh, conquered in Osmân's name by 
Sonkor Bai Shemsi, to whom and to whose descendants it was given as hereditary 
property (Ojaklik). Its castle was built by the Greek Commander of Brussa, it is 
a small ruined castle, on a high mountain without vestige of cultivation. Accord- 
ing to the division of Sultan Mohammed II. it is the seat of a sanjak. The khass 
of the Beg amounts to three hundred thousand one hundred and twenty-two aspers, 
fourteen ziamets, and fifty-five timârs, with the Jebellis two thousand eight hundred 
swords. The judge is appointed with three hundred aspers : five districts belong 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 93 

to it, viz. the district round the town of Boli, that of Gokjesûî, that of S^zak 
Kerde to the left of Boli, that of Tûrtıir-divân, and that of Yaflije. The annual 
revenue is five thousand piastres, and those of the Beg fifteen thousand. But the 
judge and Beg are obliged to be very cautious, because if they commit the 
smallest injustice, the Rayas can reach Constantinople in three days, and complain 
of the oppressor. There is an officer of the janissaries, of the Sipahis, and a 
Nakib-ul-i'shnif. Though the inhabitants are Turcomans, yet there is a great 
number of merchants. It is a large town of thirty-four quarters and as many 
mosques, three thousand well covered houses, some of which are faced with bricks ; 
some serais and mosques. In the market-place is that of Mustafa Pasha and of 
Ferhâd Pâshd, much frequented ; they are both the work of Koja Sinan the great 
architect : the best and most pleasant bath is that of Shemsi : seven khans, and 
seven fountains, all founded by Shemsi Pasha ; four hundred elegant shops, but 
no college or school of tradition, as far as I know of; but there are seventy schools 
for boys, and more than two hundred of whom know the Koran by heart. The book 
Mohammedieh is much read here ; they have also story-tellers who recite moral 
maxims (Oghuz). The mildness of the air contributes to the beauty of the in- 
habitants. The women wear Ferrâjîs and large head-dresses, they are very 
decent and modest ladies. There are a great number of gardens and vineyards. 
Of its eatables and products the cherries are the most renowned. The water-cans 
of fir-tree refresh those who drink out of them like the living spring ; these cans 
are called Akasik and Podiich. The inhabitants for the most part are merchants. 
The surrounding forests being composed of fir-trees, the inhabitants live by cutting 
and making planks of them, which are much esteemed at Constantinople. Two 
journies to the west from this place is the landing-place of Akcheshar ; those of 
Eregli, Bartın, and Hissarogi, also belong to the sanjak of Boli. The hotbath 
lies to the south, on the outside of the town ; amidst the gardens is a small hot- 
bath, extremely hot and particularly useful against the itch. It purifies the stomach 
and cleanses the body. People of all degrees flock to this hotbath on waggons. 

Places of Pilgrimage at Bolt. 

The convent of Yuzghfid Baba near the hotbath. We marched twelve hours 
to the east, through cultivated villages to Kerde, the seat of a Sûbashî subordinate 
to Boll ; a judge with one hundred and fifty aspers. The town consists of a 
thousand wooden and brick- built houses in a large valley, nine quarters, and 
eleven mosques, besides the Mesjids ; three convents, three khans, two hundred 
shops, and seven coffee-houses. The knife-cutlers and tanners of Kerde are re- 
nowned for the knives and Safien of this place. The air is pleasant, and 



94 THETRAVELSOF 

the inhabitants healthy ; they are mostly students eager for information (Sûkhte 
Thalebî). It is a common saying that Kerde is famous for its thieves, its tanners, 
and its winter, which is compared to that of Erzerum ; the inhabitants are a set of 
lively stout Turks. At the four points of the compass, and particularly on the 
south towards Kânghrî, are cultivated districts inliabited by forty or fifty thou- 
sand Turks. The names of the districts are, Kizîl-ûzû, Alaja-ûzu, Aleh-di- 
vân, Bir-divân, Ikî-divan, Uch-divân, and so on to seven Divâns, ali in the 
mountains. The name of Divân given to these districts originated in the time 
of Ertoghrul, who, being named Beg by Ala-ud-din the Prince of the Seljuk 
family, granted to the Infidels, whose districts he conquered, the privilege of 
kettle-drums. The name is thus preserved in seven districts, whose inhabitants 
are a rebellious people, speaking a peculiar language of their own. 

From Kerde we travelled to the eastward for the space of eight hours, through 
cultivated villages, to the village of Bayander in the district of Boli, a jurisdiction 
of one hundred and fifty aspers. The conquest of these villages situated amongst 
steep mountains cost much blood to Osman. Here are three hundred covered 
houses, a khân where every passenger is allowed to stay, and receives wood, 
straw and water, gratis. We travelled thence through a straight, called Hamâmlî 
Boghâz, and came with a thousand difficulties at the end of nine hours to the place 
Jerkesh, the seat of a Subashi in the sanjak of Kânghrî. Here is a judge with one 
hundred and fifty aspers, an officer of the janissaries, and Sipâhis. The town consists 
of three hundred houses, a mosque, a bath and from forty to fifty shops. Mustafa 
Pâshâ, the sword-bearer to Sultân Murad IV., built a khân here of fifty fire-places, 
and one hundred shops, but died before it was finished. Once a week a great 
market is held here. Seven hours further on is the village of Karajalar, a ziâmet 
in the jurisdiction of Kânghrî, three hundred houses of poor but very obstinate 
Turks ; they will sell a trunk of a tree forty times over, putting it in the water 
every night, so that you may be compelled to lay out ten aspers in brushwood 
to set it on fire. A traveller marked one of these trunks by fixing a nail in it, 
and when he returned three years afterwards from the siege of Erivan, they 
gave him the very same trunk, which he had tried in vain to burn three years 
before. Thus they will sell a trunk forty times, and praise it as being forty years 
old. They also trade in different small articles, particularly in girdles, for which 
Karajalar is renowned. 

Pilgrimage to Habib Karamdni. 
Habib was born at Ortakoî near Nikde, and is buried here. He died a Sheikh 
of the Beirâmî in the reign of Mohammed II. Hamza Efendi was one of his 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 95 

disciples. We left Karajalar, and after nine hours walk, we came to Kojhissâr a 
jurisdiction of Kcinghri. Its castle was conquered in the year 708 by Osman, 
and destroyed in order that it should no longer afford shelter to the Infidels. 
Nine hours further on, we reached the town of Tussia, conquered by Mohammed I, 
the seat of a Sûbashî, and of a judge appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers. 
The public officers are a commander of the janissaries (Serdar), an officer of the 
Sipâhîs (Kiaya-yerî), a Mufti and Nakfb ; though it is a Turkish town, yet there 
is a great number of learned divines. The town is situated on an elevation, and 
consists of three thousand wooden houses faced with brick, there are eleven 
quarters, twenty-one mosques, besides the mesjids, seven khdns, three hundred 
and forty shops, and a Bezestau with an iron gate. The KiizK and Leblebi 
Halwa (two sorts of sweetmeats) of the place, are famous. The air is heavy ; the 
inhabitants are Turks, but very kind to strangers. Outside the town in a fine 
meadow is the tomb of Sheat Baba Sultân, to which pilgrimages are performed. 

Our road now led for eight hours, amongst the mountains along the border 
of the Kizil Irmak (Red river) when we arrived at the village of Haj Hamza, the 
companion and disciple of Habfb Karamanı ; this village was his birth-place : there 
remains only an ancient mosque on the great road, the other houses are in ruins. 
It is on the banks of the Kizil Irmak, the opposite shore of which is laid out in 
elegant gardens. The Kizil Irmak issues from the mountains of Churum and 
enters the Black Sea near the village of Bafra, where it forms a cascade, the noise 
of which alarms men like the rolling of thunder ; the river rushes on with great 
impetuosity, and is not navigable. Its colour is red both in winter and summer ; 
it is a cruel water, for, in attempting to cross to the opposite shore on 
horseback I was upset with my horse in the middle of it, and saved with difficulty 
by getting hold of a willow. We left Hâjî Hamza and continued our road to 
the eastward among the mountains and along the Kizil Irmak. The road winds 
along the rocks at the base of the high mountain called Sârîmâshiklî, so that on 
the right side are the cliffs, and on the left a precipice, at the bottom of which 
flows the Kizil Irraak, which in some places must be crossed. After eight hours 
march we came to the Castle of Osmanjik. Some say that Osman was born 
at this place, and the castle built by his successors. In the year 795 it was 
taken out of the hands of the Turks by liderim Bayazîd. It is the seat of a 
Voivode belonging to the sanjak of Churum, and has a judge with a salary of one 
hundred and fifty aspers appointed to it ; there is a Serdâr and Kiaya-yerî, but 
no Mufti or Nakib. There are few distinguished inhabitants, but a great 
number of gardens. You cross the Kizil-Irmak by a bridge to the castle, it is 
of a strong architecture, no more than eight hundred paces in circumference. 



96 THETRAVELSOF 

with an iron gate. As it is situated so amazingly high I did not see the interior, 
but only the outer town or suburb, consisting of a thousand old Titar houses 
covered with planks and earth, there are seven quarters and as many mosques, 
three khans, and a small bath, the water of which is drawn from a well supplied 
by the Kizil Irmdk. On three sides of the town is sandy ground. Raisins are 
very sweet here on account of the heat of the soil. In the sand grows a plant 
called Kabre (Capers) which preserved in vinegar is in great use. The poor and 
almost all the inhabitants are Dervishes of the order of Hajf-Begtash, because 
one of their pnncipal Saints is buried on the west side of the town on an elevated 
spot. 

Pilgrimage to the tomb of the great Saint Koyun Baba, (Father of the 

Dynasty of the Sheep.) 

He was the true successor of Haji Begtâsh. Having appeared to Sultân 
Bayazîd, he ordered him to build a cupola on his tomb, a mosque, a convent, a 
meeting-place for the Dervishes, (Meidan), a caravanserai with kitchen and cellar. 
All these establishments are covered with lead, which with the golden crescents 
on them dazzle the eyes of beholders even at a distance. The imaret (kitchen 
for the poor) is smoking day and night. As soon as I, poor Evliya, arrived here, 
I went to visit this place of pilgrimage ; I kissed the threshold, saying, " Es-selam 
aleik," and entered the tomb, where I read the Koran, thanking God for the grace 
he had granted me to visit it. The cupola is perfumed with musk and amber, 
which is very agreeable to the senses of visitors, on whom the keepers of the 
mausoleum also sprinkle rose-water. The preacher and the other Dervishes 
Begtashi who watch and pray at the tomb, said prayers on the head of me, poor 
Evliya, wishing me a happy journey, with good sight, and perfect health and 
happiness in both worlds. The Dervishes all uttered the Mohammedan shout 
(Allah !) and read a Fâtihah. When the Sheikh covered my head with his cap, I 
felt a wind blowing on both my ears, and my eyes were lighted up like Arab 
torches. Since the shipwreck which I had suffered in the Black Sea, swimming 
naked for three days and nights, my sight had suffered cruelly, and was only 
restored by this head-dress (the Crown of felicity) being put on my head. I then 
conversed with all the poor of the convent, and dined with them, and I have 
ever since kept the symbols of Dervishship, which I received at the Convent, viz. 
the habit (Khirka) ; the carpet (Sejade ;) the standard (A'alem) ; the drum 
(Tabl Kûdümî) ; the halter (Palehenk) ; the stick (Assa) ; and the head-dress or 
crown, (Taj). 

Inside of the cupola are different inscriptions by the visitors, to which I added 



evliya efendi. 97 

one of my own composition which suddenly occurred to me. The name of Koyun 
Baba was given to this Saint, because when he came from Khorassan in Haji 
Begtash's company, he bleated like a sheep once in twenty-four hours, which was 
the signal for prayer. The Dervishes of the order of Begtcish are generally in 
bad repute, but those of this convent are indeed meek like sheep, devout, pious, 
praying people, and in all my travels in Rdm, Arabia, and Persia, I met nowhere 
a more worthy convent. 

Pilgrimage to the Tomb of Burhdndedeli. 

A great Saint renowned for many miracles. The bridge, a work of Bayazid II. 
is a marvellous pile of building of nineteen arches, each arch gives an idea of the 
rainbow, of the galaxy, of the girdle of Divine Power, or of the Tak Kosra. Its 
length, from one end to the other, is four hundred and fifty paces ; and although 
the river was so rapid, the architect built it straight as the bridge of Sirat (over 
which souls are to pass on the day of the last Judgment). We halted here for 
a day, then again crossing the bridge, and marching towards the west, amidst 
frightful mountains, we arrived at the small pass of Direglibil ; which, if one man 
only ascends to the top of the rock, and rolls stones down, he may defend 
against a thousand men. It is known in all Asia, and called Diregli-bil (the pass 
with trees), because the mountain being excavated in many places, and threatening 
to fall down, the rocks are supported by trees, which were placed there by well- 
meaning people. Here our gracious lord the Pasha descended from his horse, and 
taking some of the stones out of the road, which encumbered it, himself threw 
them down the precipice ; this example was instantly followed by the whole suite, 
four hundred men, who dismounting, cleared the road of the stones, shouting Allah, 
with the clarions sounding. After nine hours march from Osmanjik, we came to 
the village Hâjîkoı, the frontier of the sanjak of Amasia, a ruined village, with a 
khan in ruins, though it is very well situated for cultivation. Six hours further on 
we reached the field of Mârzivân, and the village of Kerkiraz, belonging to 
Amasia, with sixty villages, a mosque, and khan, also falling into ruins. At the end 
of eight hours we came to the mountain town of Amasia, which is said to have 
been built by the Amalekites, and, according to others, by Ferhâd, the mountain 
cutter. In the year 476 (1083) it was conquered by Sultân Melek Ghazî, of the 
Dânishmend family. The princes of Azerbeijan laid siege to it more than once, 
without being able to take it. From the hands of the Dânishmend family it 
passed into those of the Seljuk. It was then conquered by Sultan liderim, who 
thus prevented its falling into the hands of Timur. He then made his son Issa 
Chelebi governor, and coins were struck, which bear the inscription of Amasia, of 

VOL. II. o 



98 THETRAVELSOF 

the purest silver, which is found in three mines here. At the division of the 
empire by Sultan Mohammed II, Amasia is described as the seat of a Beg. It 
has sometimes been given as Arpalik to Vezirs of three tails. According to the 
Kantin, its khass amounts to two hundred thousand aspers, nineteen ziamets, and 
forty-two timârs ; it has an Ala'i Beg and Cheri-bashi. Tlie Zaims and Timâriots, 
with the Jebelli, amount to three thousand men; the judge has three hundred 
aspers a day. The districts (Nahie) are those of Aine-bazar, Kildighdn, Aktâgh, 
and Kafâla ; the jurisdictions those of Koprî, Samara, Zeitûn, Gumish, Bûlâk, 
Merzifün, Kerkerâr, Lâdik, Veraî, and Zenûn-abdd. The annual revenue of the 
iudo-e is valued at seven thousand piastres, and those of the Pdsha at seventy 
thousand piastres. Five Sübashis are attached to the khass of the Pasha, viz., 
Shehrbah-bazdr, Werai, Aine-bazârî, Akt<Cgh, and Siiliova. Its magistrates are, 
the Sheikh-ul-Islam, the Nakîb-ul-ishrâf, the Serdâr of the Janissaries, and the 
Kiayayerf of the Sipahis. There are many learned divines and rich merchants. 

Form and size of Amasia. 

Its towers, crowning the height of the mountains are always veiled with clouds, 
and it is only at noon that the spires of the mosques, and the roofs of the houses 
are visible. Its circumference is nine thousand and sixty paces. In form it is a 
pentagon, extremely strong, worthy of being a work of Ferhâd, with forty-one 
towers, and eight hundred battlements altogether. The number of the houses is 
not known to me. There are magazines, cistei-ns, and a road cut in the rock, 
leading down to the water, called Chapân Yoli, of three thousand and seven steps. 
It has no luarket-place (Charshii), or market (Bazar). There are four iron gates 
looking to the east. In the castle is a mosque built by Sultân liderim, and a mar- 
vellously deep dungeon, resembling the pit of hell ; and seventy cannons, but of no 
sreat calibre, as it is not a frontier fortress. This castle has six wonderful caverns, 
where the rich inhabitants hid their valuable effects in the time of the AnatoUan 
rebellions of Kara Yaziji, and Kara Said. 

Timiir besieged this fortress with an innumerable army for the space of seven 
months, and was obliged to retire in confusion. Though it is situated in the midst 
of the province, yet a commander (Dizdar) and a garrison is appointed, lest rebels 
should gain possession of it. The lower castle is built on the banks of the river 
Tûzânli, a small castle, whose circumference is not known to me. It has three 
gates, the first opens towards the Kiblah, Karânlik Kapû ; the second Ma'adenos 
Kapu, looks in the same direction ; and the third, Meidan Kapû, to the west ; 
from whence a great bridge leads to Gok-medresse, on the opposite side of the 
town. The gate Serkiz leads over a wooden bridge to the mosque of Ghariblar. 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 99 

The number of mosques, palaces, and houses are six hundred. The river Tûzîinlî, 
which passes through the town, issues from the mountains of the same name above 
Tokat, passes by Eski, Aine-bazar, Kargol, the castle of Tiirhfil, Chcngellî-bîl, 
Sârikûsûn, the bridge of Davikavf, Chapan, through the pass of Ferhâd to Amasia, 
where it joins the river Chekerek, opposite the great stone bridge. This river 
springs from the lake of Ladek, conies from Suliova, and joins the Tuzânlı 
near Amasia as aforesaid. It is vulgarly called Yava ; the proverb, " Tokat 
defiles it, Amasia drinks it," is applied to it because it flows from Tokat to 
Amasia. After it has passed Amasia it is called Chehâr Shenbesü (Wednesday's 
water), and after irrigating many fields, it disembogues in the Black Sea, on the 
western side of Samsun. Below the village Chehâr Shenbeh it is joined by several 
springs, and below Nîgissâr, in the province of Sivas, it receives the river Kerkük ; 
thus it reaches Samsun, after having increased its stream by those of seven other 
rivers. The town of Amasia is built on both sides of this river, and on the hills 
and mountains bordering on it. A bridge worth seeing, the work of Sultân 
Bayazid, crosses it. This river comes to Amasia from the south, running north- 
ward, and turning many mills and water-wheels ; which at Amasia are not less to 
be praised than those of Hama and Adana. Amasia is divided into forty-eight 
quarters of Moslims, and five of Christians ; there are altogether five thousand 
houses, besides palaces. 

The Serai of the Sultân is situated on the banks of the river, surrounded by 
delightful gardens, curious trees, and many seats ; it is cultivated by a master 
gardener (Usta), and fifty gardeners, who wear yellow caps. The Serai of Ma- 
hommed Pasha is close to the mosque ; within the castle is the Serai of Sultcin 
Bayazid, and many others, faced with brick ; there are altogether two hundred 
and forty mosques. Among them is the mosque of Bayazid II. In his youth 
Bayazid was first made governor of Trebisonde, and then of Amasia ; his father, 
Mahommed II, having died at Maldepeh, he went to Constantinople to ascend the 
throne, but gratefully remembering that he was made Emperor at Amasia, he 
freed the inhabitants from all contributions, and built this mosque, one hundred 
feet square : the mihrab, minber, and mahfil of the Muezzins are of elegant 
workmanship. The cupola is not very large, but adorned, like those of other 
imperial mosques, with circles for suspending lamps and other ornaments. The 
chronograph on the gate opposite the Kiblah gives the date of its building, 892 
(1486), it has two minarehs, and in the middle of the court-yard a water-basin for 
ablutions. The mosque of Kuchiik Aghâ, opposite the river Chekerek ; the 
mosque of Bayazid Pasha, covered with lead, and paved with marble ; the mosque 
of Mohammed Pasha, covered with lead, and one minareh ; the mosque of Khizr 



100 THE TRAVELS OF 

Elias, a large building, covered with lead ; the mosque of Mekkeme, built of wood, 
as also is the minareh ; the mosque Fethie, formerly a Christian church and con- 
vent ; the mosque of Yogurch Pasha, who was Vezir to Mohammed I. ; the 
mosque of Gokmedresse, covered with lead, but without a minareh ; besides a 
great number of Mesjids. There are ten colleges, the most elegant of which is 
that of Sultân Bayazîd ; nineteen houses for reading the Koran ; at that of Sultdn 
Bayazid there are more than three hundred Hâfizes (who know the Koran by 
heart) ; ten houses of tradition ; and two hundred schools for boys, some of which 
are covered with lead. There are forty convents for Dervishes, the best of which 
is that of Jelâl-ud-dîn Rûmî, and ten dining establishments ; at that of Sultân 
Bayazid all the poor dine twice a day. Of the Caravanserais, that of Sulttin 
Bayazid is covered with lead, as is also that of Bairdm Pashd, the Vezir of Murad 
IV. The Khans are lead-covered, with iron gates, besides those for merchants 
(Khoja), there are those for single men (Mujerred) ; these last have their own 
gatekeepers, and are shut up every night, so that those who do not come home 
before the hour for closing are not let in, and those who are within cannot go out 
till the gates are thrown open in the morning, when eveiy person goes to his work. 

In the market-place (Charshii) there are altogether one thousand and sixty 
shops, and one hundred and sixty different workmen, with vaults of stone like the 
market place of Brussa. A Bezestan with four iron gates. The market place is 
paved with large slabs. There are many distinguished inhabitants. 

Inhabitants, Language, Dress, Provisions, ^c. , 

The inhabitants are a set of merry jolly fellows, and are all red-faced and fresh- 
coloured ; their occupation may be thus described ; — first, the Zaims and Timariots 
and the Pasha's court ; secondly, the divines, judges, and professors ; the Imams, 
Khatibs, Muezzins, &c. ; and thirdly, the merchants and handicraftsmen. There 
are many well-bred highly -finished gentlemen, who speak with great eloquence, 
but the dialect of the common people is harsh. The wealthy dress in sable 
pelisses and Ferraji of cloth, the middle classes in Bogassin. The women are 
Turkish beauties, with well-ranged teeth and words. 

From the district of Kfighla comes a sort of corn called Dârdevedîshî, of which 
most excellent bread is made, called Levasha, Kerde, Chakil ; there are forty sorts 
of pears, ruby-coloured cherries, and seven sorts of grapes and quinces, of which 
a far-famed robb is made, and sent to Princes as a present. 

Sherbet of must, scented with musk ; sherbet of quince jelly, which, on account 
of its heating quality, is as useful in medicine as terra sigillata. The sherbets 
called Khardalie, Büldâklî, are exported into Persia ; a pleasant white beverage. 

The workmen are clever in all kind of handicraft, but the tailors and cotton 



evliya efendi. 101 

beaters are the most famous, as well as the barbers and confectioners. In the 
time of the Amalekites, the river Tûzânlî did not pass through the town ; it was 
Ferhâd, the lover of Shirin, who cut these mountains like cheese, and the traces 
of his work is yet to be seen in the mountains on the west side of the town. 

The situation of this town in a deep valley, and on the banks of a river, contri- 
butes to the mildness of the air, and the riches of its cultivation. The windows 
of the houses look to the west and north ; the winter is temperate. The water 
which Ferhâd carried to the town from the opposite mountains is delightful; it is 
distributed from house to house. 

Of the Walks, and Pilgrimages or Tombs. 

There are seventy different walks ; the first is that of the bloody fountain (Kânlî 
binar ;) it is so called because a wicked old woman having brought false news to 
Ferhâd here, of Sherin's death, he threw his hatchet into the air, and himself down 
the precipice, by which means he was killed. 

The tomb of Ottoman Princes, who are buried in the cypress wood, their names 
I do not know ; the tomb of Zekeria Khalveti, he was the first disciple of Pi'r 
Elias, and is bvmed near the saddlers' shops (Serrajiler). The pilgrimage of the 
Sultân of the faith, the Simorgh of truth Sheikh Abd-ur-rahman Ben Hassâm-ud- 
din Gomishli-zadeh, he is the nephew of Fir Elias, and was a dervish of the order 
of Khalveti, of whom many miracles are related. The three Princes, sons of 
Murad II. having visited this Sheikh, two of them kissed his hand, and the third, 
Mohammed, kissed his feet. The Sheihk took the handkerchief (Reda) he wore 
on his neck, tied it round the neck of Prince Mohammed, and admonished him to 
take care of the Moslfms at Constantinople. This Sheikh has left many poems on 
divine love ; his poetical name is Hossami. His tomb is near th^t of Pır Ehas, 
in the convent of Yakub Pasha. Molla Kassem Khatib Ben Yakub, who was 
born and buried at Amasia, one of the deepest of learned divines. Molla Ala-ud-dîn 
Ilîkâmi, born and buried at Amasia. Molla Abd-ul-jebbâr Ajemî, near the tomb 
of the Ottoman Princes. Molla Abd-ur-rahman Ben Ali Ben Moyed, born and 
buried at Amasia. The Sultan of poets, Munîrî Efendi, born and buried at 
Amasia, he improvisated Arabic, Turkish, and Persian poems, and was one of the 
Vezirs of Prince Ahmed, when Governor of Amasia. The excellent female poet, 
Mihrmah Khatun, descending from Pir Elias's family, was a virtuous lady like 
Rabie Adiiye, who knew seventy scientific books by heart, and beat the most 
learned men in disputing : her true name being Mihrmah, she took the name of 
Mihri for her poetical surname ; she left a Divân, and some theological treatises, 
and was buried near her grandfather. Sheikh Pır Elias. 



102 THETRAVELSOF 

Pilgrimage of the Pole of Poles, the Sheikh, par excellence, the cream of saints, 
the column of the Princes, Sheikh Pır Elias. He was one of the Sheikhs of 
Sultân Bayazîd I., and went with Timur to Shirvân, from whence he returned to 
Amasia, his birth-place, where he is buried on an elevated spot, called Sevddie, 
near Amasia. He is famed for many miracles, one of the most celebrated is, that 
when his corpse was washed, he straightened the hand which had been placed crooked 
by the washing-man. His mausoleum, with all the foundations belonging to it, 
was erected by Bayazîd H., son of Sultân Mohammed II. Strangers and poor 
persons are here most liberally entertained. Praise be to God, that I was so 
happy as to visit it, and to finish a complete lecture of the Koran there. The 
pilgrimage of Kelij Arslan, a Sheikh of the Mevlevis, buried in the convent of 
that order. The pilgrimage of Ferhâd ; he is buried on the top of the mountain 
which he cut for the love of Sherin, and the old woman who was the cause of his 
death is buried between him and his mistress. The thistles and thorns which grow 
on the tomb of the old woman prevent the flowers uniting., which grow on the 
tombs of Ferhdd and Shen'n. 

There are a great number of pilgrimages of great and holy men, but I visited 
only those I have given an account of, and at each, in honour of their souls, said 
the Siira Yass, asking for their spiritual assistance. On the third day of our stay 
the clarions of departure sounded ; we took leave of our friends, and travelled the 
same day through the mountains of Chengelli-bil, reaching, after six hours march, 
the station of Kânlî-bînâr, which is the spot where Ferhâd killed himself. It is a 
pleasant place, with a luxuriant spring of most delightful water. We watered 
our horses here, and pitched our tents, and continued our road next morning 
towards the north for seven hours. We arrived at the village of Ezil, a district 
belonging to Amasia, three hundred houses with gardens, a khan, a mosque, 
and a bath. 

The Town and Castle of Nigissdr. 

The next day we reached, in eight hours time, the seat of the Ddnishmend family, 
the old town and stronghold of Nîgissâr. Its builder was a Greek Emperor ; it 
was conquered in the year 476 (1083) by Sultan Melek Ghâzı, of the Danishmend 
family, and became the seat of this dynasty ; their second residence was 
Amasia. The Seljuks, who anxiously wished to possess it, laid siege to it several 
times without success. Its name is a corruption of Nıg-hissâr, the good castle. 
It is an ancient, strong-built castle, on a limestone rock, five hundred and sixty 
paces in circumference, of an hexagon shape : the three gates face the east, west, 
and south ; within the castle are three hundred houses and magazines, and a mosque. 



evliya efendi. ]03 

which was formerly a church. The garrison is small in number, because it is not 
a frontier fortress ; they only keep watch against rebels ; the lower suburb is a 
large town, but its streets being narrow, and going continually up and down hill, it 
is with difficulty that a horseman can make his way to the market-place, and for a 
waggon to do so is out of the question. This town belongs to the khass of the 
Pcîshâ of Sivas, the residence of a Sübashî of seven hundred purses' revenue, the 
judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers, and there is a Mufti, NakflD, 
Serdar, and Kiaya-yeri. The town comprises forty-three quarters, with sixty 
mihrâb (Jâmî and Mesjids), of which nine are Friday mosques, wherein the 
Khutbe is peiformed. The mosque of the castle was formerly a church, an ancient 
place of worship. To the mosque of Melek Ghâzî, the visitor descends by five or 
six steps ; it has a slender, thin, well-proportioned minareh : its equal is not to be 
seen elsewhere. The mosque of Chaplakdneh is faced with bricks. At the west end 
of the town is the mosque of Juregf ; outside of the castle is the mosque of Khalil 
Efendi, just finished, faced with brick ; also outside of the castle is the mosque 
of the Mufti. The houses of the town, in the valley, and on the hill, ascending 
one above the other, are two thousand seven hundred in number, faced either with 
earth or bricks. There are three baths, viz., that of the Mufti in the castle, that 
of Chaplakhaneh outside of the castle, and tl;at of the Infidels, also outside of the 
castle, besides forty-five private baths in the palaces. 

The Hot-spring of N'lgissdr. 

It is a small hot-bath outside of the town to the south ; the women and boys of 
the town wash their clothes here ; it is a well-flavoured water, has no sulphurous 
smell, and is useful as a remedy in leprous and arthritic diseases. It is visited 
every year, in the month of July, by a great number of people, who amuse them- 
selves for a month, and then return to their homes. There is a college, and 
house for reading of the Kordn and tradition, but no kitchen for the poor ; 
there are seventy schools for boys. The inhabitants are an honest set of people, 
with some beautiful women amongst them. There are seven convents, the first of 
which is the great convent of Chevregî ; that of Elias-dedeh is not less famous. 
There are a great number of springs and fountains, which move as many corn and 
fulling mills, also five hundred elegant shops, but no Bezestân. Tlie narrow 
street, which leads down from the castle, is lined on both sides with shoemakers' 
shops ; the principal streets are paved with large slabs. The inhabitants are fresh- 
coloured lively looking Turks, who pay great attention to strangers. Among 
the eatables, pomegi-anates are much famed ; they each weigh an occa, and some 
even as much as five hundred dirhems, and are of the size of a man's head. The 



104 THETRAVELSOF 

cheese, Kufte and Passdagh of this place are famous ; the environs are laid out in 
rice plantations (Cheltuk). The Black Sea is two journies distance from this place. 

Pilgrimages of Nigissdr. 

The conqueror of Nigissdr, Melek Ghâzî, of the Danishmend family, is buried 
near the castle gate. God's mercy be upon him ! Chevregî-boyûk Sultân lies near 
the great mosque, beneath a cupola. We left this town and advanced towards 
the east, through mountains and forests. After six hours march we reached 
Kariebash Chiftlik, the frontier of Sivas, here bordering the governorships of 
Erzerum, with two hundred Armenian houses, and a ziamet. The next day, as 
soon as we trod the ground of Erzerum, we offered up a sacrifice of two hundred 
and seven camels, and the inhabitants of Erzerum, with the Kiaya of the Chaushes, 
the Defter-Eminf, the Chaûshlar-Emînî, the Timar Defterdarı, and other gentle- 
men of the Divan at their head, came to meet us with presents. 

The Governorship of Erzerum or Erzenrum. 

It is situated in Azerbeîjân and Armenia, and, according to some, erected by 
Nurshivan ; but the truth is that it was by Erzenbai Ben Softâr Ben Kunduz, of 
the dynasty of the White Sheep, whose ancestors had come from Mahdn, and 
built the castle of Akhldt, on the borders of the lake Wan ; they are all buried at 
Akhlat, and the ancestors of the Ottomans, Ertoghrul and Suleiman, derive their 
lineage from them. Uzun Hassan, ha\ang become master of Azerbeijan, built the 
castle called Hassan, after his name, at Erzeröm. Envious of the conquest of 
Constantinople by Mohammed II., he began to trespass on the frontiers, and to 
violate the peace. Mohammed II., in defiance of him, conquered Trebisonde, and 
defeated him with twenty thousand men in the field of Terjean. With great 
difficulty we traversed the rude pass of Iskefser, and in three hours we reached 
Shakhna, an Armenian village of two hundred houses, where the Armenian girls 
are wonderfully pretty. From Constantinople to this place we had constantly 
ascended towards the east, and all the rivers were flowing from that direction 
towards us ; this will show on what high ground Erzerum is situated. From 
Shakhna we crossed the Governorship of Ezenim, which was our allotted province, 
in different directions to the south, north, east, and west, and shall now describe 
the stations of these our excursions. 

Tekine is a village in the jurisdiction of Iskefser, with one hundred houses, 
a ziamet. Five hours further on is the village of Chadar, of one hundred houses, 
in the jurisdiction of Koilî. The castle of Koilf was built by Usun Hassan, from 
fear of Mohammed II. ; it belongs to the sanjak Shuban Kara Hissar, in the pro- 



E VL I YA efendi. 105 

vince of Erzerüm ; it is situated on a high rock, and is one thousand three 
hundred paces in circumference. Inside are one hundred houses and magazines, 
an iron gate opens to the west ; it has a commander and seventy men ; the suburb 
outside consists of one hundred houses, a mosque and some shops. The castle 
saluted us with seventeen guns, and the inhabitants met us with presents ; they 
slaughtered ten sheep as a sacrifice, for which they received ten ducats. Two stations 
north of this village, on the shore of the Black Sea, is Baihssa-bazârî, which a 
man on foot may reach in one day. In the reign of Ahmed I. the Cossacks of 
Oczakov pillaged this place : the environs being gardens and flowery meadows are 
extremely favourable to bees, and the honey of Koilî-hissâr, scented with musk 
and ambergris, is famous ; the inhabitants are a turbulent set of people. We 
descended a deep precipice, and after seven hours reached the village of Doirfln. 
The river here issues from the mountains of Kerkük, is joined by several 
streams from the mountains of Koili-hissar, and below Chehârshenbe by the 
river of that name, which passes Amasia. The Kerkük is an excellent fresh- 
water river. I'he village of Doiran, situated on its banks, in the valley of 
Akshâr, consists of one hundred houses. We now went towards the east four 
hours, to Anderes on the frontier of Shuban Kara-hissar, in the valley of 
Akshâr, a village of one hundred houses. Having marched two hours towards 
the east, we reached the Chiftlik of Taban Ahmed Agha, where the Pasha was 
presented with an Arabian horse, and with twenty horses for his suite, three thousand 
sheep, seven strings of camels, seven of mules, and ten purses ; it was a great 
festival, worthy of the Ottoman court itself. In recompense for this great festival, 
the giver of it, Ahmed Agha, was imprisoned in the Kiaya's room, and bought 
his life by the payment of forty purses and seventy camels, by which opportunity 
I also got a horse. Two hours further on lies the village of Ezbeder, in the ter- 
ritory of Shuban Kara-hissar, an Armenian village surrounded with gardens. Four 
hours further we reached the valley of Tilismât Za'aba; the torrent of Tilismât 
Za'aba issues from the neighbouring mountains, and falls into the river Akhlat ; 
there are one hundred houses here built upon rocky ground ; the subjects here are all 
Armenians. A cave is still shown in which there was formerly a treasure, guarded by 
two swords, which were continually moving up and down, a mast has many times 
been put beneath them and instantly cut through ; a magician has since got pos- 
session of the treasure, but the cave still remains to be seen. There is, besides, 
another talisman somewhere hereabout, but I have not seen it. Five hours from 
hence is the village Yaküb, on the frontier of Shuban Kara ; three hours further 
on, that of Korkun Kiassî, and in one hour more, the village of Barii ; after which 
we came through the pass of Tekman, which is closed by the winter for seven or 

VOL. II. P 



]06 THETRAVELSOF 

eight months. After having got through it with much difficulty, we reached Kâzî- 
oghlikoi, an Armenian village. Four hours further is the castle of Shiran, on the 
frontier of Shuban Kara ; in four hours the village of Kara Jalar ; in five hours 
the village of Sârîchalar, inhabited by Moslims and Armenians ; in eight hours the 
village of Sal lit, the pass of which we traversed with considerable trouble, and for 
the space of five hours were crossing the great plain of Kerkük. At the end of this 
plain is the village of Genj Mohammed Agha, with two hundred houses and a 
mosque, on the frontier of the district of Shuban Kara-hissar ; five hours to the 
east is the village of Keremli, inhabited by Moslims and Armenians ; opposite to 
it, on a hill, lies the Castle of Dermeri, built in the reign of Sultân Ahmed from 
fear of the rebels ; it is a small castle with a gate to the north, without commauder 
and garrison. Here the Pasha made an excursion (Ilghar), with three hundred 
horsemen, and we arrived, at the end of twelve hours, at Chaghir Kanlı Sultân, 
who was a great Sheikh in the time of Sultân Mohammed II. His tomb is 
adorned with several lamps (chirâghdân), candelabras (shemidân), censers (bûk- 
hürdân), and vases for sprinkling rose-water (gülabdan). It is a reverential place, 
where prayers are put up to Heaven. I visited it, and read the Siira Yass there ; 
through the sanctity of this saint the country abounds with cattle. Two Chiftliks 
are exempted by Imperial diploma from all taxes ; the village consists of three 
hundred houses, with a mosque and a convent, the dervishes of which go bare- 
headed and barefooted, and wear their hair long. The people carry wooden clubs 
in their hands, some of them crooked sticks (litui). They all came to wait on the 
Pasha, and to exhibit the grants of their foundation. The Pâshâ asked from 
whence they dated their immunity, and they invited him to visit their place of 
devotion (Sema'âkhâneh). We followed them to a large place where a great fire was 
lighted of more than forty waggon-loads of wood, and forty victims sacrificed. 
They assigned a place for the Pâshâ at a distance from the fire, and began to dance 
round it, playing their drums and flutes, and crying " Hû ! " and " Allah ! '' This 
circular motion being continued for an hour, about an hundred of these dervishes 
naked, took their children by the hand, and entered the fire, the flames of which 
towered like the pile of Nimrod, crying " all constant ! O all vivifying ! " At 
the end of half an hour, they came out of the fire, without the least hurt except 
the singeing of their hair and beards, some of them retiring to their cells, instead 
of coming before the Pâshâ, who remained much astonished. They then gave a 
feast to the Pâshâ, which was even greater than Ahmed Taban's feast. It was 
surprising that they were enabled to prepare such a feast in so short a time, as 
the Pâshâ had arrived suddenly, and by a by-road. The Pâshâ confirmed their 
immunities, and gave them a present of one hundred ducats. In sixteen hours 
more we came to the plain of Terjân. The mosque of Sultân Hassan is a praise- 



evliya efendi. ]07 

worthy monument of Uzun Hassan, but it stands alone here. Uzun Hassan, who 

liked the situation, intended to build a town here bearing his name, but Sultân 

Mohammed H. destroyed all his projects by the famous battle, which was fought 

on this plain ; it was a scene of great slaughter, even now the peasants find bones 

and hidden treasures when ploughing the field. We crossed this plain hastily, and 

in eight hours reached the village, where the Kiaya of the Chaushes had provided 

a great feast for the Pashci, and presented him with five horses, five purses, and 

three Georgian slaves. At the end of five hours we reached the village of Pûlür, 

and in four hours that of Terjânlî Alî Agha, an Armenian village of three 

hundred houses, a mosque and a bath. Alî Agha gave a grand repast here, 

accompanied with a present of ten horses, ten purses, ten strings of camels, and 

five of mules. We went from hence nine hours further, to the village of Mama 

Khatun, in the district of Erzerum, consisting of one hundred Mussulman houses ; 

it is a free ziâmet. 

Pilgrimage of Mama Khatun. 

This lady is buried beneath a cupola, at the foot of a rock ; she was the daugh- 
ter of one of the Princes of the Aiik Koyünlî, and lies buried here with all her 
children, but without any keeper attached to her mausoleum, she is buried in a 
marble coffin ; near it is a mosque and a bath. Six hours further is the village of 
Habs, at the western end of the plain of Erzerum ; it consists of one hundred and 
fifty Armenian houses. All the principal men of Erzerum came to this place with 
presents to meet the Pasha's Divân. We proceeded with a large retinue for the 
space of five hours, to the hot-bath, which is also situated at the western end of 
the plain of Erzerum, and where every year some person or other is drowned. It 
is a very useful bath, but too warm to be used without a mixture of cold water. 
Some of the former princes have built a dressing-room here (jâmeghân), and a 
basin (havuz) : the climate is pleasant. The Motesellem Mustafa Agha, here 
presented the Pâshâ with an Arabian racehorse, caparisoned with jewels, a sable 
pelisse, a quiver, and a sword set with jewels, a dagger and a girdle, and ten 
racehorses, mounted by ten Georgian boys, all armed. His three hundred and 
seventy slaves were clad in showy dresses, like so many waiting youths in Para- 
dise. He gave also to me, poor Evliya, a sable fur, some cloth, and one hundred 
piastres, because I had been master to his son for some time. Our arrival at this 
hot-bath was exactly the seventieth journey we had made since we left Constanti- 
nople, and an entrance in grand procession was organized, which outrivalled in 
brilliancy those of the greatest Vezîrs. Indeed, the Pâshâ was a Commander-in- 
Chief (Serdâr), who by Imperial rescript (Khatti Sherif) was allowed even to use 
the Tughra, or cypher of the Sultân. The troops of Erzerum paraded on both 



108 THE TRAVELS OF 

sides of the way from this hot bath, which is six hours distance from Erzerûm, up 
to the gates of the town ; with cuirasses and casques, bearing long lances, their 
horses being adorned with knots of sea-horses' bristles, and various other trappings. 
The Pashd was surrounded by eight body-guards (Shatir), who wore golden caps 
on their heads, carried battle-axes in their hands, had golden girdles, and splendid 
caftans, walking like the peacocks of Paradise. On the right and left of the 
Pdsha walked the Mataraji-bashi (keeper of the leaden bottle, which contains the 
water for purification), and the Tufenkjî-bashî, or head of the fuzileers, bearing a 
water-bottle set with jewels, and muskets of costly workmanship. The Pasha 
passed between two lines, greeting both sides, and the people returned his salute. 
Four hundred Ulemds all clad in armour were headed by the Imam, and I, 
poor Evliya, as Muezzin. Behind us followed the treasurer and the standard- ■ 
bearer, with the eightfold Turkish music. The Tatar troops, the Müteferrika, 
the chamberlains, passed, all clad in armour. As soon as the procession drew near 
Erzerûm, the fortress began to salute by firing the great guns from the highest 
tower, called Kessik Kala'â, as a selâm aleikum, after which the Janissaries fired 
the guns of the inner castle, and so continued during the procession. But when 
the Pasha himself entered the gate of Erzenjan, the six hundred and seventy guns, 
which compose the artillery of the fortress, were all discharged at once, and the 
skies were rent and the earth trembled. Seven regiments of Janissaries Hned 
the way from the gates of the town to the gates of the palace, ready to salute 
the Pasha, who, as soon as he had entered the palace, was saluted once more by 
a general discharge of the artillery on the walls. Many hundred victims were 
sacrificed, and a splendid repast equal to that of Madi Kerb followed. After din- 
ner the music played, and a divân was held, wherein, after the decision of many 
lawsuits, the twenty-seven Aghas of the castle, those of the Janissaries, artillery- 
men, armourers, &c., were invested with seventy brilliant robes of honour, and 
Molla Chelebî Efendi, the relation of Emir Bokhara, with a green sable pelisse. 
I received a caftan in my degree of clerk of the custom-house. The governor 
then most graciously assigned me a lodging in the palace built by Tekeli Mustafa 
Pâshâ, where I lived quietly, sometimes keeping company with the Governor, and 
at others discharging the functions of clerk of the custom-house. I had full op- 
portunity of acquiring the most perfect knowledge of the state of Erzerûm, as I 
was allowed to see all the kanuns, registers, and protocols. 

Description of the Fortress of Erzerûm. 
It was wrested out of the hands of Kara Yusstif, the son of Uzun Hassan, by 
Sultân Mohammed II. The khass of the Vezir is fixed at one million, two hun- 



EVLIYAEFENDI. ]09 

dred and fourteen thousand six hundred aspers ; the whole province is divided 
into twelve sanjaks. The officers are a Defterdar of the treasury, a Kiaya of the 
Defterdar of the Timers, a Kiaya and Inspector of the Chaushes, an Alai-Beg, 'and 
a Cherî-bashî. The sanjaks are as follows : — Kara-hiss<ir, Akii, Pussin, Siper, 
Hassan, Melazgerd, Tekman, Kûrûjân, Tûrtûm, Mujtekerd, Mâmrevân, and Er- 
zerum. The khass of the Defterdar of the treasury amounts to one million and 
fifty-two thousand nine hundred aspers ; that of the kiaya of the fiefs to fifty 
thousand, and that of the Defterdar of the fiefs to twenty thousand two hundred. 
There are fifty-six ziaraets, and two thousand two hundred and nineteen timars ; 
the feudal militia number five thousand two hundred and seventy-nine swords, 
and the Jebellîs, in time of war, twelve thousand men, besides two thousand men 
who are furnished by the khass of the Pasha. The soldiers of Erzerum are stout, 
brave fellows. The judge is a Molla, with a revenue of five hundred aspers, with 
three subordinate Naibs or Vicars. An Agha of the Janissaries, an Agha of the 
artillerymen, and one of the armourers, who are all in the interior fortress. 
Abasa Pâshâ, the famous rebel, one night surprised this fortress, and put the 
whole garrison of Janissaries to the sword, except the Agha, who was absent that 
night by accident, and consequently escaped. Abaza remained in rebellious pos- 
session of it for ten years, in defiance of seven Vezirs, who marched against him 
with the power of absolute command, such as Cherkess Mohammed Dishlin Hos- 
sein Pasha, Timur Kâzîk Khalü Pâshâ, &c. but owing to the strength of the 
fortress, they were unable to reduce the rebel, until Khosrew Pâshâ assumed the 
command ; he took Abaza prisoner, and carried him with him into the presence of 
Sultân Murâd IV. He obtained a general pardon, and was first made Governor of 
Bosnia, afterwards of Bude, and finally of Ozakov, which he retained up to the time 
of the expedition against Erivan. The troops rebelling at that moment, called 
loudly for Abaza Pâshâ, which, coming to the ears of the Sultân, he ordered him 
to be killed, and buried in the tomb of Murâd Pâshâ, near the market of the ink- 
makers. He escaped, however, and wandered for some time in Arabia and Persia, 
re-appearing at Erzerum the same year that we came there. I saw his blood even 
before my own door, because Silihdâr Suleiman Pâshâ cut his head off on the 
arrival of our Motesselh'm, or Pasha's substitute. Since the rebellion of Abaza, the 
greatest attention has been paid to this important post by the government ; it has 
been strengthened by an immense artillery, and six companies, so that the whole 
garrison amounts to two thousand five hundred men, a commander of the castle. 
Dizdar, and twelve Aghas. In the inner castle are one hundred and eighty can- 
nons, and at the gate of Tabriz, in the centre of the two fortresses, are twelve 
large cannons, placed there by Murâd IV. The fortress is situated at a gun's shot 



no THE TRAVELS OF 

from Mount Egorli ; on the north and north-west extends the plain of Erzeröm, 
two miles square, a fertile flowery field, covered with villages. 

Description of the great river Euphrates. 

The great river Euphrates flows through the middle of the plain of Erzerûm. 
Its source is at the bottom of the pilgrimage of Diimlibaba, on the east side of 
Georgia ; it flows towards the west, causing in its way many marshes and canals, 
passes before the village of Kiân, the castle of Kemani, through the Yaila of a 
thousand lakes, inhabited by the Curds IzuH, joins the Murâd (the name of which 
it assumes), and passes like a sea in the neighbourhood of Malatia to Samosat, 
Kala'ai Ri'im, Bireji'k, the bridge Bûmbüja, Bâlissa, Ja'aber, Rakie, Rahbie, Kar- 
kessia, Ania, Hita, Ehyâr, Takuk, Helle, and Kufa ; it is joined at Kaverna by the 
Shatt-ul-arab (Tigris), and thus becomes an immensely large river, which is ascended 
by Indian ships from Bassra ; the whole extent, with all its windings, is four 
hundred farsangs ; it passes four hundred towns and villages. In the plain of 
Erzerûm its water is very sweet and palatable, well worth being recorded in the 
Koran by the verse : — " And we gave you to drink of the water of the Euphrates." 
Besides the Euphrates no less than seventy-two rivers descend from the moun- 
tains of Erzerûm and Diarbekr. Makrisi says, that the Tigris and Euphrates 
were dug out by Daniel with the assistance of Angels. The Tigris is the Shatt, 
which rises east of Diarbekr, between Torjil and Miafarekein, receives an infinite 
number of springs, and goes to Hossnî Kaifa and Mossul. This river unites the 
upper and lower Zarb, and becomes a tremendous and roaring stream which is called 
the mad Zarb. It was of the river Euphrates that the prophet is reported to have 
said : — " O inhabitants of Cufa, your river Euphrates takes up two channels of 
Paradise." Imam Ja'afer is reported to have said in praise of this river : — " If the 
inhabitants of Irak and Rûm were acquainted with all the excellent qualities of 
the Euphrates, they would build a wall on each side of it. Whoever bathes 
therein three times, may be certain of being cured of many diseases." Another 
tradition on the Euphrates is reported by Abûhoreirî, as follows: — "The last day 
shall not arrive till the Euphrates flows not from a mountain of gold, on which 
men are killing each other ; ninety-nine shall be killed out of each hundred, and 
yet every one shall say, ' perhaps it is I who may be saved.' " The Euphrates and 
Orontis (A'assi), are the only two rivers which touch the frontier of the Holy 
Land. The Euphrates freezes in the winter so that during two months many 
caravans cross it, but it never freezes south of Erzerûm ; it is a sweet clear water, 
and a great comfort to the inhabitants of Erzerûm, though they have the spring, 
called the Source of Paradise, within their walls. 



evliya efendi. Ill 

Of the Form and Size of the Fortress of Erzerûm. 
It consists of two castles of a square form, the distance between the two walls 
is seventy paces ; the ditch is eighty paces broad, and twenty deep, but, on 
the side of the Gurji and Erzenjân gates, the ditch is not so deep : the whole 
circumference is eighty thousand paces, and it has three gates, that to the west is 
the gate of Erzenjân, where the ditch is crossed by a bridge ; the second to the 
east, and the third to the north, are likewise entered by crossing bridges. The 
first, which is the Georgian gate (Gurji), is double, like that of Erzenjan ; but 
that of Tabriz, as it is close to the walls of the inner castle, is only a single one. 
The guns are all pointed towards the quarters of the town Daraghaj and Gumishli 
Kunbed. Within the outer castle is an immense tower reaching to the skies, 
known by the name of Kessik Kulle, on the top of which is a high wooden Koshk ; 
as it is one hundred cubits high, ten guns pointed from thence in all directions, 
intercept even the flight of birds. The height of the wall of the inner castle is 
seventy cubits ; the other walls are but from forty to fifty cubits high ; there are 
two hundred and ten strong towers, and two thousand and eighty battlements 
round the castle, and seventeen hundred houses, all covered with earth (terrasses) 
in the ancient style, so also are all the villages which I saw in the whole govern- 
ment of Erzerûm. 

Praise of the Palaces of Erzerûm. 
The palace of the Pasha has no less than one hundred and ten rooms of various 
sizes, for the Divan and Koshks ; of the last, the two finest are those of Tayâr Pasha, 
and of Benlî Pasha, with a bath and a fine fountain. On the outside, above the 
stables, are the rooms for the watchmen ; the court-yard is a spacious place where 
they play the jerid. It has two gates, one is that of the Divân, opening on the 
great road, the other is a secret gate, always kept shut. Erzerûm contains seventy 
quarters of Moslims, and seven of Infidels. There are no Armenians, Copts, or 
Jews ; if any make their appearance they run the risk of being killed. In the 
quarter called the Source of Paradise the houses are built of stone ; most of them 
are only one story high, because the air is sharp and the winter severe. It has 
been known to snow here for ten or eleven months in the year, which is the reason 
that the greatest part of the houses are built of one story, like a bath, with win 
dows, and a felt door on the top. 

Of the Mosques. 
There are seventy-seven mihrabs ; the oldest is the great mosque inside the 
gate of Tabriz, with a minareh in the ancient style, built by the Princes of the 



112 TIIETRAVELSOF 

Akche Koyıınlî, two hundred feet square. The mimber and mihrâb are also in 
the ancient style ; it is supported by two hundred columns of fir-tree, and the 
cupola is also of wood ; on one side of the mosque the biscuit for the garrison of 
Erivan is kept. On the east side of this mosque, close to the wall, is an old col- 
lege with two minarehs ; some say that they were built by the Princes of the Akche 
Koyıınlî, while others ascribe tliem to Uzun Hassan ; in short, it is an old prayer- 
place, which has been cruelly damaged in the different sieges of Erzenim, and 
never been repaired because it was never endowed. Within the gates of Tabriz are 
two tall minarehs, the shining porcelain of which dazzles the eyes of beholders ; 
tumblers exhibit their skill on ropes extended between these two high minarehs. 
Sultân Murad IV. converted the ruined mosque into a cannon foundry. God 
grant it may be repaired ! The mosque of Ldle Mustafa Pâshâ, before the gate of 
the Serai on the great road, built by the grand Vezi'r of Sultân Suleiman. Its 
cupola is built in the style of those of Constantinople, eighty feet square, and 
covered with lead. Its mihrab, mimber, and mahfil are very simple. Outside is a 
stone bench, but the courtyard is narrow. It is the work of the great architect 
Sinan. Its sheikh is Warn' Efendi, one of the most learned divines, and famed 
commentators, a second Na'amân, an eloquent man, whose renown is spread all 
over the empire ; its Imam is a high-minded priest, who knows the whole Koran 
by heart, whose reading plunges those who listen into the depths of meditation. 
He is a most perfect musician, and is called the Imam of the Janissaries ; and if 
the Muezzin, a second Belal (the Prophet's Muezzin) ascends the minareh, and 
proclaims with David's voice Mahommed's shout, " God is great, God is great," 
all hearers begin to tremble, every person leaves his business or repast, and hastens 
to the mosque. All the inhabitants of Erzeriim are devout, pious men, Jafer 
Efendi's mosque is a pleasing new built mosque, with a high cupola and gate, a 
courtyard and a spouting fountain ; the windows are guarded with iron gratings. 
In the inner castle is an old mosque much frequented. Outside of the gate of 
Erzenjân is the Pasha's mosque, covered with lead, and outside of the gate of 
Tabriz, on the edge of the ditch, is the mosque of Mohammed Pâshâ, with one 
minareh, and with a terrace. Besides these great mosques (Jami'i), there are also 
seventy-seven mesji'ds, one hundred and ten schools for boys, convents, and 
houses for reading the Koran. 

Fountains. 
On the market-place, is the Source of Paradise, Jennet-bunâr ; and outside of 
the gate of Erzenjân is the Camel fountain ; on the fountain of Mustafa Pâshâ on 
the edge of the ditch, outside the gate of Tabriz is this inscription from the Koran 



evli YA EFE NDI, 113 

saying: — '< there are flowing fountains in it (Paradise)." There are seventy Se- 
billchdneh, or places where water is distributed. 

Of the Baths, Khdns, Market-places and Markets. 

The most elegant bath is that of Ja'afer Efendi, tliere are seventy khans, some of 
them for Caravans (Caravanserai) ; some for merchants (Khîins, jmr excellence) ; 
some for unmarried workmen (barracks) ; of the latter there are ten, where 
foreign workmen find accommodation. The Bezestan has eight hundred shops, 
four gates and a stone cupola. The markets of the saddlers, goldsmiths, button- 
makers and tailors are very elegant. The mint is near the gate of Erzenjan. 

Of the Inhabitants, Climate, Products, 8çc. 

The inhabitants are all Turkomans and Armenian kurds, of lively complexion, 
middle size, stout, strong in youth, and vigorous in old age. From ten to twenty- 
five years of age they are extremely fine, but after that they quickly become 
hairy men, good natured and brave. The principal men dress in sable furs, the 
Ulemâs in ferrâjis of cloth and caftans of Bogassin ; the workmen wear abbas, 
and sometimes a caftan of Bogassin. During three months the air is mild and 
pleasant ; the water is sweet and extremely wholesome for the women ; whoever 
drinks of the spring called the Source of Paradise in the summer, understands in 
its full sense, the verse of the Koran, " Water vivifies all things." Seeds ripen 
here in sixty days, and bring forth fruit from eighty to one hundred fold ; there 
are seven sorts of corn, one of which is as white as camel's teeth. The 
workmanship of the tailors and goldsmiths is very skilful. They make two kinds 
of pies here, one of chicken and the other of a sort of vegetable called Cheresh ; 
white and excellent pastry (Chorek), white bread called Kolâj, and meat roasted 
on stoves, &c. Their beverages are Sherbet of Ribbes, and excellent Buza. 

The walks are the place of the Jerid ; at the mills in the meadow ; the place 
of Gumishli Kunbed (the silver vault), and the Convent of Abd-ur-rahman Ghâzî. 

Genealogies of Erzerûm. 
Outside of the gates of the fortress on the east, west and north sides, is the 
suburb, inhabited by more than thirty thousand Rayas ; on the south side, from 
the gate of Tabriz to that of Erzenjan a wall has been begun, had it been 
finished, it would have made Erzerûm an amazingly strong fortress. Between 
this wall and the castle is the suburb divided into seven quarters. Tlie suburb of 
the Tabriz gate extends from the quarters of Daragach, and that of Duliikler to 
Gumishli Kunbed. The suburb of the Georgians on the north side, is the quarter 

VOL. II. Q 



114 THE TRAVELS OF 

of the rich merchants ; here is the custom-house where I was employed as clerk : 
round it are the houses of Persian, Indian, and Chinese merchants, next to the 
custom-houses of Constantinople and Smyrna, that of Erzerum is the most busy. 
The suburb of Erzenjdn extends, on the eastern side of the castle-gate, from the 
Camel fountain to the mill of Alî. This suburb being mostly inhabited by Ar- 
menians, there are thirteen churches here. The Infidels wear variegated turbans, 
and blue coats, and the lower classes wear felt, with coarse shoes called Chârk ; 
their women wrap white sheets round their heads, and the Musselmân women 
wear pointed caps of gold and silver stuff, velvet trowsers and yellow boots : they 
are extremely pretty, their teeth as well arranged as their words; with their 
beautiful hair, dragging a thousand lovers after them as slaves. The men are 
long-lived, in society may be found many men past seventy years of age, with 
full use of all their faculties. They generally speak a peculiar dialect, but their 
divines and poets speak with great eloquence, and their story-tellers delight 
intelligent people by their tales of Hamza, and by Chinese shades. There are also 
many Santons and holy men, of whom Allahân-dede was famous for his uxorious- 
ness. Though the air of Erzerum is cold, yet its vegetables are abundant, its 
soil being extremely fertile, and blessed with productions of all kind, which makes 
Erzerum one of the cheapest places in the world. Though Erzerum has neither 
gardens nor vineyards, yet it is famed for roses ; some winter apples and pears are 
the only fruits which are found here. Plane-trees and willows are in abun- 
dance in all the walks and in the rose-gardens ; on account of their long winter 
and short summer, the sowing and harvest is over in two months. At the time 
I was at Erzerum there happened, in the month of July, when the horses were 
out at grass, such a storm of lightning, thunder, hail and snow, that all the horses 
broke away and ran half mad to the neighbouring villages. The length and 
severity of the winter here is explained by the following tale. They asked 
a Dervish " from whence he came ? " he said, " from the snow of Divine Mercy ;" 
they asked, " what was the naine of the place ; " " Erzerum," said the Dervish, 
which may be spelled Erezolura (cruel to man) ; they continued to ask " whether 
he had seen any summer there." The Dervish said, " By God, I remained there 
eleven months and nine and twenty days, the people said that summer was 
coming, but I did not see it. It happened, however, that a cat, which ran over 
the roofs of the houses, became froze there while in the act of running, and 
remained so for the space of nine months, when the spring arriving, the cat began 
to thaw, cried ' Miau ! ' and fell down:" This tale has become a common 
proverb. It is really a fact, that if a man touches a piece of iron with his wet 
hand during winter, they freeze together, and cannot be separated without tearing 



evliya efendi. 115 

off the skin. I have passed forty days in the coldest weather at Assov, and in 
the desert of Kipchâk, but I never felt cold like this ; the people are, however, 
very healthy. The fruits come from Isper, Tortum, and Erzenjân ; peaches, apri- 
cots, and grapes are sold at the weight of an occa for a para ; a waggon-load o^ 
melons or water-melons may be had for ten paras. Eatables are found here in 
great perfection, but there is no wood, the mountains being naked ; wood is 
nevertheless very cheap, as it is brought from mountains at two journey's dis- 
tance ; a mast of from thirty to forty cubits length is sold for forty aspers. The 
Pasha's wood is brought to the town by the camels of the caravans, which arrive 
at the custom-house. An agha has the inspection of the wood ; the poor people 
burn cow-dung. The Rayas place the stove in the middle of the house, on the 
sides of which the cattle stand ; the house is as warm as a bath, and they cook 
their bones and offal on the fire. 

Description of Mount Eğerli. 

This is a high mountain, at half an hour's distance on the south side of Erzerum, 
its name is derived from its form, which is like a saddle (Eger) ; its top is bifur- 
cated, it abounds in medical herbs, particularly in the Tiitia flower, the scent of 
which perfumes the air. Oculists come here to collect the plant Tutia, and with 
it cure people who have been diseased for forty years. The odour of aromatic 
plants and scented flowers fills the atmosphere. 

Praise of Balaam, the son of Baür. 

I once played Jerid at the foot of this mountain, when I fell from the horse, and 
in falling said to myself, " Where art thou now, saddle-mountain (Egerlîtâg)? " 
Having recovered my senses I mounted another horse, and galloping full speed 
towards the mountain, I ascended it. I saw on the top a large tomb, on which I 
first said a fatihah, and having measured it by my steps, I found it eighty paces in 
length, with two columns, which marked the situation of the head and the feet. 
I was looking on the tomb, when a a bad smell arose, very disagreeable both to me 
and my servants, who held the horses ; I looked on the grave, and saw that the 
earth within it, being black and greasy, was boihng like gruel in a pan. I then 
returned, and having related my adventure in the Pdsha's company in the evening, 
Ja'afer Efendi of Erzerum, a learned and elegant writer, warned me not to visit 
this place any more, because it was the grave of Balaam, the son of Baür, who 
had died an Infidel by the curse of Moses, and whose grave was now boiling, both 
in winter and summer, by subterraneous fire. At the foot of the same mountain, 
Abd-ur-rahman Ghâzî, the standard-bearer of the prophet, lies buried. One day i 



116 THETRAVELSOF 

ascended from the south side of the convent about two thousand paces, when I 
saw on the second top of this bifurcate mountain a tremendous dragon turned 
into black stone. It measured seven hundred and seventy paces from the head to 
the tail, the head looks to the field of Erzerûm, the tail to the castle of Melaz 
Kerd. If snow falls on the mountains, the figure of this black dragon is easily 
distinguished from the windows of the Pasha's palace ; the circumference of its 
body is two hundred paces, each of its four feet is as large as ten men put together, 
and its tail is raised like a minareh. It remained whole until the reign of Selim I. 
when it was broken by an earthquake, so that its fragments now lay scattered 
about. The head was then split asunder, and one of the eye-balls rolled down on 
the south side towards Melazguerd, where it lies on the plain like a cupola ; the 
left eye-ball of the same size, yet remains in the petrified head, and is seen very 
distinctly with its ears, tongue, nose, and mouth every time it snows, because no 
snow will remain on this black stone, but melts away, and renders more promi- 
nent the black colour of it. In winter the stone becomes hot, and emits 
vapour ; in summer it is cold, and exhales a pleasant odour. The legend reports 
that this most tremendous dragon was changed into stone by the Prophet's 
standard-bearer, when it came to swallow up the inhabitants of Erzerûm as food 
for its young, who were shut up in a cave of Mount Sijan, on the borders of the 

lake Van. 

Pilgrimages ; Tomb of Sheikh Kdrzuni. 

His name is Ibrahim, his surname Abu Ishak, a native of the town Kârzün, 
where he was born in the year 352 of the Hejira. In his travels he visited Brussa 
and Adrianople and returned to Erzerûm, where he settled in a great tower within 
the gate of Tabriz ; his tomb-keeper is a white-bearded woman, whom I saw when 
I visited the tomb. Shehid Murteza Pasha, who was shut up seven months in 
Erivan, is buried at the foot of Abu Ishak Karzûnî, with Abaza Pâshâ, who was 
killed by Dishlin Hossein Pâshâ. Opposite to the Pasha's palace, in a pointed 
vault, lies Sultân Kâssim, the son of Mahmud Gaznevi, and near him his sister 
Fîrûzeh Khânum. Outside of the gate of Erzenjân, above the camel's fountain, 
Jânpûland-zadeh, lies Mustafa Pâshâ, who after the conquest of Erivan was killed 
by the grand Vezir Mohammed Pasha. He was a protector of my father and 
myself. Abd-ur-rahman, the standard-bearer of the Prophet, is buried at the foot 
of Egerlıtâgh, in a fine convent. Outside of the gate of Tabriz, at the place 
called Gumishli Kunbed (the silver vault), because it was once faced with silver, 
reposes Sultân Mahmûd, the Gasnevide, on whose marble coffin is written only the 
word Mahmûd. There are besides many other pilgrimages, which I had no 
opportunity of visiting. 



evliya efendi. 117 

Stations of our military expedition to the Castle of Shnshik. 
Letters of complaint arrived from Genj Alî Klıân, the Khdn of Erivan, stating 
that the rebellious Beg of the Castle of Shushik had broken the peace by inroads 
into the Persian districts of Erivan. The sanjak Begs, Timariots and Zaims were 
summoned to take the field with half of their contingents, and to assemble at the 
Silver vault. The Pasha himself fixed his tent there, with seventy banners of 
Segbdn or Seimen and Sârija (irregular troops), and four thousand regulars. The 
Beglerbegs assembled around him, pitching their tents according to the orders 
issued. It was an army of seventy-six thousand men. When the Persian Envoy 
saw this immense army collected, he repented of his complaint against the Beg of 
Shushik, because he was afraid that this army might receive orders to lay siege 
to Erivan. Alaja Atlı Hassan Agha, with a thousand horse, was named Quarter- 
master (Kondkji-bashi) ; he took the van with the tails and tens. Sîdî Ahmed 
Pasha was named Chârkajî, or leader of the vanguard, and Bakî Pâshâ, Dûmddr, 
or leader of the rearguard. The army set out from the Silver vault in such 
order that the Persian Envoys and Khans remained quite perplexed. After four 
hours march it reached the place called the Camel's Neck (Deve-boinî), where the 
Pasha, commander-in-chief, gave an entertainment to all the Begs and Beglerbegs, 
after which every one retired to his tent ; this is a pleasant meadow, where our 
horses were refreshed with excellent trefoil, it is also the commencement of the 
field of Passin. In winter time snow lies here to the height of a minareh, and 
many caravans have been lost in it. It was the snow that prevented Tabâni Yassî 
Mohammed Pâshâ from passing the Deve-boinî, and as he did not arrive before 
Erivan soon enough, that fortress was taken from the Osmanlî's after seven months 
siege by the Persians. Three hours further towards the east, we arrived at the 
vintage Ja'afer Efendî, where Ja'afer Efendî, its owner, gave a splendid entertain- 
ment to the Pasha, with a present of three horses, and three boys. It is a 
well cultivated Armenian village of three hundred houses. We marched five 
hours across the plain of Passin to the strong fortress of Rum Hassan, renovated 
by Uzun Hassan, the Sultân of Azerbeijan ; it is a lofty castle which was taken 
by Sultân Suleiman out of the hands of the children of Kara Yiissiif, and is now 
the seat of the sanjak Beg of Passin, in the province of Erzerüm. The khass 
amounts, according to the canon of Sultân Suleiman, to twelve thousand four 
hundred aspers ; there are six Zaims, and three hundred and twenty-five Timariots. 
An Alai Beg, Cherî-bashî, and Yuz-bashî (Colonel, Captain, and Lieutenant), are 
the officers of the feudal militia. In the time of war, the number of the troops 
amounts to fifteen hundred, the half of which now joined the Pasha s army. The 
castle saluted the Pasha, as soon as his tent was fixed, with a great noise of guns 



118 THE TRAVELS OF 

and muskets. The Pâshd sent an order to the commander to place the who. e 
garrison under arms on the walls, as he wished to enter in state. When we 
entered it shouts of Allah rent the skies, and the reports of the guns shook 
them, so that the Persian Envoy was quite perplexed, putting the finger of asto- 
nishment to his lips. In the inside of the castle, the space between the outer and 
inner gate was set round with armour and different kinds of weapons, and be- 
ginning from the hot-bath gate, both sides of the road were lined, two deep, by 
armed men, who gave the salute. The prayer of Friday was performed in the 
mosque, and when we left it all the walls were covered with flags and banners of 
different colours. The Pasha entered the inner castle, where the guns of Sultân 
Suleiman, of forty four spans length, were fired, and the balls were thrown as far as the 
Bridge of the Shepherds, Shoban Jissri. Here the company sat down to a splendid 
dinner, after which the Beg and Dizdar were invested with robes of honour. The 
Pasha returned to his tent, where he received the visit of the judge (appointed 
with one hundred and fifty aspers), the Serdâr of the Janissaries, the Kiaya-yeri 
of the Sipâhîs, of the Muftf, the Nakib-ul-ishraf, and other principal men (Ayan.) 

Size and Form of the Fortress Hassan. 

It is situated on the northern side of the field of Pâssin, on an isolated high 
cliff, so high, that to look down from the side of the hot-bath makes the head 
giddy. Inside there is nobody but the Imam, the Muezzin, and the Dizdar, or 
commander. Horses and asses cannot get up to this place. There is a small 
Koshk built for Murad IV. by our protector Melek Ahmed Pasha, who, at the 
time of the expedition to Erivan, was the imperial sword-bearer, having succeeded 
the former sword-bearer, who was removed from his office because the coverlet of 
the Sultan's bed was set fire to by a spark one night. The circumference of the 
castle is one thousand paces, without a ditch ; an iron gate opens to the west. On 
the north side, below the upper or innermost castle, is another castle with two 
walls, whose circumference is six thousand paces. It is an oblong square, of a 
shining whiteness. The walls are but eighteen yards high, but they are double, 
and on three sides the ditch is very deep, so that there is no fear of an enemy ; 
the ground being marshy, no trenches can be opened. Its three gates are : on 
the west side, the gate of Erzerum, a great gate with iron wings ; the gate of the 
hot-bath, and a secret gate, shut to the east side ; there is a garrison of seven 
hundred men, with a well-filled arsenal, and sixty large and small guns. To- 
wards the south opens the plain of Pâssin, which is seven journies long. The 
houses, five hundred and ninety in number, are all stone-built winter houses : the 
town consists of nine quarters, with as many mosques. The mosque of Suleiman 



evliya efendi. ]19 

is a low terraced mosque, with one minareh in the ancient style ; there is no Be- 
zesttin or Medresse, but six schools for boys, a khân, and a bath. The inhabitants 
are a brave set of people, kind to foreigners. There are some men of wit and 
learning. The great poet Nefii Efendi was born here ; no gardens exist 
round the castle, because it is too cold, nevertheless, vegetables are found 
here in abundance. Bread and honey are rather to be suspected, for I, myself, 
poor Evliya, having eaten some honey in the commander's house, became in half 
an hour so giddy that I thought of throwing myself down from the castle. 

Description of the Hot-baths. 

On the south side of the lower town (Robath), on the Kiblah side, are several 
hot-baths ; seven of them are covered with small cupolas, and in eight other places 
the water is boiling in the open air, each place being used for different animals, 
such as horses, mules, camels, sheep, and others. The water of these hot-baths 
is carried to distant places on camels, and those who are afflicted with leprosy are 
cured if they drink of it. 

Three hours to the east from hence, we came to the village of Sefer Agha, con- 
sisting of one hundred Armenian houses, in the field of Passin. Three hours 
further on, is the great Bridge of the Shepherds (Choban Koprissi.) It is called 
so because it was built by Melek Sultân, of the dynasty of the shepherds (Choban). 
It is vaulted like a rainbow over the river Aras, which comes from the great Gok- 
yaila, and flows to the east ; passes under Melazjerd, before the village of Artof, 
the castle of Khinis, beneath the bridge of Altun Khalkali, supplies water to many 
hundred villages below the Bridge of the Shepherds, joins the Zengi river below 
Erivan, which falls into the Kür (Cyrus), and with it disembogues into the Cas- 
pian Sea. The river Aras (Aranes) is an impetuous river, which, at the melting 
of the snow, rages like the sea. The army passed during three days over the 
bridge, with the Pasha himself in grand state. After seven hours we came to the 
village of Great Artof, in the sanjak of Khinis, a village of one hundred Armenian 
houses. Eight hours further to the east, is the village of Küzûlî Sultân Baba, 
belonging to Khinis. The castle, which lies six hours further on, was built by 
Shah Shapur, the uncle of Uzun Hassan, the Prince of Azerbeijan. It was con- 
quered by Sultân Suleiman, and is now the seat of a sanjak Beg belonging to 
Erzerum. The khass is forty -eight thousand four hundred aspers, two ziamets, 
and four hundred and twenty-five timfirs, with the Jebellis, two thousand men, 
besides one thousand men of the Pasha's troops, all Kurds of the tribe Mahmudi. 
The judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers ; there is no Serdar, 
Kiaya-yerî, Mufti, or Nakib, but there is a Disdar. 



120 THE TRAVELS OF 

Size and Form of the Castle of Khinh. 

It is three journies distance (if you walk fast) from Erzerûm, and is a square, 
strong built castle, in the centre of a piece of high table land, surrounded on all 
sides by lofty mountains. The height of the castle wall is ten cubits, it is six 
thousand paces in circumference, with a gate to the north. In the eastern 
quarter of the castle is a clear fountain. Below the castle, at the foot of the 
wall, is an iron grating, which intercepts the stream, and distributes its water into 
the gardens. The gate of the castle is near this spring ; there are within the 
castle twelve hundred Kurdish houses, and seven mosques, a khân, a bath, and some 
small streets ; the houses are all covered with earth, and no bricks are to be seen. 
The inhabitants are all Mahmûdî Kurds, rich in sheep and goats ; every year 
they repair with their cattle to the mountains of Boyuk-gol-yaila. Here the Beg 
of Melazjerd, in his quality of sanjak Beg of Erzerûm, came with three thousand 
well-armed Mahmûdî Kurds. He was invested with a robe of honour, and pre- 
sented with a Chelenk, and took the van of the army. Ghazî Sîdî Ahmed Pâshâ, 
commanding an army of fifty-three thousand men, with twelve guns and two 
culverins, directed his march from Khinis to Shûshîk, and the Pasha, our master, 
remained with twelve hundred men on the field of Khinis. We now marched to 
the east, through precipices, for six hours, till we came to Khdssîk, a Kurdish 
village of two hundred houses, and I, poor Evliya, advanced with two hundred 
horse to the castle of Zia-ud-din, nine hours further ; it is a strong castle in the 
territory of Azerbeijan, built by the Princes of that name. It is the frontier of the 
sanjak of Khinis ; its keys were surrendered to the Ottomans after the conquest 
of Van, and the inhabitants were exempted from all duties. There is no Serdâr 
and Kiaya-yeri ; there is a mosque and six hundred houses, with terraces and 
lower stories only, a khân, a bath, and from forty to fifty shops. The inhabitants 

are brave and honest. 

Description of the Hot-bath. 

Between the river Aras, the lake of Van, and the castle of Arjesh, is a famous 
hot-bath, in the neighbourhood of the castle Zia-ud-din. It is a curious fact that 
the springs rise in five or six different places ; at some of them the water is as 
cold as ice, in others it boils like gruel. Here is a spring so cold that the 
hand cannot bear it, and close to it one in which eggs and sheep's feet are 
cooked. Only one of these hot springs is covered with a cupola, the rest are 
exposed to the open air ; every one is large enough to drive a mill. We now 
turned to the west, along the mountains of Sûnjâb-Ainî, and arrived after nine 
hours at the castle of Atik, built like the former, by Zia-ud-din, the Prince of 
Azerbeijan ; it is a square castle on a rock. 



evliya efendi. 121 

Description oj the Castle of Shûshek or Shûshlk. 

It was built by Zia-ud-din, the son of Sultcin Hassan, and is a square castle, on 
the top of a high rock. The camp was fixed at the distance of a gunshot from 
the castle, and the siege began immediately. As soon as the Mussulman victors 
opened the trenches, all the guns were fired from the castle, and seventy men 
fell to the ground as martyrs. The Commander, Sidi Ahmed Pasha, exhorting 
the Begs, Beglerbegs, and other officers, with sweet words and presents and him- 
self making all possible exertions, brought four cannons on to the heights opposite 
the eastern side of the castle, which being fired, killed Chenddn Beg, the nephew 
of the Beg of the castle. At the same moment a great lamentation arose in the 
castle, and the Ottoman victors began to ascend the breaches by ladders ; in short, 
the siege lasted twenty-four hours, and the next day the flags of truce were 
planted on the battlements, and all the Kurds were crying Aman ! Aman ! O 
chosen family of Osman ! The commander, Sidi Ahmed Pasha, with his first 
Colonel, went to the gates of the castle, from which came out seven Kurdish Begs 
as hostages ; they said, " On this night Mustafa Beg, our Beg, deserted the castle 
and fled to the Persians." Sidi Ahmed Pasha gave no credit to this report, and 
told them to find their Beg, lest they might have their hands cut like sheeps' feet ; 
he fettered them, put seven hundred men into the castle, confiscated all the goods 
found in the palace of the Beg, disarmed the Kurds, collected three thousand 
muskets and six thousand swords and other arms, and sent the merry news to my 
Lord, Mohammed Piishâ. The same day the Mohammedan shout (Allah) was pro- 
claimed in the castle ; two thousand muskets and many guns were fired as a salute ; 
the whole district of Shushik, up to the Persian frontier, was ravaged and pillaged, 
and the Moslim victors enriched with the booty of some hundred thousand sheep, 
oxen and mules. Men were sent into the interior of the country in search of the 
Beg, but only found a spy, whose nose and ears were in the first place slit, but at 
the moment the executioner was about to cut off his head, he implored the Pasha's 
mercy, saying that he had something of importance to communicate to him. He 
said that the Beg of Shushik had fallen into the hands of the Persian Khan of 
Magu, and was imprisoned there. Bdki Pasha, Katgâj Pâshâ, and Dilawer Pâshâ, 
with the Beg of Melazjerd, Mohammed Beg, with three thousand men, were 
ordered to go in search of the Beg of Shushik at the castle of Magu. I, poor 
Evliya, was also in the expedition. We marched across the Minvaldereh amidst 
the mountains, and at the end of eight hours, reached the tomb of Tahmurass 
Khan, a Persian, who was killed in the war of Cighalezadeh, and buried at this 
spot ; here are two hundred Armenian houses, which pay tribute to the Beg of 
Shushik, and to the Persians. We advanced for seven hours through a woody 

VOL. ir. R 



122 THETRAVELSOF 

country, and for two more through flowery fields, and arrived at the castle of 
Magu, built by Nûshirvân. The Kurds submitted to Suleiman, who made a pre- 
sent of this castle to the Beg of the Mahmudi tribe. The Persians took it from 
them, and it is now subordinate to the governor of Melâzjerd. In the time of the 
grand Vezir of Sultan Murad IV. Kara Mustafa Pasha, after the conquest of 
Baghdad, went to Derne and Derteng, in order to settle the boundary ; my lord, 
Melek Ahmed Pasha, my gracious protector, was then Governor of Diarbekr, and 
named on this commission for settling the frontiers and renewing the peace. The 
Ottomans had laid waste the castle of Zalim, in the province of Shehrzol, and 
the Persians that of Kotur, in the province of Van. The Ottomans also took 
possession of Magu, and transferred the Beg and the garrison to Meldzjerd. 
Under the pretext of the rebellion of the Beg of Shûshîk, the Persians laid hold 
of Magu, which is a fortress, like the castles of Van, Mardin, Shuban Kara, Afiun 
Kara Hissâr, A'adil Jiwas, Tokat, and Amasia. 

Size and Form of Magu. 

It is situated on a high and steep rock, the base of which is thin and narrow, 
and towers into the skies, being inaccessible on all sides. There is but one gate to 
which you ascend by a small staircase cut in the rock like a minareh. Seven hun- 
dred houses afford lodgings to two thovisand musketeers of Mazenderan, com- 
manded by a Sultân (Beg) subordinate to the Khân (Pasha, governor) of Erivan. 
The drawbridge which leads over the river, to the Castle, is raised every night, 
and it thus becomes entirely isolated ; the water is raised by ropes of one hundred 
fathoms length. The Khân descended with one thousand of his serving men (Diz- 
choken Tülünkî), and gave a grand entertainment to Bakf Pasha, who, after 
dinner, requested that the Beg of Shûshîk might be given up to him : this was 
done accordingly, and he was carried to Sidi Ahmed Pasha, who came on the seventh 
day to Khinis, and delivered him to Mohammed Pâshâ the governor of Erzerum, 
who spared his Hfe, but put him into prison. Forty thousand sheep, forty horses, 
seventeen strings of mules, twenty Georgian slaves, and fifty purses were taken 
from him, he was afterwards released, but his castle was given to Mohammed the 
Beg of Melazjerd, who furnished twenty purses, twenty strings of mules, a great 
number of furs and skins of lynxes and leopards ; the Moslim victors returned in 
safety with their booty to Erzerum. On the same day after seven hours, we 
reached the village of Alajalar ; it is situated on the border of Aras, under the 
command of the castle of Bayazid, and consists of three hundred Armenian 
houses. Here our gracious Lord gave a grand entertainment to the Persian 
Envoys of the Khans of Erivan, Nakhshivân and Tabriz, and gave each of them 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 123 

letters of amity, with a couple of Arabian horses, beads of coral, bow and arrows, 
and Genoese and Venetian cloth. He told them in his speech, that in order to 
satisfy the Khdn of Erivan he had reduced the Beg of Shûshîk, but that he hoped 
now that the Persians on their side would fulfil with equal faithfulness the con- 
ditions of the peace, and therefore evacuate the castle of Shushi'k, and give it back 
to the Ottomans, if not, that he as Commander-in-Chief would ravage the districts 
of Erivan and Nakhshivan. The three envoys kissed the ground and were 
invested with Persian sable pelisses. The Keldrji Velî Agha was sent with the 
Envoy to Erivan ; Alaja Atlı Hassan with the second to Nakhshivan, and I poor 
Evliya in quality of Clerk of the Custom-house was named to go with letters and 
presents in the third Envoy's company to Tabriz, to arrange the commercial 
affairs. I took two horses richly caparisoned to the Khân, handkerchiefs, beads 
of pearl, and a magnificent quiver. I received myself, on setting out on my 
journey, a purse of money, and a robe of honour, and was accompanied by ten 
servants, and ten men of all arms, altogether forty-five men. I took leave of the 
Pâshâ, and set out trusting in the Lord for Nakhshivan and Erivan. 

Description of our journey along the Aras to Persia. 
On the first day, we travelled for the space of eight hours along the Aras, 
towards the east, and arrived at the village Yailajak, partly Armenian and partly 
Moslim, subordinate to the Castle of Anek. Further eastward we came to Bariid 
Khâneh belonging to the Castle Shûshîk, consisting of three hundred houses ; salt- 
petre is produced here. Sixteen hours further is the station of Kendush Kia, on 
the banks of a torrent called Okhdere ; we pitched our tents here in a flowery 
meadow amidst beds of tulips. Twelve hours further on is the station of Chaghla 
ghurna, the inhabitants are Kurds. We saw the castle of Shûshîk, on our left on 
high rocks, and were saluted by it with seven guns. The new Beg also sent us a 
quantity of provisions. Here we parted company with Kassim Khân, the Envoy 
of Erivan, who went to the left, while I poor Evliya took the road on the right 
to Nakhshivan. After having travelled thirteen hours through a mountainous 
tract, we came to Karish, the first town in Persia. It was built by Sharokh, the 
son of Timur, and then came into the power of Uzun Hassan the Prince of Azer- 
beijân. Its castle is situated on a high peak, is square and built of stone, an 
elegant yet strong fortress, garrisoned by one thousand Dizchoken Tûlünkî. They 
saluted us contrary to our wishes, by firing eighteen guns, the report of which was 
re-echoed among the neighbouring hills. We encamped at the foot of the castle, 
and visited the town at our leisure. It was formerly a large town, but is now in 
ruins, in consequence of the pillage it suffered at the time of the expedition to 



]24 THE TRAVELS OF 

Eiivan by Sultdn Murad IV. when the troops of Erzerum, Achika and Karrs 
revolted, and plundered this town of Karish. There are seven mosques with 
minarehs, three baths, and gardens and vineyards in abundance. The town is 
situated on the banks of tlie river Karish, which issues from Mount Sükûn, and 
flows to the Aras. The Agha of the Castle invited me with the envoy to a feast, 
and our horses with difficulty ascended to the castle in half an hour. The Agha 
of the garrison dressed in an odd way, and giving us welcome, invited us to his 
house, from which a beautiful view may be enjoyed. He treated us to eleven 
sorts of pilaw and a great number of other good dishes ; he presented me, the 
envoy, and Alaja Atli Hassan, with leopard skins, and sent after us when we had 
returned to our tents, a present of fifty sheep, one thousand loaves of white 
bread, and from seven to eight mule-loads of delicious fruits, with several sorts of 
sherbet. We kept the great feast (Bairâm) here, remained a couple of days, and 
were then entertained with a sumptuous dinner in a garden. Returning from the 
garden we took a view of the outside of the mosque of Evhad Allah, it is an 
incomparable mosque with a well-proportioned minareli ; near it is the bath of 
Tâj-ud-dîn Munshî, and seven Khans. The beautiful women of the place have 
such fine and brilliant eyes, that one glance from them delights the heart more than a 
thousand from others. The next morning three hundred Persian horsemen joined us, 
and accompanied us on our way, which led through a monntainous tract, thirteen 
hours towards the east, to the station of the village of Kend Massir ; Kend is the 
Persian word signifying the same as the Turkish Kassaba (small town). It is 
situated on the border of Mount Massîr, and consists of one thousand houses 
with earthen roofs, surrounded with gardens, seven mosques, three baths, and 
three hundred shops. It is the seat of a Kelenter (provost) subordinate to Eri- 
van. We advanced fourteen hours to Kend Ziih Khân, on the frontier of Nakh- 
shivan belonging to its khass, it is a flourishing small town. Here we took two 
Persian boys, who delighted us with their songs. We now proceeded for seven 
hours through a wide valley, where we saw immense trees, to Uch Kilisse. On 
the top of a mountain are three great convents, in each of which lodge a couple 
of hundred priests and monks. Fine youths serve the strangers who divert them- 
selves here. One of these three convents was built by Nürshirvân, the second by 
the Greek Emperor, the third by an Armenian lady, which is now inhabited by 
more than five hundred nuns, who eat nothing but dry roots; but they serve 
milk, dates and sweetmeats to strangers, and take care of their goods and horses. 
These three Armenian convents are celebrated amongst all Christians, and are 
therefore well endowed. In each of them are from five to ten guest-masters, and 
from forty to fifty cooks. The Abbot of these convents gave to me and the 
envoys, a grand entertainment, and presents after dinner. 



evliya efendi. 125 

Curiosities of Uch Kilisse. 

At the grand convent built by Nûrshirvdn, every year forty or fifty thousand 
Infidels assemble from all countries of Christianity, to witness the solemnity of an 
old carpet being spread on the top of the mountain. They collect all useful and 
medical herbs growing on these mountains, and throw them into a boiling kettle 
which stands upon this carpet ; these herbs remain boiling more than an hour in 
the kettle on the carpet, wliich receives no harm, to tlie great astonishment of 
many thousand spectators. The herbs are then distributed amongst the people, 
some of whom carry them to their own countries, others eat them on the spot. 
I talked with the monks about this, who assured me that the carpet was the same 
on which Jesus fell when issuing from Mary's womb ; when shut up in a cave 
with his twelve disciples for fear of the Israelites, they cooked their herbs on this 
carpet, which to witness the miraculous power of Jesus, restored a dead man to 
life. It is the same carpet on which Jesus gave a dinner to the Israelites. The 
carpet then passed into the hands of Nûrshirvân, who when building the Convent 
gave it to it as an endowment. When Sultân Suleiman went to the siege of 
Erivan he performed a double prayer on this carpet. It is neither cotton nor silk, 
but of variegated colours and very heavy. I, poor Evliya, am of opinion that it is 
of asbestos, a stone which is found in the island of Cyprus, and worked into Hnen 
and paper, handkerchiefs, shirts, &c., which are brought as presents to the great 
men of Constantinople. Sultân Murâd said to his sister Kia Sultân (Kia signifies 
rock) the Lady of my gracious Lord, Melek Ahmed Pâshâ. " Lady Rockby ! as 
your name is rocky, I'll give you a shirt of stone," and really gave her a shirt, 
which, when dirty, was cleansed by throwing it into the fire. Great men have 
abundance of asbestos linen ; Captain Hassâm-zadeh gave me such a handkerchief, 
which having become dirty, in the presence of Melek Pâshâ, I threw into the fire, 
when it became as pure as a white rose, God knows whether this carpet is not 
also made of this Cyprian stone. We left Uch Kilisse and passed towards the 
east through cultivated fields and populous villages, so that we did not see a cubit 
of ground which was not productive or cultivated, and arrived after eight hours 
march at a well cultivated village on the border of Mount Sokiin, like a small 
town. We counted no less than eleven minarehs, but as I was indisposed I 
did not examine it well. 

Pilgrimage to Mohammed Shdh's Tomb. 

It is a great Convent of Begtâshîs ; more than three hundred came with drums 
beating and banners flying to give us welcome : a crowd of poor fellows all in 
raptures of divine love, by the prayers of whom I was restored to health. Next 



126 THETRAVELSOF 

day we crossed a plain for thirteen hours, and halted three times on it. At the 
southern end of this field we pitched our tents on the bank of the great river 
Zengi, where the people of all the Kents of the neighbourhood, flocking together, 
brought us abundance of provisions as presents, so that our servants feasted as 
if they were as many Ma'adî Karbs, and our horses feasted on trefoil and 
other luxuriant herbs, so that their bellies swelled like wine-skins. The river 
Zen"i issues on the south from the mountains of Khârân, flows to the North, 
supplying water to many thousand Kents, and then joins the Aras, which falling 
into the Kuf (Cyrus) runs into the Caspian sea. We continued our journey 
hunting hares, and came at the end of ten hours to the Kent Sidreghi, a Wakf of 
Imam Riza in the territory of Nakhshivan. It is a flourishing Kent of about 
one thousand houses surrounded with gardens. The inhabitants are all Shi'is. 
The hot-spring of Sîdreghî is outside of the town close to the vineyards ; this 
hot-spring is covered with a large cupola, and in the large basin the Persian 
youths swim like silver fishes ; they amuse themselves by disporting in the water, 
and singing with melodious voices. Fourteen hours further to the east, we came 
to Zaviei Ahmed Beg, consisting of five hundred houses, in the territory of 
Nakhshivan. Here are three mosques, one of which was built by Zâl Pâshâ-zadeh 
Ahmed, when governor of Nakhshivan, in the style of the mosques at Constan- 
tinople. This is the reason why the Persians called this Kent (borough) the cell 
(zavie) of Ahmed Pasha ; the whole borough is appropriated to the endowment 
of this mosque. We passed during sixteen hours through many cultivated Kents 
(boroughs) until we reached the large town Kara-bâghlar, first built by Menu- 
chehr, it is the seat of a Sultân (Beg) in the territory of Nakhshivan, it was 
wrested from the Ottomans by the Persians in the time of Mohammed III. and 
laid waste by the army of Sultân Murâd IV., so that now ruins are only to be 
seen. Timur passed a winter in perfect quietness at Karabaghlar ; Suleiman Khan 
and other commanders-in-chief were stationed here at different times for five or 
six months in the greatest affluence. This place is now recovering from the 
havoc made by Sultân Murad IV., but in comparison with its former state, it is 
not as an atom in the sun, nor a drop in the ocean. Our servants counted forty 
minarehs, and according to the report of our Mihmandar it consisted of ten thou- 
sand houses with gardens and vineyards, and seventy mosques (forty of which 
have minarehs), a great number of Khans, baths and markets. The mildness of 
the air contributes to the beauty of the inhabitants ; the variety of fruits which 
abound here, is no where else to be met with. Taking a walk with the Envoy in 
a garden, the gardener brought us twenty-six different kinds of pears, the best 
are the Meleje, Abbâssî, Ordûbaî, which when eaten, inundates the mouth and 



evliya efendi. 127 

hands with rich juice, like jelly or sirup ; there are also ruby-coloured pome- 
granates. In the cleanly cookshops you find pilaw of Erivdn, with excellent 
hen'sse (fricassee). The cooks are extremely clean because they are all Moslims, 
and in the whole of Persia eatables are never sold by Armenians or Greeks ; indeed 
there are no Greeks at all in Persia, except a few travelling merchants, but there 
are a great many Shi'ites and Jews being the sect of the Teberraites and Karaites. 
There are also Mulhads (impious) ; Zindiks, (atheists) ; Ja'aferites, Jeberites, 
Kadrites, Hunifites, Zimi'nites, and other such heretics. After having taken a 
good view of the gardens at Karabâgh we departed, and in seven hours reached 
the fortress of Nakhshivan, which by some is spelt Nakhjîvân, (the cosmetic water 
of all the towns of Iran ;) it is the seat of a Khan (answering to the Turkish 
Pasha) on the frontier of Azerbaijan and Avjdn. Its officers are an Itimad-ud- 
devlet (minister) ; Kelenter, (provost, in Turkish Sııbashî) ; a Mûnshî, (secretary, 
otherwise Kiatib) ; a Darogha, an Agha of the Dizchoken (the troops) a judge 
and a mufti. It was originally built by Shah Efrasiab, and the cupolas are shewn 
where his ancestors are said to be buried ; in their times it was extremely 
populous and cultivated : it was then pillaged by the Moghols, who levelled the 
castle with the dust ; Shah Ismail rebuilt it, and in the reign of Mohammed III. 
it was taken possession of by Zûltakâr Khân, and again conquered in the time of 
Sultân Murad IV. by Taban Yassî Mohammed Pasha. Such is the state of the 
world where nothing remains unchanged, but every thing perishes except His 
(God's) face. After Sultân Murad's conquest it consisted of twelve thousand 
houses with terraces, seventy mosques, forty mesjids, twenty khans, seven baths, 
and one thousand shops. The air is mild, but as it has few gardens, it has also 
but few fruits, one of its best products, is cotton of seven colours, black, yellow, 
ruby-colonred and of the purest white. The corn and wheat of Nakshivân is 
praised every where. Above all its painted linen and its Chit (chintz) deserve to be 
recommended. Its barley is so rich, that if a horse eats four grains of it, it is 
satiated ; its gardens are repositories of melons and water-melons. The youth 
are all fair and white on account of its excellent air, they wear the Persian turban, 
Taj, and robes of painted cotton and Chit (chintz) breeches of different colours, 
and green, red and orange -coloured papushes. The women wear pointed caps on 
which they wrap white muslin, and boots of various colours. The fashionable 
young men wear pelisses of Isfahan, and walk with great pomp and dignity, 
but they are wholly attached to women. The people pretend to be of the 
orthodox sect of Shâfiî although they are Persians, but this is a foul lie, they are 
Ja'aferites, who, however, keep the regular prayer hours five times a day, but 
never in company. They have some very fine mosques, every one of which may 



128 THE TRAVELS OF 

be compared to Eden, they are lined with painted pottery, and at some, the cu- 
polas are covered in the same manner, there are thirty-three minarehs in the style 
of those of Constantinople ; that of Ahmed Pâshâ exactly resembles that of 
Rostân Pâshtl at Constantinople. The bath of Jenânî is very pleasant, the walls 
are faced with porcelain, and the floor is paved ; the waiters are black-eyed 
youths from Khoten, whose crystal white bodies are set off by the dark blue of their 
aprons. Near the house where we lodged, as guests, is the bath of Zâl Pâshâ, 
which is also a soul -delighting bath, owing to its fine water and excellent at- 
tendance ; the walls are faced with porcelain, and the floor paved with jasper, 
marble, and granite of various hues. In the large basin ten feet square, which is 
underneath the cupola, the young people swim like angels of the sea : the bath- 
keeper every day pours into tlie basin, a basket of rose-leaves, which attaching 
themselves to the bodies of the bathers forms a kind of veil which is very be- 
coming ; thus they sport and play like peacocks and doves, their nakedness being 
covered by rose-leaves ; in short this bath is so delightful that such poets as 
Hassan and Selman could not sufficiently praise it, how then could it be possible 
for me, poor Evliyd^ to succeed. 

Rich merchants are established in the market, who trade by land and sea, each 
of whom is as rich as Karun ; the inhabitants are all given to pleasure, and 
pass part of every day in each other's gardens. The Khan of Nakhshivan, Risa- 
ud-din, after having met us, carried us directly to one of his gardens, where he 
read our letters to the principal men of Nakhshivan, and gave us an entertain- 
ment, attended by so many singers and mvisicians, that it was equal to the feast 
of Hossein Bikara. The Khân, a person of great repute, had been the treasurer 
of Sultân Sifî, who had delivered the castle of Baghdad to Sultân Murad ; he was 
a man of great judgment, of Georgian extraction, and his name was Devlet Murâd 
Khân. After dinner he gave to Alaja Atli Hassan, who came as envoy from 
the Pâshâ, and to me, brilliant robes of honour, ten tomans of Abbâssî, and a 
horse, investing his own envoy also with a caftan. He has from forty to fifty 
delightful companions excelling in various arts. The inhabitants of this town 
generally speak the dialect Dihkani, or of peasants, but they have poets who 
speak the Pehlevi and Moghol languages with elegance. The languages that are 
spoken here, are the Dihkânî or rough Persian ; the Deri, or court language ; the 
Farsi, or pure but less elegant Persian ; the Ghâzî and the Pehlevî, two ancient 
dialects. 

In the commentary of Dilemi, it is reported that the Prophet asked Michael 
" whether God ever spoke any thing in Persian ; " and Michael replied, " yes, 
that there were some passages in the books which Abraham received from 



evli YA efendi. 129 

Heaven : " and the Prophet answered, " whoever ridicules the Ghâzî dialect is an 
Infidel." 

Tlie Turkomans, Gokdülâk and Moghols, who are settled in the different dis- 
tricts, again speak other dialects. All these districts are defended by strong 
castles, some of which I passed on hunting parties, without having leisure to 
examine them properly. The names of these castles are : — Alanjak Van, built 
by Molla Kotb-ud-di'n ; Seran, Sersu, and Semaravân, built by Mervan Ibn-al- 
himar. The names of Persian towns almost all terminate as follows : — in Tar- 
tary the castles are named, Cherkers Kermdn, Kiresh Kerrnan, Shahin Kermân, 
Irbât Kermân, In Kerman, Ghâzı Kermân, Uzî Kermân, and Ak Kermdn. The 
names of Polish fortresses are Kamanija (Kaminiuk), and Alunjissa. The names 
of fortresses in Transylvania terminate in âr, as Sakmdr, Saksvvar, Oivâr, &c. 
The German fortresses are Iran, Comoin, Tata, Papa, Santmarton, Posonium, Bedj 
(Vienna), the latter is the residence of the German Emperor. Amongst the 
names of Ottoman towns, those of the Holy land are the most sounding. The 
whole Ottoman Empire consists of seventy seats of Begler-Begs, three hundred 
and sixty sanjak Begs, and thirteen hundred and eighty strong castles. May 
they all remain in the power of the Ottoman family until the end of the World. 
Amen ! The names of Persian castles will be given in the course of our travels. 



JOURNEY FROM NAKHSHIVAN TO TABRIZ. 

From Nakhshivân we proceeded for eight hours towards the Kiblah, and arrived 
at the place Kessik Kunbed, containing one thousand houses with gardens, three 
mosques, a Khân and Hamam. 

Pilgrimage of Rıza, the Son of Hossein Bikara. 
The inhabitants of the kent told us, that it was the tomb of the son of Hossein 
Bikara, but on the marble coffin was written Murâd Ibn Behâder Shefâd Ibn 
Hossein Bakara. It is a high cupola, and the tomb-keeper is one of the de- 
scendants of Hossein Bikara. We continued our journey from hence seven hours 
along the Arash, which rises in the mountains of the Curds Bînpânshî, in the 
province of Van, flows to the North and joins the river Zenghi, It may be 
crossed on horseback. We now advanced for some time amongst gardens, and 
arrived at Karabâgh,a town of Azerbeijân, which was built by one of the princes of 
this country, and ruined by Koja Ferhâd Pasha one of the Veziis of Sultân Moham- 
med the conqueror of Erla. The traces of havock are still to be seen. 

VOL. II. S 



130 THETRAVELSOF 

When Sultîîn Murad IV., on his expedition to the conquest of Erivan, came to 
this country, he again pillaged the town, which is just now rising from its ruins. 
It is the seat of a Sultân, who commands one thousand men. Its officers are a 
Kelenter, Darogha, Mûnshî, Bınbâshı, and Dizchoken-agassî. The town is 
situated on a beautiful wide plain, and consists of three thousand houses, seven 
mosques, seven baths, three khans, and six hundred shops. The youth of both 
sexes are pretty ; the products good and plentiful ; the air salubrious and the 
water excellent ; it is adorned and surrounded with gardens. Among the fruits 
deserve to be mentioned twelve different sorts of ruby-coloured grapes, and 
eighteen sorts of cherries ; some of its quinces are of the size of a man's head. 
Its waters are carried in some places through subterraneous conduits, and are 
most refreshing in summer time. The cupolas of the mosques are built in the old 
style of architecture, that is to say, pointed, and are covered with china of 
different colours ; eleven minarehs are conspicuous, but there are altogether 
seventy mihrâbs. The inhabitants have been exempted from the payment of all 
gifts and duties, on condition that they would rebuild the town ; they only con- 
tribute annually to the Shah of Iran an hundred camel-loads of dried fruits. In 
short, there are three towns in Azerbeijan called Karabâgh, each of which is a 
garden resembling Paradise. We went from hence turning towards the Kiblah, 
and arrived at the place where the river Irs joins that of Shan. We crossed it 
amidst a thousand difficulties ; it collects its waters from the mountains of 
Punyanshi (Bînpânshî ? ) Biredos, and Baghassi. Three stations below the plain 
of Nakhslıivân the Irs runs into the Zenghi, the Zenghi into the Aras, the Aras 
into the Kür, the Kiir into the Terek, ( ? ) and the Terek into the Caspian Sea. 
After having crossed the river we came in six hours to Kent Kerken, which is 
situated in the province of Tabriz on the frontier of Merend, consisting of three 
hundred houses, a mosque, a khan, and a bath ; but the inhabitants are extremely 
uncivil Persians ; they are all cotton weavers, of which their plain produces a large 
quantity ; bogassins of various colours are manufactured here. 

After a march of nine hours towards the Kiblah, we arrived at the kent of 
Zeneves, one thousand well-built houses, ten mosques, a khân, and bath. Ten 
hours further on, towards the Kiblah, is the town of Tessûî ; it is situated on the 
frontier of Merend and the bank of the Irs, and has three thousand houses with 
terraces, seven mosques, three baths, and six khans. Its Sultân commands one 
thousand armed men ; there is a Kelenter and Darogha, a Mûnshî and Kadhi. It 
was also destroyed by Murad IV., and is now recovering from its ruins ; it is 
twelve farsangs distant from the town of Merend ; the fruits of Tessüî are cele- 
brated. The inhabitants are Shiites, who live by gardening. We now passed to 



EVL I YA efendi. 131 

the south, drinking fresh water from wells, because the greatest part of the water 
is here subterraneous, and at the end of twelve farsangs we reached the town of 
Merend, the residence of the Khtln of Elvend, and the seat of a Sultân command- 
ing one thousand men. Its authorities are a Kelenter, Darogha, Munshi, and 
Dizchoken Agha. The interval of fourteen farsangs between here and Tabriz is 
all well cultivated ground. Merend lies to the east of Tabriz, It was formerly 
a hunting place of Shahrokh, the son of Timur, and was in a flourishing state, but 
Sultân Murad IV. laid it waste ; there are now three thousand houses, seven 
mosques, three khans, five baths and six hundred shops, but no Bezestdn, no 
colleges nor abecedarian schools ; but praise must be given to its seventy fine 
walks and gardens, each of which outrivals those of Eden. Its youth of both 
sexes are pretty and eloquent. The inhabitants are for the most part military 
men, all the sect of the Shiites ; on the Kiblah side of the town is the tomb 
of Hossein Teftazânî, one of the ancestors of the great Teftazânî, also of Alî 
Khândî, Sheikh Süsemâri, and Alî-ud-dîn. We received presents from the 
Sultan of this town, and went on seven hours, on the Kiblah side, through roads 
planted on both sides with willows and planes, so that we always travelled in the 
shade, sheltered against the rays of the sun. We halted at the wells, and arrived 
at Kent Kuhen'n, belonging to the Secretary of the Khân of Tabriz, of one thou- 
sand houses, six mosques, three baths, and two great palaces. It is an extremely 
flourishing kent. May God destroy it ! because they are all Shiites, and because 
I heard here for the first time, curses uttered against Omar. Allah confound 
them ! I was obliged to listen quietly to those obloquies, though I had a great 
mind to kill the rascal, which I might have done without incurring much respon- 
sibility, because envoys travelling from Rum to Persia are free in all their actions, 
even if they should kill a Persian. 

We now marched six hours further to Kent Şehlân, which is the khass of the 
Khân of Tabriz, situated in a plain, consisting of one thousand houses, seven 
mosques, a khân, a bath and some small markets (Siik). Its streets are all 
planted with willows and planes. The inhabitants of Tabriz have their koshks 
and pleasure-houses in this kent ; the inhabitants of the place pretend to be 
Shâfiîtes, but are all cursed Rafedites ; the young people and the air of the place 
is praiseworthy. As we continued our journey, we saw on our right, the high 
cupola of Ghazân Mohammed Shah towering into the skies, conspicuous at six 
hours distance. We said a Fâtihah to his memory, halted on a fine meadow, and 
sent a messenger to Tabriz. After three hours we mounted our horses for the 
solemn entry, I and the Envoy of Tabriz side by side ; before the envoy marched 
his soldiers well dressed, and before me forty persons composing my train ; the 



132 THETRAVELSOF 

Kiaya of the Khdn of Tabrfz came to meet us in solemn pomp (istikbâl), and 
accompanied by him we made our entrance into the town of Tabriz, where many 
thousand persons in the market were collected to stare at us ; our march from the 
town-gate to the palace of the Khdn at the other extremity of the town lasted 
for two hours. The Khdn received us in his Divân, where a great Council was 
assembled, the Persian music consisting of kettle-drums and trumpets were three 
times sounded, and the troops paraded. After the music was over, I got up, and 
drew forth from my breast the letter of Defterdar-zadeh Mohammed Pâshd, the 
governor of Erzerum, giving it into the hand of the Khan, who got up and kissed 
it, and put it on his head. The Ishek Aghâ (master of the ceremonies) then 
shewed me my place, where I stood in the Mohammedan fashion. The Khan 
gave the letter to his secretary (Mıînshî), who kissed it respectfully, and read it 
with a loud voice. At the mention of God's name, and the Prophet's name, all 
stood up praising the Prophet, but at the mention of his four friends, some looked 
askance (not liking to hear Omar mentioned amongst them.) 

The reading being finished the Khan said : " With the aid of God I will send 
to my honourable brother the Vezir of the Emperor, before a month elapses, a 
caravan of a hundred horses, and one of a hundred camels. Then adding different 
kind greetings and words, he made us sit down close to him, and ordered the 
repast to be brought in. After dinner, I delivered the pearl beads, the quiver 
and the Venetian stuffs, which, said I, " the Pasha has furnished me with, that 
I may not appear before your Excellency with empty hands ; he has added to 
these two Arabian horses of high breeding, which shall now make their appear- 
ance, if your Excellency would be pleased to see them." He rose up, and we 
came to the end of the room ; the horses richly caparisoned were on the signal 
given by me led into his presence : they came dancing and capering to the great 
astonishment of all the gentlemen of the Divân ; saying, " Bismillah ! " I gave the 
bridle of the horse into the hands of the Khan, adding " Mobarek-bâd " (Be it 
prosperous ! ) The Khân took some turns on the horse, riding withoijt stirrups 
in the fashion of Persian horsemanship. I then presented him with the second 
horse (Yelkendiz), with which he was no less satisfied, and sent it to his stable. 
At a signal by the Khân all our servants were served with sherbet, rosewater 
and incense was repeated ; and we were then given in to the care of the Mih- 
mandar, Kûrûjî-bâshî, Darogha, and Kelenter. The latter conducted us to his 
garden, where we remained. The Khân sent me forty tomans bath-money, a 
caparisoned horse (Karajabuk), with an elegant saddlecloth, and seven camel- 
loads of provisions. The pubUc cryers now published, throughout the town, an 
order of the Khân to make known that an Ottoman embassy of Sunnis having 



EVLIYAEFENDI. I33 

arrived, every body should be cautious of insulting them, lest they might be killed 
by the Sunni's. They curse neither Abubekr nor Osman, but Omar gives them a 
terrible head-ache, and they cannot refrain from injuring him by slanderous words. 
The same day the Khân sent us ten fine youths all dressed in embroidered cloth. 
They were led by our Mihmandar to kiss our hands, according to the ancient 
etiquette by which the Khans of Persia used to send ten fine youths as servants 
to the Ottoman Envoys. We now began to take a view of the town. 

Descriptioti of the Capital of Azerbeijdn, the ancient town of Tabriz. 

In the Moghol language it is called Tûris ; in the Derî dialect, TîCrız ; in the 
Dihkânî, Tabriz ; and in the Farsi, Tabriz : in all these dialects, tab signifies 
fever, and ri% pouring [dispersing], because the air is so salubrious, and the water of 
Ajan so good, that people who come from regions where fever prevails, completely 
recover here ; the fortress of Cairo is also a place where no fever is to be found. 
Tabriz was founded by Zobeide, Hariin Rashid's wife, who, when pregnant with 
Mamun, built a pleasure-house here on account of the excellent air. Afterwards 
a large town was built at an immense expense, and of such extent that it took 
three days to go round it. In the time of Calif Motevekel, it was ruined by an 
earthquake which destroyed forty thousand men. Motevekel came himself from 
Baghdad to rebuild the town at the expense of immense treasure. It rests on 
one side upon mount Ajan, on another side upon mount Şehlân, on a third side 
upon mount Senjan, and on the fourth upon the Maiden's mount (Kiztagh). The 
actual circumference of Tabriz, is six thousand paces, there are three hundred 
towers, three thousand battlements, and six gates, viz., that of Ajan, of Berservân, 
of Serzud, and of Shâmnemâzân, each of which is guarded by five hundred watch- 
men. The third builder of Tabriz was Hulagii, who resided here seven years, and 
embellished it wonderfully : Mohammed Khodabende Ibzârgıîn Shah transferred 
the whole palace, built by Hûlagü, on camels to his new built town. The timber 
used in the buildings was all cypress and aloe wood, and they have been faced 
with china ever since. The fourth builder was Mohammed Shah Ghazân, who 
extended the boundaries to the mountains of Senjan, Ajan, and Şehlân, and 
surrounded it with a wall, which required four days to make a tour of it. The 
town formerly built by Motevekel became then the inner castle or citadel of the 
new town. In the year 959, it was taken by Sultân Suleiman, who did not ravage 
it, but made a present of it to Shah Elkass Mirza. In the year 994 (1585), it 
was taken by the Persians. In the reign of Murad III., Uzdemir-oghli Murad 
Pasha undertook the expedition into Persia with an immense army, the van 
of which was led by Jighâla-oghlî Sinâm. Osman Pâshâ, one of his generals, took 
the town of Tabriz out of the hands of the Shah. 



134 THE TRAVELS OF 

To defend this town a strong citadel was then built of twelve thousand seven 
hundred cubits, which seems as though it had been built by Ferhâd, and on the 
gate of which the name of Uzdemir is inscribed. Uzdemir Pasha, the fifth builder, 
finished the castle in thirty-six days, and filled it with all necessary stores, and a gar- 
rison of forty thousand men. But he was not so happy as to perform the Friday's 
prayer, having died before it; the whole army proclaimed Jighala-zadeh Sinâm their 
commander, who was not however confirmed in his place by the Porte, which when 
made acquainted with the news, named Khandin Ja'affer Pasha, formerly Governor 
of Tripolis; under whose government the flourishing state of Tabriz excelled even 
that at the time of Sultdn Ghâzdn. According to the description made in his 
time, Tabriz reckoned eighty thousand houses, and three hundred thousand 
inhabitants. During the troubles which took place soon afterwards by the 
rebellion of the troops, it happened., that the Persians became masters of Genje, 
Shirvân, Shamâkhf, Erivdn, Nakhshivân and Tabriz, until the time of vengeance 
arrived in the reign of Sultân Murad IV. He conquered the fortress of Erivan 
in seven days, ransacked the towns of Nakhshivân, Merend and Karabâgh, 
remained a week at Tabriz, levelled the palace of Shah Abbas, and set fire to all 
the wooden houses, so that only stone buildings, such as mosques and baths, 
remained ; after which havock he returned to Constantinople. Shah Abbas 
returned, conciliated the inhabitants, and began to restore it to its former 
splendour. It is now the capital of Azerbeijân, and the seat of the Khan its 
Governor, who commands ten thousand men. Its officers are the Mufti, Nakib 
or head of the Seids (Emirs), the INIolla (Judge), Kelenter (Lieutenant of police), 
Mûnshî, (Secretary), Darogha (Provost), Kürûjî-bâshî (chief of the guards of the 
woods and heaths), Dîzchoken Aghâ, (commander of the garrison), Chiyek- 
yeyen Aghâ (another officer of the troops), Yassul Aghâ (Inspector of the 
sentinels), and Ishek Aghâ (Master of the Ceremonies) Mihmândeir. These 
public officers keep good order in the town of Tabriz, so that justice prevails 
as it did in the time of Nûrshîrvân, and no person can take a grain of mustard- 
seed from another. 

Description of the Mosques of Tabriz. 

There are altogether three hundred and twenty mihrâbs, nineteen of which 
are Imperial mosques. The first is the old mosque of Zobeide, the cupola and 
walls of which are all inlaid with china (fayence ;) the mortar of the Mihrâb having 
been mixed with musk, exhales the sweetest perfume ; its minareh is also entirely 
inlaid with china. The mosque of Motevekel is a mosque in the old style, with 
one minareh, which like the former is faced with china. In the course of time 
the builder's name has been lost, and it is now called Meshkieh. The mosque of 



evliya efendi. 135 

Sultân Mohammed Shâm Ghazân, which was formerly a splendid mosque, is 

now falling into decay in an obscure place ; the mosque of Jihan Shah Emin 

is a high building with a dome vying with that of Tak Kesra, like the mosque 

of Tâher Bibars, at Cairo ; its walls are white polished like Chinese paper, and 

before the Mihrab is a fine garden, the scent of which perfumes the air. The 

name of this fine mosque is Dihshetf-Behesht (terror of Paradise). The mosque 

of Sultân Hassan, the Prince of Azerbeijan, the same who built the fortress of 

Hassan Kala'a to the east of Erzerum, and who was defeated by Sultân 

Mohammed II. in the field of Terjân. He is buried at this mosque, the cupolas 

of which are inlaid with china inside and out ; it is quite equal to the mosque of 

Sultân Hassan at Cairo. The minber, mihrâb and mahfil are adorned with such 

elegant sculptures and carving, that the greatest masters of the present day 

would not be able to finish it in that style ; the windows shine with unparalleled 

splendour, but the greatest masterpiece is conspicuous in the arabesques and 

ornaments of the great gate. Above all the gates and windows are inscriptions in 

the character of Yakut Mostea'assemi. On the side of the altar are two columns 

of a yellow stone, each of which is worth the revenue of Iran and Turan : these 

two columns have no equal, either in Egypt, Syria, Arabia, or Persia. The other 

Imperial mosques are also faced with china, paved with marble and adorned with 

paintings and suspended ornaments, so that each is quite a Chinese gallery. 

These five mosques are not however so much frequented as those in Turkey, 

because prayers are not performed in community, but singly by persons, who 

enter and leave abruptly. Opposite to the mosque of Uzun Hassan is that of 

Shah Ismail, and near it that of Shah Makssud, the son of Sultân Hassan ; the old 

mosque of Chârmenân, the mosque of Abbas the first, and the great mosque, 

so large that from the great gate to the mihrâb opposite, a man can hardly 

be distinguished. 

Colleges of Tabriz. 

There are forty-seven large Colleges, where lectures are held on all sciences ; 
the first is that of the lady of Shah Jihan : and twenty rooms for reading the 
Koran (Dar-ul-kira) but they read it wrong throughout all Persia. There are 
seven houses for reading tradition (Dâr-ul-hadîth), but the doctors of tradition 
are not much renowned, because they confine themselves to the tradition of Alî 
and the twelve Imams, and have some thousand books on the traditions of Alî 
alone ; six hundred schools, where boys are taught to spell and read the Koran, and 
are clothed once a year ; one hundred and sixty convents of dervishes ; six 
fountains, which all issue from mount Semendan. The town is besides furnished 
with seven canals of water, and there are one thousand and forty Sebils, or 



136 THETRAVELSOF 

places for distributing water, which are well covered. The town is divided into 

one thousand and sixty quarters which are called Derveze. The water magazine 

(serdab) which was cleaned by Uzdemir Pâshâ furnishes the water of the canals. 

One thousand and seventy palaces of great men, two hundred caravanserais, 

seventy khans for merchants and one hundred and ten for single workmen ; 

seven thousand market streets (Siik) many of which are vaulted like those of 

Haleb ; and a great Bezestan, which is the seat of the richest merchants, with 

four iron gates. 

Praise of the Air and Climate. 

By the mildness of the climate the inhabitants are all healthy and stout, with 
red cheeks and black beards, merry faces, and lips like rose-buds ; the women are 
pretty, and conscious of the fairness of their skins are extremely proud ; those 
advanced in age are of sweet company, so that the proverb, " the old is 
sweeter than the young," may well be applied to them. The inhabitants are all 
Shii's or Mulhad (impious), a great number are Dumbûlî, Khaljânî, Turcomans, 
and Gokdûlâk. There are two thousand Ulemds, amongst whom are excellent 
doctors, surgeons and oculists. There are more than seven thousand pious 
Sheiks, who are much esteemed in this town, the inhabitants never do any thing 
without consulting them, but their sect is not exactly known. Eighty-two most 
eloquent poets, authors of Divans. Yârı and Shâbî are the Saîb and Unfi of 
their time. Of the Mujazib or Santons (Saint fools) we saw Sherimî, whom no 
person ever saw eating, drinking, lying down, sleeping, or performing any of the 
natural offices of life for seventy years. The Persians are generally called Kizil- 
bash or red heads, because they wrap red sashes round their heads, though many 
of them also wear the Mohammedan white turban ; but the cap is always 
pointed, and that of the Ulemas, which is called Taj, or crown, is more than two 
yards long. The great men wear sable. 

Account of the Persian Crown {Tcij). 

The shape is founded on a dream of Ibrahim, the founder of the dynasty of 
Sefî ; he dreamt that he bore a child to an ass, that had seventy fingers. This 
dream having been interpreted as foreshadowing the Empire, he swore, that if it 
should be fulfilled, he would commemorate the circumstance, by wearing an 
asinine phallus in his turban, and by imitating the cries of the animal in music. 
This is the reason why the Persian crown and head-dress have the present shape, 
and why their music resembles the braying of an ass. 

The purity of the air drives away all fevers, and prolongs life to the age of one 
hundred and seventy years. The water issues from mount Semenden, and is 



evliya efendi. 137 

distributed into more than nine hundred conduits and pipes, which furnish the 
town with water. The water aids digestion, and Hke the air is rather cold. There 
is also good water in wells, but the water of the canals is better ; some of the wells 
are from forty to fifty cubits deep, in the summer their water is cold, and in the 
winter it is warm. Astrologers say that Tabriz was built by Zobeide, under the 
influence of the sign of the scorpion when ruled by Mars, and that for this reason, 
it has been so many times disturbed and ruined by rebels and by conquerors, such 
as Timur, Gengfz, Hûlagü, and Murad IV. 

There are twenty-one pleasant baths each with one or two basins, a half sofFa, 
and fountains (jets d'eaux). The attendants are fine youths, the water and air 
are excellent. Besides the public baths there are seven hundred private ones, 
where the silver-bodied youth swim like angels of the sea. On the china or 
fayence of these baths, is written the famous poem of Foziili, called the poem of 
the bath (Kassidei Hamam). There are seven sorts of corn growing at Tabriz, 
besides an abundance of barley. There are also seven sorts of cotton. 

Arts and Handicrafts, Provisions, Fruits, Beverages, Gardens, 8^c. 

Painters, architects, goldsmiths, and tailors are nowhere to be found so perfect 
as here. Precious stuffs manufactured here go all over the world; the velvet 
is much renowned. The provisions consist of the white bread called Kerde, 
and Sumun, cracknels, pastry, roasts, chicken pies, forty different kinds of pilaw 
with spices, the Herisse and sweetmeat, Palûde. Among the abundance of deli- 
cious fruits are particularly the pears and exquisite apricots, they are not found 
in such perfection even at Constantinople. The beverages consist of seven sorts 
of Muscat wine, the common wine of the Royal grape, the pomegranate, the 
cherry wine, and oxymel ; and for the common people buza of millet and 
rice. 

There are some dining establishments for the poor, such as the imaret of Shah 
Yakiib, of Sultân Motevekel, of Lady Zobeide, and of Sultân Hassan, large 
buildings with kitchens worthy that of Keikavus, but in the hands of the Persians 
they have all decayed. 

The principal walk is the mount Surkhab (Red-water) near Tabriz ; at noon 
the sea of Rumie may be distinguished from the top of it ; it is at a farsang dis- 
tance from Tabriz. 

The number of gardens amounts to forty-seven thousand, the finest is that of 
Shah Yakub, where the Khân gave me a splendid entertainment. Eleven times 
in the day, seventy dancers and singers exerted themselves in the practice of their 
art, so that it resembled an evening party of Hossein Bikara. This garden owes 

VOL. II. T 



138 THETRAVELSOF 

its origin to Koja Ferhâd Pâshii, Governor of Tabriz under Sultân Murad III., 
who adorned it with numerous koshks, bowers and pleasure-houses ; and at the 
time of the pillage of the town by Murad IV., this garden was preserved by the 
care of Osmîın Aghâ. The Chronostic of the koshk where we dined, alluding to 
the name of the builder, says that, Ferhâd built this sweet (Shirin) palace. The 
walk of Shah Sefi cannot be praised enough. It is the place of the Ma'il ; in the 
centre of it two immense columns lift their tops up to Heaven ; on one of them 
every Friday a silver plate is put, which is aimed at by all the bowmen, who 
shoot at it, encouraged by the presence of the Khân. On New Year's day 
(Nevruz) or the beginning of spring, battles are fought in this place by horses 
trained in the dark during forty or fifty days, by camels, buffaloes, sheep, asses, 
dogs, and cocks. These fights are peculiar to Persia. Every year on the tenth of 
the month Moharrem, being the feast of A'ashura, all the population of the town 
assemble under tents in this large place, and during three days and nights cook 
many thousand dishes of A'ashura (a kind of hotch-potch), in remembrance of the 
martyrs of Kerbela ; these dishes are distributed with an abundance of sugar- 
sherbet, which is carried round in crystal vases, and cups of cornelian and 
turquoise : at the same time singing certain verses, such as "Their Lord gave them 
of the purest beverage," Some of the great men on this day carry cans and tankards 
round their necks, and go about distributing water like common porters. But the 
finest show is in the variegated tent of the Khân, where all the great men of 
Tabriz are assembled, and where a Hymn on the death of Hossein is recited, 
in the same manner as the Hymn on the Prophet's birthday is in the Turkish 
mosques. The hearers listen, sighing and lamenting, but when the reciter 
arrives at the passage where Hossein is killed by accursed Shabr, a curtain 
opens behind him, and a severed head and trunk of a body, representing that of 
the Imam when dead, is thrown on the ground, when there rises such an uproar 
of cries and lamentations that everybody loses his wits. At this moment some 
hundred men mingle in the crowd with razors, with which they cut the arms and 
breasts of all loving behevers, who desire to shed their blood on this day in re- 
membrance of the blood shed by the Imam ; they make such deep incisions and 
scars, that the ground appears as if it was blooming with tulips. Some thousands 
brand the marks and names of Hassan and Hossein on their heads, arms, and 
breasts. They then carry Hossein's body away from the ground with much pomp, 
and finish the ceremony with great bowlings. 

The town has numerous fine walks and pleasure grounds, each of which may be 
compared to the gardens of Ispuze and Meram. The beautiful koshks worthy to 
be the seats of Sherin and Ferhâd, of Wamik and Azra, are every where renowned ; 



evliya efendi. 139 

but I must refrain from their praise and description, as I have yet so many other 
things to mention. God be thanked ! I remained here two months, which I spent 
in full pleasure and delight, and I shall now give the description of the districts 
and castles, which I visited in the Khan's company. Round Tabriz are seven 
districts, which furnish military men, whose office is to train birds and dogs for 
hunting. 

The first is the district of Mehrânrûd, five farsangs to the east of Tabriz, the 
three places Koraükendrüt, Isfenj-kent, and Sa'âd-abâd are like large towns, 
with numerous mosques, khans and baths. The second district is that of Sera- 
vurûd on the west side of Tabriz ; containing eighty well cultivated villages. The 
third district is that of Dideher, four farsangs south-west of Tabriz, twenty-four 
kents with mosques, khans, baths and gardens. The fourth district is that of 
Ardenik, on the west side of Tabriz at only a farsang's distance ; thirty well 
cultivated villages. The fifth district is that of Rûdkât behind mount Sorkhab, 
and north of Tabriz, at a farsang's distance from it ; a hundred great kents with 
gardens, mosques, markets, &c. The sixth district, that of Khânumrûd ; twenty 
elegant villages. The seventh, that of Bedostan behind Rûdkât ; seventy 
villages. If I were to describe minutely all the hunting and pleasure parties on 
which I accompanied the Shah for the space of twenty days, it would alone fill a 
book, because Tabriz is hke Isfahan, one of the finest towns in the world. God 
gi-ant its possession to the Ottomans^ and keep it from ruin ! 

Account of a curious Conversatmi. 

One day being in company with the Shah he presented me with the purest 
vnne. I said, " By God ! with God ! through God Î and by All's purest spirit, 
since I was born I never drank wine or any other spirituous liquor, and since our 
great ancestor Khoja Ahmed Yessûî, none of our family have ate or drank any 
thing of an intoxicating quality. I beg, therefore, to be excused by you." The 
Khân said, " My beloved and darling brother, what are you afraid of ; if it is of 
your Emperor, he is five months journey from you ; if it is of your Khan (the 
Pâshâ), it is forty days distance from Erzerum to Tabriz. The Khân of the 
Shah of Iran and the dog of Alı, my Shah, has expressly forbidden me to drink 
a drop of wine ; what do I care for that, I drink it secretly and delight in it ; 
follow my example." I said, " Very well, my Khan, if your Shah has prohibited 
it to you, it is prohibited to nie by the express command of the Shah of Shahs, 
the Lord of Lords, who says in the Koran, ' wine, gaming and fortune-telling are 
Satan's work : ' it is of this Lord, that I am afraid." " You are," said the Khân, 
" a rigorous Methodist (Mutea-assib)." " By God ! " replied I, " I am no Me- 



140 THETRAVELSOF 

thodist but only a true follower of the orthodox sect of Na'amân Ben Thdbet, and a 
true lover of the Prophet's family." At this reply the whole company became 
silent, the Khân rose up with all his youthful attendants, and sitting down close to 
me, he said, " My dear Evliya Aghd, which of these my favourite servants would 
you like to have, I will make you a present of him if you drink a cup of wine out 
of his hand. Come drink a glass, if you love red Alî and the twelve Imams ; let 
us be warm of head and tender of heart, let us enjoy a moment of delight in this 
perishable world." So saying, all the youths came to salute me, and I returned 
their salutes ; yet did I implore at the same time Heaven's assistance, and then 
said, in answer to his further pressing requests ; " You drink wine to get into 
good humour, but the first thing is to be good-humoured in God ; I beg you will 
let me have a half-drum to accompany my own song, in order to show you how 
people get good-humoured in God." " Be it so," said he, " for Ali's sake bring 
a half-drum to Evliya, my brother ; " I took it, and sang three tetrastichs on Divine 
Love, in the tune Sigâh, which made all the hearers appear as though they were 
drunk. The Khân, being extremely pleased, invested me with his own sable 
pelisse, gave me a thousand praises, and a Georgian slave as a present, ten tomans 
of Abbâssf, and a racehorse (Karajubiik). "Now," said he, " I will not plague 
you any more with a request to drink wine," and I continued to enjoy his con- 
versation undisturbed during a whole month, feasting every night. I spent this 
time observing all that was worth seeing at Tabriz, the good order and govern- 
ment of which is worthy of all possible recommendation. The inhabitants are 
merry, but orderly people, and I never saw a drunkard in the streets. It is in 
their praise that the verse was composed, which says, " The people of Tabriz, 
though given to pleasure, are as pure as the glass of a mirror ; and if you say 
they are not true to friends, you must know that the mirror only reflects the 
object before it as it really appears. " 

General Praise of Tabriz. 

The first and most agreeable properties of Tabriz is the abundance of water, by 
which means the streets are washed and cleansed from all dust, as though it was 
continually New Year's day. The second praiseworthy circumstance is, that the 
Sherifs or descendants of Mohammed do not give their daughters indiscriminately 
to servants, but only to their equals. They proposed the following nice point to 
me, saying : — " You take Infidel girls as women, because you say that the man 
plants the seed, and that is very well ; but you also give your own daughters to 
Moslims, who were first Infidels and afterwards converted ; now if this new 
Moslim relapses into his former error, what then becomes of the children, who 



evli YA efendi. 141 

though their mother be a true descendant of the Prophet, may become apostates 
and fly into the land of the Infidels ? " I answered, with the tradition of the 
Prophet, which says, " that even the children of Christians and Jews are born true 
Moslims, but that they are afterwards seduced into error by their parents." There 
was no reply to that. The third good thing is that all sales are transacted with 
Persian money coined in the country, and that no foreign coin is received. 
Money is coined in seven towns, viz. at Erdebil, Hamadân, Baghdad, Isfahan, 
Tiflis, Nehâvend, and Tabriz. The inscription on one side is, " There is no God, 
but God, and Mohammed is the Prophet, and Alî the friend of God ; " on the 
reverse is the name of the Shah, with the epithet of Alfs dog : their small coins 
or pennies are called Kaziki, they bear only the place of the coinage on one side, 
and the date of the year on the other : on their measures and weights are also 
written the words, " There is no God but God," and who dares to cheat in the 
name of God is blinded by a heated stone drawn over his eyes. Before their 
shops and markets, scales of yellow brass are suspended, which are never taken 
away, but always remain, and all eatables and drinkables are sold by weight ac- 
cording to the fixed market prices ; even corn and wheat are sold by weight. The 
fourth good things are the cookshops, fitted-up with china and furnished with 
plates of the same material ; they are opened with prayer as usual in the morn- 
ing, and then filled with all kinds of pilaws, and stewed meat (Herisse), which are 
also sold by weight. The waiters, clean and smart, stand with pewter dishes under 
their arms, on which are inscriptions like the following : " No nobility above the 
Islam ; " " The nobility of the place depends upon who occupies it ; " " The 
nobility of the house depends upon its inhabitants; and the nobility of the in- 
habitants upon their generosity." After dinner these waiters bring clean basins 
and cans for washing, but vulgar people (Tolûnkî and Tokir) wipe their right hand 
under their left shoulder, and their left hand under the right. 

Bad and reprehensible things in Iran. 

It is a bad custom in Persia that only twelve classes of the troops and as many of 
the Ulemâs and the other ranks of society are allowed to have regular kitchens in 
their houses ; all the rest eat from the market, therefore, although their dinner is 
cheap it is very bad. The army has its cooks, who cook in that way at a fixed 
price, so that they are are not allowed to take a grain more or to furnish a grain 
less than the established quantity. When the army takes the field, the kitchen is 
estabhshed in tents made of felt. 

Another bad thing in Persia is that they do not kill or hang their delinquents, 
but the Darogha and Mohtessib (two officers of police), bring them to the public 



142 THE TRAVELS OF 

place, where the executioners torment them in a most cruel manner ; during three 
days and nights, they inflict on them three hundred and sixty different kinds of 
torture. They first give them three hundred strokes of the whip and Korbaj, press 
their knees, introduce reeds under their nails, cauterize the whole body with fire, 
force them to swallow greasy rags with a rope attached, which if dragged out 
again brings the stomach and bowels with it ; nail their hands and feet down, 
bore holes in the elbows and knees, and then pour melted lead in the holes so that 
the lead runs out with the marrow : they tie the four first fingers and toes tight 
together, suspend the delinquent and perfume him with sulphur and asses' urine, 
so that the poor mens' cries pierce the skies ; they cut pieces out of the back, and 
attach burning candles to the shoulders ; they squeeze the testicles, tickle the nose 
with pointed thorns, put iron kettles on the head, and blind the eyes ; and inflict 
even more horrible tortures than those already described. God forgive us our 
sins ! They paralyse thieves by cutting the sinews. They cut off" the ears, noses, 
and hands and feet of false witnesses, and fasten other delinquents to seven 
different kinds of gibbets and pales, and leave them so exposed during three days 
and nights. The Khan having one day glorified himself with these cruel tortures, 
in my presence, I asked him, " What was the object of such manifold cruelties ; " 
he said, " That death being pronounced on these culprits, the tortures were added, 
in order to terrify others by the example." I said, " That it was not lawful, 
because the text of the Koran states no other punishment for thieves but cutting 
off" the hand, and retaliation in cases of murder ; and that this was quite sufficient 
to keep the people in terror and awe." He was obliged to acknowledge that I 
was right. These additional tortures have been contrived by them, because their 
people are all riotous and heretical, that they may be kept in order the easier. 
So they established it as law. 

Pilgrimages and Visits in the town of Tabriz. 

In the cemeteries are many places of pilgrimage of great and holy men. In 
the cemetery of Sürkhâb are the tombs of poets, such as Enwerl, Khakânî, 
Zahîr-ud-dîn Faryâbî, Felekî of Shîrâz, and Felekî of Shirvân. 

Of Saints buried in the neighbouring villages, there are, in the village of 
Gûchûchân the Saint Khoja Mohammed Gûchûchânî; in the village of Sabad- 
abdd, no less than seven hundred learned writers. Essâma Ben Sherik, the 
Prophet's companion is buried near Tabriz on the martyrs' mount ; and Sarut-ul 
Jebel, the brother of Hamza, who was carried wounded from the battle of Nehâ- 
vend to Tabriz, died here. The Sheikh Sejid-jan Memi, a writer deeply versed in 
ancient and modern sciences and in mystics. On mount Sûrkhâb, two children of 



evliya efendi. 143 

Ali are buried ; in the quarter of Serde the place is shown where Efasidb's head 
is buried. Sheikh Nassr-allah, the son of Ak-Shems-ud-din. It would be too 
long to describe all the monuments which exist at Tabriz, and we contented 
ourselves with these. 

Description of the Expedition we undertook with the Khdn to Shdm Ghdzdn. 

We left Tabriz accompanied by one thousand horse, and after a march of five 
hours through flowery gardens came to Kent Ajisû, half way to Kumla^ two hundred 
houses with gardens belonging to the Khan's khass, a mosque and three convents. 
The waters of this plain are subterraneous, flowing from village to village, and 
there are some thousand wells on the great roads, this place is called A'jisû 
(bitter water) because its water is a little brackish. We continued our road next 
day to the burying-place of Mohammed Sham Ghazdn ; it is called so because 
this country bears great resemblance to Damascus (Sham). Mohammed Ghâzân 
Shah built this castle, and peopled it with from ten to twelve thousand subjects 
free from all duties and gifts. He then built this monument, which has no equal 
either in Arabia or in Persian Irak, it is a tower lifting its head to the skies 
like that of Galata. When I saw it, it was a little damaged on the side of the 
gate by an earthquake ; it is a monument well worth seeing. I entered it with 
the Khan, said a Fatihah, and read the inscription on the marble cofiin. More 
than two hundred Dervishes inhabit the convent ; outside of the gate, piles of 
sheep's heads are erected, many thousand sheep being immolated here by the 
inhabitants of Persia, who have great confidence in this place ; a well ten yards 
deep affords refreshing water in summer. 

The name of Sham Ghâzân is a corruption of the Moghol language, in which 
this Prince is called Shanb, whence Sham originated. The castle which bears 
his name on Mount Welian is now in ruins. At the foot of it is the Kent-WeUan 
consisting of three hundred houses with a fine mosque, khan and bath, founded 
by the Vezir Rashîd-ud-dîn Dembolf. We reached after five hours from hence, 
the Castle of Kûmla, built by Koja Ferhâd Pâshâ, the Vezir of Sultân Murad III. 
in the year 998 (1589), it is a square castle at the foot of Mount Wehan. It is 
eighty paces in circumference, has seven towers, and two gates, one to the east 
and one to the west ; the eastern one is that leading to Tabriz. It was from 
this place that Ja'afer Pasha, when beseiged by the troops in rebellion, made a 
sally at night, and completely routed the rebels. He afterwards built this gate. 
Within the castle are seven hundred houses and a mosque ; the suburb forms the 
town of Kûmla, which abounds in gardens ; the grapes and pears of Kûmla 
are much celebrated. There are seventy mosques, eleven of which are Jamiis 



144 THE TRAVELS OF 

(wherein Friday prayer is said), the best is that of Ferhdd Pasha. It is the seat 
of a Sultân subordinate to Tabriz. A Kelenter and Darogha keep public order; 
a Sultân is here the same as in Turkey a Sanjek Beg, and a Begler Beg is called 
a Khan ; a Vezir of three tails is called Itimâd-ud-devlet ; a Commander-in-chief 
(Serdâr) is here named Sipehsalâr ; Mûnshî answers to the Turkish Reis Efendî ; 
Kelenter is the same as Alai Beg, that is to say Colonel of the Militia, and 
Darogha is the same as Sûbashî or Lieutenant of police ; the head of the 
Chaushes or ushers here takes the name of Yessaiil Aghd, and the Aghâ of the 
Dizchoken is the same as an Aghâ of the janissaries in Turkey. The names of 
Kûrûji, chief of the forest guards, and Mihmandar or travelling commissary, are 
common both to Turkey and Persia. We advanced from hence five hours to the 
district of Serawerd, a great Kent north-west of Tabriz, with a mosque, khân, 
and bath. We were entertained here during a whole night by the Kelenter, and 
continued our journey next day, hunting along the river Serawerd to the Kent- 
Dusht, where we dined and halted a little. We proceeded for six hours to the 
Kent-Jevlân Doruk in the district of Serawerd on the river of that name, with 
one thousand houses, a bath and mosque. Further on is the Kent of Kânidlis, 
three hundred MosUm houses and a mosque ; the Armenians have three churches 
and three thousand houses. Three hours further is the Kent-Lakid, the khass of 
Rokhshâh's Lady ; the inhabitants are Armenian weavers, there are two thousand 
houses, a mosque, a khân, and three convents ; on the mount of Serawerd stands a 
ruined castle. The Kent of Kujabâd has five hundred houses, a khân, a mosque 
and a bath. We now went eastward to the district of Rudkât on the north of 
Tabriz behind mount Sorkhâb, a district of a hundred Kents, which we passed in 
hunting during three days. 

Description of Merdgha. 

It is the seat of a Sultân commanding a thousand troops, and has a Judge, 
Kelenter, Darogha and Munshi ; it was built in the earliest time by Hûshenk- 
shâh, and is the first town of Azerbeijan and its ancient capital, surrounded with 
fruitful gardens, eleven farsangs distant from Tabriz ; eleven mosques, forty khans, 
sixty mesjids, forty convents of Dervishes, eleven baths and three thousand 
shops. The inhabitants are all weavers, who manufacture excellent Bogassin. 
The beautiful youth of both sexes at Merâgha are everywhere renowned. The 
town has risen from its ruins since the havoc it suffered from the army of Sultân 
Murad III. Its builder in the time of Islam was Mervân Ibn Mohammed Al- 
Himâr, in whose time it extended to Mount Sehend and comprised seventy thou- 
sand houses ; but since it was destroyed by the Moghols in Hülagü's time, the 
buildings are at some distance from Mount Sehend, which as it intercepted the 



evliya efendi, 145 

north wind, was the reason that the air of its former situation was so heavy. 
The water, however, issues from the mountain, and abundantly furnishes the 
houses and gardens. Its pomegranates and cotton are famous, the inhabitants 
are white and gazelle-eyed, of sweet words and shining faces ; a great part of 
them secretly follow the orthodox rite of Hanefî. They mostly speak Pehlevi ; 
the whole country is divided into eight districts, viz. : Serajûn, Penajun, Jeriit, 
Kaodul, Hestrud, Behsând, Engûrân, and Kizilorân ; each district containing from 
eighty to one hundred cultivated kents; altogether five hundred and sixty kents, 
sixty towns, and seven castles ; the description of which, if we could undertake it 
in detail, would alone fill a volume. We left Meragha and entered the district 
of Tûrnachairî, wherein the town of Ajan is situated ; the kent of Petiker of one 
thousand houses is situated in this district. 

Description of Ajdn. 

On the east side of mount Ajan a large town was built by Peshen the son of 
Keiumerth, and, being ransacked by Hûlagû, fell into decay, so that all its inhabi- 
tants were transferred to Tabriz ; it was rebuilt by Ghâzân, who also built a castle 
of two thousand paces in circumference on the edge of the mountain, with an 
iron gate opening to the east ; within it are one hundred houses, but no garason, 
outside there are three thousand houses, seven mosques, three baths, seven khans, 
and six hundred shops. The water comes from mount Ajdn ; the inhabitants 
are Shâfiîtes, but keep their doctrine secret, they are merry fellows (Ehl mesh- 
reb), and no rigourists (Ehl mezheb). The Armenians have two convents. After 
having seen the town we continued our journey, hunting, to the district of Meh- 
rânberûd, five farsangs to the east of Tabriz, of sixty great kents. We passed those 
of Werd, Isfej and Saîdabâd, built by a Vezir of that name in the time of Sultan 
Tahmurass, a large kent of two thousand houses, seven mosques, a khân and 
bath, which was ransacked by Sultân Suleiman in his way to Baghdad, but es- 
caped the havoc of Sultân Murad. We remained one night here and next day 
proceeded seven hours towards the south-east to the Kent of Mân, built by 
Mâhkür the daughter of Khodabende ; nine hours further we arrived at the castle 
of Kehrevân built by Shah Tahmâss, out of fear of Sultân Suleiman. At the 
time of the expedition of Kojâ Ferhâd Pâshâ, as soon as he arrived at Baghdad, he 
sent the General Solak Ferhâd Pâshâ against this place, who besieged the castle 
in vain during seventeen days. This Khân Meimendî made continual inroads, 
till at Tabriz he was completely routed by Ja'afer Pâshâ of Tabriz, who took seven 
thousand heads and five thousand prisoners from him. The next day Ja'afer set 
out with seventy thousand men for the siege of Kehrevân, which was taken on 

VOL. II. u 



146 THETRAVELSOF 

the third day. Meimendf being brought into the presence of Ja'afer Pashd, his 
ear was cut off, his property confiscated and himself hanged at the gate of the 
castle, the keys of which were sent to Sultân Murad ; there is even now a 
mosque named after Sultdn Murad : it remained eleven years in the hands of the 
Ottomans. It is situated on a hill on the road to Baghdad ; it is six thousand 
paces in circumference, and has two gates, one to the south, and one to the 
north ; its Sultân commands one thousand men. The suburb consists of seven 
thousand well-terraced houses, and sixty mosques, in eleven of which public 
prayer is performed on Friday, seven baths, eleven khans, and eight hundred 
shops ; the sheets and blankets manufactured here are celebrated. We advanced 
seven hours further eastward, to a large kent embellished by a mosque of Jîghâla's 
son ; and nine hours further on we arrived at the large town of Erdebil, the first 
residence of the Persian Shahs of the Safî dynasty. It has been taken and 
retaken several times by both Ottomans and Persians, and is now the seat of a 
Khân, who commands three thousand men ; it is a day's journey from mount 
Seilân, and is surrounded by high mountains at the same distance ; it Ues in a 
fertile valley close to a lake. It was built by an Armenian King in fear of 
Omar's power, in the same year that Sâriet-ul-jebel was sent to Nehavend ; this 
is one of the principal reasons why Omar is so much hated by the Persians, who 
do not show so much dislike to Abubekr and Osman. This town formerly ex- 
tended as far as mount Seilân, from which it is now two farsangs distant ; the 
farsang is equal to twelve thousand ordinary paces, so that two farsangs are equal 
to twenty-four thousand paces. The top of Seilan is always covered with snow, 
which shines like silver in the middle of summer, and furnishes all the water of the 
town ; it is a very digestive water, which enables the inhabitants to feast hke 
Ma'adikarb. The inhabitants pretend to be Shâfiîtes ; they are great hars. The 
distance between Tabriz and Erdebil is twenty-five farsangs, which with a good 
horse may be gone over in two days. The chmate much resembles that of Erze- 
rûm ; hard winter, and a fruitful soil, the corn multiplying eighty fold : there are 
no fruit-trees and vines, but gardens for vegetables and rosebeds. 

The lake near Tabriz on the east side is covered with many hundred fishing- 
boats, on the west it is but a farsang's distance from Rumie ; between Erdebil and 
the lake the country is covered with wood, and villages are interspersed in the 
forest ; there are seventy sorts of fish ; the boats on the lake also trade to 
Rumie, Dûmdûraî and Dûmbûlı ; the circumference of this lake is greater than 
that of Wan, a man may go round it in ten days ; the water of the lake of Wan 
is bitter as poison, but this is sweet as the water of life. Its depth is seventy 
cubits. This lake was produced on the birthnight of the prophet, when the vault 



EVLIYAEFENDI. I47 

of Chosroes, and that of Ayd Söfiyah, and the idols of Mecca fell down by an earth- 
quake ; forty-five large and small springs flow into it ; the river Seilan which 
affords water to Erdebîl, the river Kuherân and others fall into this sea. On the 
banks of the river Seilan lies a large round mass of iron, three quintals in weight, 
extremely well polished, on which ancient philosophers have written a kind of 
Hebrew inscription with a figure lifting its two arms up to Heaven ; if rain is 
wanted this stone is carried in procession into the town, and it never fails to rain 
day and night without ceasing till the stone is replaced. The basis on which this 
marvellous stone reposes is a large rock, covered with strange inscriptions ; it 
also has twelve holes, from which as soon as the iron mass is rolled away, water 
begins to rush forth, and ceases not until the stone is returned to its place. 
Some persons assert this to be the stone which Moses struck in the desert, others 
believe that this miracle is performed in favour of Sheikh Safî ; be it as it may, it 
is a great talisman. Erdebü is famous for its immense number of mice which 
are great destroyers of cloth. Cats are, therefore, so dear that they are sold in 
cages by public auction ; some of Dîvrîgui fetch the price of a hundred piastres, 
but they are short-lived like all cats of Erdebfl. The cryers at the auction call 
out ; " A good hunting cat, well bred, a good companion, an enemy to rats, 
which steals not ! " 

Places of Pilgrimage at Erdehil. 

The first of all is the tomb of Sheikh Safî, the son of Sheikh Khoja Alî, the 
son of Sheikh Sadr-ud-dîn Mûssa, the son of Sheikh Safr-ud-din Abu Ishâk of 
Erdebfl, the founder of the dynasty of the Safis. His tomb-keepers are some 
hundred dervishes, a large foundation. Sheikh Safî governed only in a spiritual 
sense ; his son Hyder was his successor, and Ibrahim the son of Hyder having 
dreamt of concubinage with an ass, his possession of the Empire was foretold by 
his grandsire Sheikh Safî ; indeed Sheikh Ibrahim was the first who enjoyed the 
rights of sovereignty ; from Sheikh Safî to Shah Abbas are five Shahs who coined 
money. We left Erdebfl, marched nine hours further to the north, and came to 
Kent Rarâm, a kent of six hundred houses with gardens ; eight hours further we 
came to the Kent Yâr Alî, three hundred houses, a mosque, no khan or bath, but a 
large number of shops and a weekly market ; six hours further to the north, the 
Kent of Merzdde Amâd in the district of Dîdher, eight hundred houses. After 
eight hours, we arrived at Tabriz again, where I remained some days more, pass- 
ing from one entertainment to another. Letters were now written for the 
khans and commanders of the places I was to pass through on my return, and the 
letter of the Khân to the Pasha made ready. The presents sent to him consisted 
of ten camel loads of rice, dried raisins, dried pears, pomegranates, and two race- 



148 THETRAVELSOF 

horses of the breed Karajubuk, four trotting horses, and two boys dressed in 
precious cloth perfumed with musk. To me he gave ten tomans Abbassi, a 
Georgian slave, a Persian pelisse, a Persian dress, six turbans, and a string of 
camels, loaded with rice, a black horse of the race Karajubuk, a trotting one 
(Chapâr-âtî), with Persian bridle and saddle. I took leave of all my friends, and 
next day left Tabrfz in grand procession with the khân, accompanied by the Royal 
music of trumpets and kettle drums. We halted at the place Ain Alî, where a 
grand dinner, and five tomans Abbâssî more, were given to me for the expenses of 
the journey. My suite received twenty tomans of aspers, a piece of velvet, three 
of Alas, and six turbans. The Khdn recommended me to the care of a Yessavûl 
Aghd, who was to escort me with three hundred men, embraced me, and returned 
to Tabriz, while we took the road to Erivan. 



JOURNEY FROM TABRIZ TO ERİVAN. 

In God's name we set out from Tabriz to the north, and reached the Kent Haji 
Harâmî, of three hundred houses surrounded with rose gardens ; a foundation of 
Sham Ghazân, whose tomb may be seen from hence. The next day the Kelenter 
took leave, and we continued our way to Kent Safian, which was formerly a great 
kent, but has since been ruined by the Mogols and still more by Sultân Miirad IV., 
it is a delightful place on the territory of Tabriz. Some learned men and writers 
are buried here, but I don't know their names ; there are more than twenty 
cupolas. In the month of Moharrem on the day of A'ashura, the feast in com- 
memoration of the murder of Hossein is celebrated here vdth great pomp, the 
people are all Shâfiıtes. Further to the north we reached Mezîdkhân on the 
frontiers of Tabriz ; five hundred houses covered with terraces, two mosques, a 
very spacious khân, a bath and royal market-place. Seven hours more to the 
northward is the station of Kent Keremish, on the frontier or Nakhshivân ; a 
thousand houses, seven mosques, a khân and bath. Our way now led northward 
through marshy grounds, and we pitched our tents on the borders of Wishlechai. 
This river issues from the mountains of Nahkshivan and joins the Aras. We 
suffered much from dust here, and after two hours travelling reached the castle of 
Khui, a fine town of Azerbeijan, the seat of a Sultân, who commands a thousand 
men ; the public authorities are a judge. Mufti, Darogha, Kelenter, Nakib, 
Mûnshî, Kürüjı and Dfzchoken Aghâ. The castle is built in a square form on 
the plain, its circumference is seven hundred paces ; the ditch is not very deep. 
Of its two gates one leads to the south, the other to the west ; it contains a hun- 



evli YA efendi. 149 

dred houses and a mosque. Its builder was Ferhâd Pâshd, but the old town was 
built by Shdh Haider, and it has been sacked more than once since. This 
suburb or outer town consists of seven thousand houses with terraces, seventy 
mosques, eleven of which are Jamis, two baths, seven khans, and a thousand 
shops with gardens. I and my boys measured the circumference, which is ten 
thousand paces. The air is rather warm and favorable therefore to the culture 
of rice. The river issues from Mount Selmâs, and flows into the Araxes. The 
fruits are famous, above all the Prophet-pears, which have no equal in sweetness 
and delicious taste. Owing to the mildness of the climate, the inhabitants are all 
white, and the women are innumerable. Some historians call this town Ashâristân, 
Irânistân or Türkistan. Its districts reckon one hundred and eighty villages, the 
inhabitants of which are for the most part Sunnites, Shâfiîtes, who paid a capita- 
tion tax to Shah Ismail for the privilege of letting their beards grow (Sakal 
Tiih), but have been exempted since the time of Shah Seff. 

Pilgrimage to the Tomb of Shems Tahrizi. 

He died in the year 495 on his way from Antiochia to Isfahan, in this town of 
Khûî. After a stay of two days, we continued our journey with two hundred 
armed guards to the north, and arrived at the end of nine hours at the town 
of Behestdn, the seat of a Kelenter. It was anciently a town of the size of 
Tabriz but was ruined by Hûlagû ; it is now a small place of a thousand houses, 
three mosques, a khân, bath and small market, with innumerable gardens. Three 
hours further northward, we reached the castle of Joris on the frontier of Nak- 
shivan ; the seat of a khan, who commands two thousand troops, a judge and 
twelve public officers in honour of the twelve Imams. The castle, a pentagon, is 
situated on a hill, simply walled and therefore not very strong. It was first built 
by Uzun Hassan the Shah of Azerbeijan and was ruined by Murâd IV. its ruined 
parts are now chalked off [fenced off?] like a Palanka. Though situated on a hill, 
yet the hill itself is at the foot of a high mountain. It has a gate looking to the 
south-east ; within the castle there is no remarkable building but the mosque of Rus- 
hen Hassan Pâshâ. The outer town consists of seven thousand houses, and eleven 
mosques, of which that of Uzdemir Osman Pâshâ and Ferrûkh-zadeh Shah Ibn 
Timur are the best ; there are three mosques, seven khans, and two hundred shops. 
The young people are extremely pretty, with eyes like the roes of Khoten, sweet- 
tongued with merry faces, who, if they walk dressed in red embroidered dresses, 
like peacocks of Paradise, make all their lovers lose their wits, and by half a look 
make as many Mejnuns of them. We spent three days and nights here with 
Eyub Khan the Khan of the town, continually entertained by music. On the fourth 
day we continued our journey, after having been overwhelmed with presents. 



150 THE TRAVELS OF 

We now passed on towards the east where the river of Karajubûk issues from 
the mountains of Joris, and then joins the Araxes ; in the summer months this 
river may be crossed by sheep and goats. We advanced to the north amidst 
Kents for four hours to Kent Halh', on the frontier of Erivan ; five hundred houses 
with gardens, a mosque and a bath, on the banks of the Halli river, which issues 
from the mountains of Sepend and joins the Aras, Passing on to the north 
through woods, we came after eight hours march to the pleasant meadow of Tuto- 
lümî, where there are some hundred shady trees, but no village. The Daroghas 
and Kelenters of the neighbouring kents flocked together to furnish us with 
necessary provisions. We passed one night here, and next day continued our 
journey along the Aras, crossed it, and came to Kent Kagâj situated on the 
eastern bank of the Aras ; it has a mosque, a khân, a bath, and three hundred 
houses, with a great number of rice fields. We passed through sandy ground 
with great dust, nine hours to the north, and reached Kent Ashdrli in the 
territory of Erivan, with a thousand houses, a mosque, a khan, and a bath ; its 
product is rice ; it takes its name from the inhabitants, who belong to the tribe 
Ashârlî. Travelling along the Aras through well cultivated fields and gardens, we 
reached after seven hours the town of Shüreglî, the seat of a Sultân, who com- 
mands one thousand horsemen ; there is a mosque, a khân and a bath. After ten 
hours we came to Sherab Khân with five hundred houses, a mosque and a khân ; 
then to Kent Seif-ud-din on the frontier of Erivan, and on the banks of the Aras, it 
was built by Seifkülî the Khân of Erivan, and belongs to the khass of Erivan, there 
are a hundred and eighty houses, a mosque, and some plantations of rice. Five hours 
further to the north along the Aras is the Kent Tîlfirâk, of a thousand houses, a 
mosque, a convent, a khân, a bath, and plantations of rice. At the time of the 
sie^e of Erivan, Murad IV. cut down seventy thousand trees which were used as 
bulwarks, but since that time an immense number of trees have grown again. We 
sent a message from hence to the Khân of Erivan, next day crossed a lively river, 
halted on a meadow, and met a great procession (Alai,) which was the Kiaya of 
the Khân of Erivan who was sent to meet us (istikbâl) ; we made our entrance 
into Erivan with him, were saluted by twenty guns, and lodged in a palace of the 
Khân. Hassan Beg went on from hence with the letters and presents of the Khân 
of Tabriz to Erzerum, and I occupied myself in delivering those for the Khân of 

Erivan. 

Description of the Town of Erivdn (Revdn). 

In the year 810 (1407) Khoja Khân Lejchânı, a rich merchant of Timor's suite 
settled here with all his family and servants, cultivating plantations of rice, by 
which means a great Kent was soon formed. Five years later Shah Ismail gave 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 151 

to Revân Kul, one of his Khans, an order to build a castle here, which being 
finished in seven years, was named after him. Revân or Erivan. It is situated on 
the eastern bank of the Zenghi river, and is of brick and stone. In the year 995 
(1586) Suleiman Khân, having undertaken the expedition against Nakhshivan, 
pillaged Erivan, and returned to his residence with immense booty. In the reign 
of Murad III. Ferhâd Pâshâ, his general, pillaged Kenje, Revân, Shamdkhî and 
Nakhshivan, destroyed the palaces of the son of the Shah, killed a great number 
of Persians, fixed his camp before the castle, and assembled a council of war to 
deliberate on the siege, and begun it by digging a ditch on the bank of the 
Zenghi from south to north. By the exertion of all the siege was finished 
in forty days. Jigâlazadeh Yüssûf Pâshâ, who had been bred in the Turkish 
Han'm, was named the first Commander of Erivan with a garrison of seventy 
thousand men. Ferhâd Pâshâ took care of the repair of the castle of Shûreglı 
and Karss, and filled them with Moslira troops. In the same way the castle of 
Erdehân and Akhichka were garrisoned, and Ferhâd Pâshâ returned to Constanti- 
nople. Under the government of Jigâlazadeh Yûssiif Pâshâ, the town of Erivan 
was even in a more flourishing state than in Suleiman's time, and the neighbour- 
ing villages grew thereby populous. In the year 101 1 (1602), the Persians having 
usurped the possession of the castles of the Genge and Shirvân, forced the gar- 
rison of Erivan, which had received no succour from Erzerûm, to surrender to 
Tokmak Khân, after a siege of seven months ; in the year 1037 (1627), the Khân 
of Erivan, Emîrgûneh, having infested the districts of Kâghzemân, Karss, Cheldir, 
Akhichka and Erdehân, and complaints having arrived from the Begs of 
Georgia and from the Governor of Erzerûm, ambassadors were sent from the 
Khân of Persia, and at the same time the Imperial tails fixed at Scutari as the 
signal of Asiatic war. In the following year 1044 (1634) Sultân Murad IV. 
completed his Imperial camp of Scutari according to the canons of the Empire, 
with the greatest splendour and pomp, heaped presents upon his forty thousand 
janissaries and twenty-two thousand sipâhîs, left Bairâm Pâshâ, Kaima Khâm 
at Constantinople, and moved on the 5th of Shewal from Scutari, marching over 
Konia and Kaissarie to Sivas ; at which place he appointed his sword-bearer Mus- 
tafa to the office of Second Vezir, and the sword-bearer Mussa Pâshâ to the post 
of Quarter-master General. The Nishanji was made Silihdâr, and Melek Ahmed, 
Chokadâr (First Lord in waiting). When he entered Erzerûm report was made 
to him, that his army then amounted to two hundred thousand men : Jâtıpıılâd- 
zadeh Mustafa Pâshâ, the governor of Rumelf, alone mustered thirty-one thousand 
men, with seventeen hundred excellent horses ; Khalil Pâshâ the Governor of 
Erzerûm fell into disgrace, to the joy of his enemies, the Silihdâr Pâshâ 



152 THETRAVELSOF 

and Murteza Pâshâ ; the government of Erzerum was conferred on the Governor 
of Damascus, Kııchök Ahmed, but the revenues, as barley-money, were given to 
SiHhdar Mustafa Pdshâ. The army marched in three days to Hassan Kala'assi, and 
from thence by Karss to Erivan. On the 21st day after having left Erzerum, the 
army of two hundred thousand men fixed its camp before Revân. The river 
Zenghi was crossed in spite of the long guns of the Persians, with which they 
endeavoured to annoy the Ottoman army. On this occasion it happened that 
one of the Solaks (bowmen) of the the Sultan's guard, crossing the river on foot 
by the side of the Sultan's horse, was carried away by the water, the Sultân having 
observed it rode after him, caught hold of him by the necklace and dragged 
him out of the river ; this anecdote is much celebrated in Persia. The river being 
crossed, the trenches were opened, and Janpülâd-zadeh Pâshâ entered them with 
the Rumelian troops from the side of the gate of Tabriz ; on the right Gûnjî 
Mahomed Pâshâ with the Asiatic troops entered the trenches, and in the midst 
of them the grand Vezir Tabanı Yassı Mohammed Pâshâ took his station ; 
the Aghâ of the janissaries Kara Mustafa Pâshâ, with his Kiaya, battered the 
castle day and night with a battery of twenty guns, and similar batteries were 
prepared on five sides. One day Sultân Murad himself entered the trenches of 
the Rumelian troops, and fired a good shot at the Khan's palace from the gun 
called Karabali. The governor of Erzerum, Kuchuk Ahmed, battered the castle 
from the north side, and the Kapûdân Pâshâ, Delî Hossein, from the hill of 
Mohana-depeh. 

Murteza Pâshâ, with the Sipâhîs, were placed as sentinels on the side of the 
earth castle, while Mussa and Cana'an Pâshâ with the Moteferrika kept guard 
over the Imperial tent. The castle was surrounded by troops in the space of 
five hours, and every day many thousand Sunnis came to claim mercy. On the 
ninth day they asked to capitulate, and Emirguneh brought the keys. The next 
day the Persian Aghâ of the Fusileers, Mir Fettâh, was allowed to kiss the Em- 
peror's feet, and to return with the garrison to Nakhshivân. Emirguneh, by birth 
a Georgian, and Aded Khan kissed the Emperor's feet, and each received an 
Imperial tent as a present. The Islamitic prayer was proclaimed, all the banners 
and standards waving during seven days and nights on the walls ; after each 
prayer the Mohammedan shout (Allah) was repeated three times, and at night a 
great number of candles and lamps were lighted. The castle was repaired in 
forty days, and Mustafa Pâshâ appointed Governor of Erivan, with forty thousand 
men as garrison. Sultân Murad appointed the Khân Emirguneh first governor 
of Haleb, but afterwards removed him and gave the government to Kuchuk Ahmed 
Pâshâ. Emirguneh remained the favourite of Sultân Murad IV. until the death 
of the Sultân, when he was killed by Kara Mustafa Pâshâ. 



evliya efendi. 153 

The towns of Shıucglî, Joris, Behestân, Khûî, Ordûbfiıî and Tabriz were pil- 
laged during seven days and nights, together with the castles of Bâgjenân, Ajan, 
Kuherân, Kûmla, Merend, and Selmâs, after which havoc he returned by Betlis, 
and Diarbekr to Constantinople. The Shdh then laid siege to Erivan for the space 
of seven months, which received no relief on account of the enmity existing 
between the Grand Vezir Tabanı Yassı and Murteza Pasli^, who was shut up in 
Erivan. The latter having no subsistence left, killed himself by swallowing his 
diamond ring, and the next day the whole garrison, half naked and starved, threw 
themselves on the mercy of the Persians and were killed by them, a great num- 
ber being driven into the Aras, of whom a few being saved by charitable Sunnis 
fled to Karss and Bayazid. Sultân Murad IV. hearing this sad account, girt 
himself on two sides with the sword of religious zeal and high enterprise, with the 
intention to conquer Baghdad, and to deliver the tomb of the great Imam Na'amân 
Ben Thâbet out of the hands of the Infidels. 

Erivan meanwhile remained in the hands of the Persians, who increased 
its flourishinir state ; it could not however resist an assault of the Ottoman 
army for seven days, because it is only surrounded by a simple wall. It is 
situated on the bank of the Zenghi, extending from the south to the north, 
having so little breadth, that the balls fired on it by Sultan Murad bounded from 
one extremity of the town to the other ; many of these balls are even now seen 
fixed in the towers. The walls built by Ferhâd Pâshâ are forty royal cubits high ; 
those built by Tokmak Khân, fifty cubits high and twenty broad ; it has no ditch 
on the side of the Zenghf, but it has a wall on the south, north and east sides, which 
however is not deep, being a marshy ground. It has three iron gates ; to the 
south, the gate of Tabriz ; to the north, the gate of the Meidan called Yaila 
Kapussi, on this spot they play Mail ; to the west, the gate of the bridge ; there 
are seven hundred cannons large and small, which remained from the time of the 
Ottomans, and an immense number of other stores, because it is the frontier of 
Azerbeijan. It is garrisoned by three thousand men of the fortress, three thou- 
sand men of the Khân, and seven thousand men of the province. Sometimes its 
Khân enjoyed the title of Khân of Khans. A judge, Nakib, Kelenter, Darogha, 
Mûnshî, Yessaûl-aghâ, Kınujî, Ishek Aghâ, Dîzchoken Aghâ, seven Mihmandârs 
and Shâhbenders, keep public order. The town consists of one thousand and 
sixty elegant bouses covered with earth, the best is the palace of the Khân much 
embellished by Emîrgûneh. Near it is the mint where large and small silver coins 
(Abbâssî and Besti) are coined. The suburb outside of Yaila Kapûssî is called 
the old town ; at the head of the biidge is the Khan's garden, and a suburb with 
mosque and bath. In the year 1015 (1635), when the Persians conquered this 

VOL. II. X 



154 THE TRAVELS OF 

fortress, they also built a castle on the east side, with walls of clay and straw, 
which is even more solid than stone. At the time I was looking at all the cu- 
riosities of Erivan, I received an invitation from the Khân to assist at the cere- 
mony of the circumcision of his sons. His Kiaya gave me ten tomans of Abbâssî, 
for the expenses of the journey, and I began my journey from Erivan to Shirvan, 
by Shamakhi, Tiflis, Termîs, Araş and Baku. We first travelled to the north 
through cultivated fields of rice, along the river Zenghi to Kent Khoja, the khass 
of the Khân of Erivdn, with five hundred houses, a mosque and a bath; then 
fourteen hours further to Kent Demiji Hassan, which was anciently a town of the 
Turcomans, and is even now inhabited by a Turcoman tribe. It was destroyed 
by Murâd IV. We arrived at last at Genje. 

Description of the important town of Genje. 
It was wrested from the hands of Shah Tahmâs, in the year 1014 (1605), by 
Koja Ferhâd Pasha. At the time when Mohammed Pasha the Kiaya of Sari Ahmed 
Pasha was governor of Genje, the Shah besieged it for seven months, and killed 
the whole garrison. Since that time it remained in the possession of the Persians, 
a large town, but the Shah destroyed its castle; it is now an elegant town 
of six thousand houses with gardens and vineyards, a khdn, a bath, and imaret, 
situated in a large plain. Its gardens are watered by the Kürek, which joins the 
Kür ; the Kiblah side of the town is a mountainous tract, and the foot of the 
mountains is cultivated in gardens and vineyards ; the silk of Genje is famous. 
On the plain round Genje are seven districts of Infidel villages, where cotton, 
silk and rice are cultivated ; here are rich Moghs (ancient Persians, worshippers 
of fire) and beautiful youth of both sexes ; the horse-shoes of Genje are not less 
famous than the silk. The town is governed by a Khân, who commands three 
thousand men. The public oflBcers (the Khân included) are twelve in number, 
in honour of the twelve Imams. Its first Ottoman governor was Khâdim Hassan, 
who conquered Berda'a. 

Pilgrimages {or Tombs) of Martyrs. 

Twelve thousand Moslims, who had surrendered the castle by capitulation to 
the Shah, were unmercifully killed, and are now buried outside the town in a place 
called Shohedai Ervam (martyrs of Rum). We remained three days as guests 
in the khân of the town, and continued our journey with about fifty companions 
to the north ; on our right was the Khânlik of Loristân. After seven hours march 
we arrived at Gilkzâr Ahmedf, formerly a town, but now a kent of seven hundred 
houses, the khass of the Khân of Genje, with a mosque, a khân, and a bath ; fine 



evliya efendi. 155 

silk is manufactured here. Nine hours further, is the Kent of Megûchûr of seven 
hundred houses, with a mosque, and a fine garden. On the opposite shore of the 
Kiir is a great kent called Kendere ; we passed in boats to Megûchûr, the frontier 
of Genje, and after eight hours we reached the great town of Aras. 

The town of Aras was built by Keyiimertli, and conquered in the year 985 
(1577), by Kara Mustafa Pasha, the Vezir of Murad III. Emir Khân arrived 
with forty thousand men to succour the town, and finding it taken he fought 
a battle, which terminated in his being made prisoner, and all his troops consisting of 
Turcomans, Koks, Dolaks, and Georgians were dispersed. They were routed for 
the second time by the Kiaya of Uzdemir-oghli on the banks of the Kur river 
which swallowed up a great number of them, the bridge having broken down under 
the weight of the fugitives ; their bones are yet seen in heaps, and the bridge still 
lies in ruins. The Turkish general having convinced himself of the importance of 
the town of Aras, situated between Genje and Shirvdn, collected masons and work- 
men, and enclosed the town with a wall, including the garden Shah Khiaban, which 
was outside of the town ; three gates led through this wall of clay, the circum- 
ference of which is nine thousand six hundred paces. It was finished in forty 
days, and the governorship, with the rank of a Begler Beg, conferred on Kaitass- 
Beg, who had been brought up in the Harım of Sultân Murad. From its situa- 
tion at the foot of a mountain, the town resembles that of Brussa, surrounded 
with gardens of fruits and flowers, vineyards and rosebeds. It consists of ten 
thousand houses with terraces, and forty mosques ; in the castle are those of 
Murad III., of Ferhdd Pasha, and of Kara Sinan. The Turkomans and Komiiks 
of Dâghistân, pronounce the name of this town Arash. In the beginning of the 
reign of Sultân Mustafa, this town like that of Merend fell into the hands of the 
Persians. Forty quarters may now be reckoned, and as many mosques, sixteen 
baths, eight hundred shops, and seven coffee-houses. The youth are gazelle-eyed, 
with faces shining like the sun, because their women are Georgians, Dadiâns, 
Achikbâsh, and Shûshâd. The air is mild and the water of the royal mountain 
(Shâhkûh) most excellent. Around it are seven great districts each of which 
reckons one hundred populous kents, the most populous is that of Levend Khân 
near Aras. On crossing the bridge of Uzdemir-oghli Osman Pâshâ, the traveller 
arrives at the district of Palvanai, and the district of Shair Abadan, where a castle 
is seen on a rock, the name of which I do not remember. 

The royal mount, opposite the town, is the summer abode of the Turcomans. 
Amidst the districts of Aras is also that of Sheki, which is now governed by the 
governor of Aras, though it was sometimes ruled by the power of the Princes of 
Dâghistân. The Khdn of Aras leads twenty-three thousand men into the field. 



]56 THETRAVELSOF 

Twelve public officers keep order in the town. After a stay of three days in 

this town, we advanced to the north, and after two stations reached the castle of 

Sheki. 

Description of the Castle of Sheki. 

It was built by Alexander a Prince of the Shushads, from whose hands it passed 
into those of the Pi ince of Dâghistîin, and then into those of the Persians. Lala 
Kara Mustafa Pâshîi, the Vezir of Murad III. conquered it, and it was conferred 
on Erkelâd Beg, the son of Levend Khan. In the beginning of the reign of 
Sultan Mustafa it returned into the possession of the Persians, and is now the 
seat of a Sultân, who commands one thousand men. It is a nice castle built on a 
rock, its circuit three thousand paces, a ditch is not required ; its two gates are 
that of Genje and that of Shirvan ; though situated on the frontier of Dâghis- 
tân it is reckoned to belong to Georgia, the more so as its builder was a 
Georgian ; there are three thousand houses, and seven mihrabs ; in the market 
is the mosque of Mirza Alî Beg, in the castle that of Lagûsh-oghlî Ahmed Beg ; 
that of Murad III. is falling into decay. In the gardens great quantities of silk 
are produced. At a journey's distance east of this castle passes the river Kanuk, 
flowing into the Zenghi. Advancing to the north, we crossed the river of Uzde- 
mir-oghli Osman Pâshâ and arrived at the place Koyun-gechid, where we saw piles 
of human bones ; our companion Yasser Alî Aghâ told us, that it was on this spot 
that Mustafa Pâshâ, the general of Murad III., was attacked by the Khans of Tabrîz, 
Lor, Nakhshivân, and Karabâgh, who with more than two hundred thousand men 
surrounded him. Koja Lala Mustafa Pâshâ ordered a general attack, which 
was instantly made on one side by Uzdemir-oghli, on the second by Mo- 
hammed, the governor of Haleb, and on the third by Mustafa, the governor of 
Mera'ash, who cut to pieces more than a thousand men, and drove the rest like 
sheep to the ferry of Koyun-gechid, where a great many of them were drowned, 
some in the river Kanuk and some in the Kapur. In short there remained 
altogether more than forty thousand men on the field of battle, whose bones are 
piled up as an everlasting monument ; I said a Fâtihah for their souls, and 
crossed the sheep's ferry. Further on to the north we passed the white river 
(Aksu), which is called by the Persians the river of Gilân. It comes from the 
mountains of Aras, and flows into the Kur. At the end of three hours we entered 
the district of Mahmudabâd consisting of two hundred highly cultivated kents, 
which produce a thousand Yuks of silk, each kent resembling a large town. 
The inhabitants are Turkomans, Kok, Dulâk, Moghols, and Ettels. 



E VLI Y A EFEND I, 257 

Account of the Tribe of Ettels. 
Ettel signifies in the Mogolic language, tongue of dogs ; they take this name from 
their war-cry, which is a kind of howhng. Near Mardin, in the sanjak of the moun- 
tains, which I entered with Melek Ahmed Pasha, the Ettels are a tribe like that of 
the hairy Kurds, impure, impious, irrehgious robbers, who pretend to be of Hani- 
za's sect, keep neither prayer-hours nor fasts, are ignorant of moral duties and of 
God. Seven or eight of them share a woman amongst them ; if she gets with child, 
her seven or eight keepers after some time assemble, and the woman gives an apple 
into the child's hand, the man to whom the child gives it is reckoned to be the 
father, and henceforth the woman belongs exclusively to him, without any man 
being allowed to raise pretensions to her. The famous sect of the candle-ex- 
tinguishers (Mum söndüren), must be a branch of them, because I saw or heard 
nothing of them any where else. It is a certain fact that they drink out of the 
shoes of their Shahs, to whom they are most obedient. 

The Kaitaks are about twenty thousand men on the frontiers of Daghistân, who 
sometimes come to the towns of Aras and Sheki ; a strange race of men like the 
beast of the day of judgement, with heads in the form of kettles, brows two fingers 
broad, shoulders so square that a man may easily stand upon them, thin limbs, 
round eyes, large heels, and red faces. They pretend to be Shafites ; if they 
come to the market of Aras and Sheki, they come on waggons, or ride on bufFa- 
. Ices, because horses and asses could not carry their weight : as they pass with 
their turbans of the size of a cupola, saluting on both sides with great dignity, they 
seem to be of the race of Dejdl (the Antichrist) true Oghuzians. These Kaitaks 
come originally from the province of Mahân, are Mogholian Turks, and therefore 
speak the Mogolic language, of which I could only collect a few words, as I 
remained but two days among them. I saw these people in the district of 
Mahmüdabâd, and after having travelled further to the north, reached the kent 
Chailân on the frontier of Shirvân on the banks of the river of Guilan, with six 
hundred houses of Turcomans and Oghuzians. Further on is the town Niâzabâd 
on the frontier of Shirvân built by Yezdejerd-shah, great ruins of its ancient 
magnificence are yet extant, it was ruined by the Moghols, who united with the 
Komuks and Kaitîiks of Dâghistân. In the reign of Murad III., Ferhâd Pasha 
fixed his winter quarters here, and levelled the castle, when he left it in the spring. 
It is now the frontier between Dâghistdn and Persia, with forty quarters and as 
many mosques, a khân, bath and market-place, the seat of a Sultân who commands 
a thousand men. There are twelve magistrates ; according to the statement of the 
Kelenter, there are more than six thousand houses surrounded by gardens. It 
is a pity that its strong castle lies in ruins ; if God should again grant that 



158 THETRAVELSOF 

İt be restored to the Ottoman power, it might be easily repaired, and become a 
very strong castle. This town is surrounded by an endless plain on all four sides. 

Pilgrimage of Ashdr-Baba. 

Ashar-Baba was one of the disciples of our great ancestor the Turk of Turks, 
Khoja Ahmed Yessûî; as the rites of Yessûî are liked in Persia the convent at this 
place is inhabited by more than a hundred Dervishes. It is a general pilgrimage, 
the inhabitants profess to be of the sect of Hanefî. We here took some compa- 
nions and advanced to the north to the kent Ferrakhzâd on the frontier of 
Shamakhi, and on the bank of the white river (Aksii) with five hundred houses, 
a mosque, a khân, a bath and a small market. The mihmandar of this place 
paid me many attentions. We advanced to the north amongst shady groves, 
dined at a hunting place of Shah Khoda-bende, and arrived at Nilchai, the same as 
blue river (Goksii), which coming from Ddghistân joins the Kûr at this place. 

Praise of Mount Caucasus. 

The rivers which come from Mount Caucasus, on the south, flow into the 
Kûr, and those towards the north, straight into the Caspian Sea. Again 
there are rivers on the south side, which fall into the Black Sea, and on the 
north side into the Kûbân. Mount Caucasus is the greatest mountain in the 
world, its tracts are ruled by five different monarchs, and to the south the Abaza 
tribes are settled to the extent of eighty journies. On the east side on the border 
of the mountain are the Mingrelians, Georgians, Ajîkbâsh, Shûshâd, Kûrdîl, 
and Dadicân to the extent of forty journies. Again there is the province of Tiflis 
on the Persian frontier, and the throne of the Alans (Serer-ul-allân) on the border 
of Mount Caucasus nineteen journies long ; Dâghistân, within Mount Caucasus, 
twenty journies long to the north. Inside of Mount Caucasus is also Circassia 
inhabited by the tribes Kabartai, Besti, Pultakaf, Khatûkaî, Memsûkh, Bozadük, 
Takakû, Zana, Shefâke and other Circassian tribes, eighty-one journies. Accord- 
ing to this reckoning the extent of all the tracts of Mount Caucasus is two hun- 
dred and forty journies. It is so high that it is seen at ten days distance. God 
has created on the surface of the earth one hundred and forty-eight mountains, 
twelve of the highest par excellence, are. Mount Caucasus, Mount Bingöl, Mount 
Demavend, Mount Sijan, Mount Kamar, the mountains in Germany at the source 
of the Danube ; the mount Sannir, where the Zeiro and the Dniester take their 
origin. No man has ever reached half the height of Mount Caucasus : passing on 
our way through the districts of Dâghistân we saw its top wrapped in clouds. 
But we shall now return to the description of our journey. 



evliya efendi. 159 

The kent of Kokchaî (the blue river) is a great place with a Kelenter and Mih- 
mandar, seven hundred houses with gardens. The inhabitants are Sunnis, who pay 
tribute to Shah Ismail for permission to wear beards. We continued our journey 
through fields to the north, for seven hours, and reached the kent Aksu, on the 
territory of Shamâkhî, of one thousand houses, a mosque, khan and bath. The 
White River passes through the place and flows into the Kür, it comes from the 
mountains of Shirvân, waters the fields of Shamâkhî and falls into the Kiir. 

Description of the Town of Shamâkhî. 
It was first built by Yezdejerd Shah the Persian Monarch ; it is the centre of 
seven Khânhks, some spell it Sham Akhi (the brother of Damascus), and some 
Sham Ahf (the sigh of Damascus), because its first inhabitants were a colony from 
Damascus ; forty Sultans and forty judges are attached to it, seventy castles and 
thirteen hundred kents like large towns : Ulama Pâshâ and Pırı Pâshâ, two Vezirs 
of Sultân Suleiman took possession of it in their Emperor's name, and Ulama 
Pâshâ was named governor of Shirvân ; Shah Tahmâs then besieged the town 
during three months, conquered it, and gave the government to his younger 
brother, Elkâss Mirza, who remained three years at his post, but then, being afraid 
of his brother, took flight with all his valuable things, came through the steppes 
in forty days to Kafa, embarked himself and paid his homage to Sultân Suleiman 
at Constantinople. In the year 954 (1547), Elkâss Mirza undertook with Lala 
Mustafa an expedition to Persia, and then took up his abode in the palace of Pertev 
Pâshâ at Constantinople. Having witnessed the pomp of Sultân Suleiman's solemn 
entrance, he said, " How it is possible that with such power your Emperor of the 
Ottomans should not be at the same time the monarch of Iran ?" Suleiman 
carried Elkâss along with him on the expedition to Wan and Azerbeijân. Lala 
Mustafa Pâshâ was named governor of Shirvân, and Elkâss Mirza, his prede- 
cessor in this government, ravaged the provinces of Nakhshivâıı, Erivan, 
Genje, and Shirvân. Shâh Tahmas having died, the castle of Shamâkhî was 
taken after a siege of seven days from his son ; Lala Pâshâ was named 
governor of Shamâkhî, and Elkâss Mirza Khân of Mahmûdabâd. He 
ravaged Persia as far as Isfahan in order to quench his thirst for vengeance. 
Shamâkhî was then contested for by both powers, till in the reign of Murad 
III. it was conquered, and then repaired by Uzdemîr-oghlî Pâshâ. The Per- 
sians reconquered it and lost it again to Ferhâd Pâshâ. It remained in the 
hands of the Ottomans till the time of Sultân Murad IV. when the Persians took 
Derbend and Shamâkhî by usurpation, and sent the garrison prisoners to Con- 
stantinople. It has ever since remained in the power of the Persians, and is now 



-[QQ THETRAVELSOF 

the seat of a Khan. Tlie castle is on a hill on the bank of the river, the interior 
one is very strong, but the exterior is in decay. The town consists of about seven 
thousand well built houses, stone walls, and terraces, each house provided with 
water ; there is an infinite number of gardens, and twenty-six quarters ; the quar- 
ters called Meidan and Shabûrân being in the inner castle are the most elegant ; 
there are seventy mosques, the oldest is that of Div Alî, who was one of the Khans of 
Shah Tahmass, but a Sunnf ; in the suburb is the great mosque of Shah Saff, which 
rivals the vault of the palace of Chosroes. In the court-yard is a basin, and round it 
cells for students ; the gates of the mosque of Ferhâd Pâshâ are closed, because it 
has no endowment ; the mosque of Uzdemîr Osman Pâshâ is a college, where the 
Mufti holds lectures: there is a dining establishment of Sultân Khodabende's founda- 
tion, forty schools for boys, seven pleasant baths, the best of which is that of Shabûr, 
with numerous private rooms and a basin, its waiters are fine youths. Besides 
the public baths, there are private ones in every garden. There are forty cara- 
vanserais, in each of which many thousand tomans of wares are deposited. The 
public security is so great, that every man leaves his shop open, without the least 
danger, when he goes away on business ; there are altogether twelve hundred 
shops. There is no Bezestan of stone, but nevertheless a great number of 
valuable articles ; the coffee-houses are meeting-places for wits and learned men ; 
the air is mild and the land fertile ; rice, cotton, seven sorts of grapes, pears, and 
water-melons are in great perfection. The greatest part of the inhabitants are 
Sunnis of the Hanefirites, who perform their prayers secretly. I remained during 
seven days a guest of the Kkân of Shamâkhî, Takı Khân, a generous, liberal man, 
who liked society and good company. He presented us with many pieces of silk 
stuifs, ten tomans of Abâssî, and a horse (Karajubuk). Being himself invited to 
the entertainment of the Khân of Erivan, he set out from Shamâkhî with one 
thousand men. Marching to the north we came to the pilgrimage of Pîrderkûh 
(the old man of the mountain) a great saint, a fine walking-place the view from 
which embraces all the buildings of Shamâkhî; the inhabitants of three hundred 
adjacent villages are for the most part Dervishes of the order of Begtâsh, belonging 
to the Convent of this Saint. We advanced from hence six hours to the north 
through a cultivated country, and reached the station of Pi'r Merîzât, where we 
were treated as guests by the Kelenter. The convent of this place is called Pîr 
Mirza by some, and Pîr Mirka by others, but the proper mode of spelling the 
word is Merizât, which signifies incurvated, because his body is seated in one of 
the corners of the convent in an incurvated position, his face turned towards the 
Kiblah, his head recumbent on a rock. His body is light and white like cotton, 
without corruption at all. The Dervishes who are busy all day long in cleaning 



evliya efendi. 161 

and sweeping the convent, put every night a basin of clear water at the feet of 
the Saint, and find it empty in the morning ; his dress is thus always washed white 
without the least dust upon it. The brains of those who visit this place are 
perfumed by the scent of ambergris. Sheikh Safî who came from Erdebü to visit 
this Saint spent treasures in building this convent of Dervishes Begttishi, which 
has its equal perhaps only in the town of Meshlied Mussa Riza. Its entrance 
fills all who visit it with a sacred awe, like culprits appearing before a great 
monarch as their judge. I visited it, read the Sura Yass in honour of the Saint, 
and made spiritual acquaintance with him. I am unable to quote the date of his 
death, as there is no chronostick on the gate ; but one of the Dervishes told me 
that he was the Muezzin of Sheikh Ibrahim Shirvanf, who had arrived at such a 
degree of sanctity, that when he proclaimed prayers at the five hours, the skies 
all moved in uproar. Sheikh Ibrahim touched his back bone, which is the cause 
of his incurvated position and good preservation. Whoever says at his tomb the 
seven verses of a Fatihah may be sure to have for seven days the object of his 
wishes. Passing about a mile to the north of the convent, through gardens, we 
came to the Kent of Kharjdeh, another place of pilgrimage, which was covered 
with a cupola by Khodabende Shah ; in seven hours more, to the caravanserai 
of Kuzh, a great Khan, the foundation of Shah Ismail ; further on, to the station 
of six trees, a great caravanserai with a ruined Kent, on the frontier of Derbend ; 
and then to the pilgrimage of Khizrzende, \vho lies beneath a cupola in good pre- 
servation. Uzdemir-oghh' Pasha who came here hunting, built this cupola because 
he had great faith in the Saint. Still further northward in the district of Musek- 
ker, on the frontier of ShaİHiran, is the place Regal. 

There is a Regal, a small Kent, near Shamakhi, but this has a mosque, a khan, 
a bath with gardens, and three thousand houses with terraces ; it belonged 
formerly to Derbend and is now a dependence of Baku, the inhabitants are for 
the most parts Turcomans, Kaitâks and natives of the towns of Dâghistân, Enderî, 
Tarkhû, Koük, and Thâlibserân ; they are not duellists, though many exist in 
these parts. We halted on the border of the river Regal, and afterwards con- 
tinued our journey through the fields; all at once we saw a great troop coming 
from the Black Sea, which as we approached proved to be the troops of seven great 
Persian Khdns, viz. Erivan, Genje, Lor, Baku, Kılan, Moghân, and many Sultans, 
all in state dresses, with more than ten thousand men of Turcomans, Moghols, 
Kalmûks, Kodeks, Valâcs, and Cossacks, with a variety of dresses and arms, sound- 
ing trumpets of Efrasiab, beating drums and kettle drums, and playing Persian 
tunes in a style beyond all description. The Khân of Erivan leaving the troops 
and advancing to meet us, the Khân of Shamakhi acquainted me with it. He 

VOL. II. Y 



1 G2 T H E T R A V E L S O F 

saluted me first, and then the KhiCns of Kîlân and Baku, and we continued im- 
proving our acquaintance till we arrived at the town of Baku. So many salutes 
were fired from the walls and towers of Baku that it seemed like a salamander in 
the fire of Nimrod's pile. We met with Envoys who had arrived from the 
Russian towns of Astrakan, Heshdek and Terek, to compliment the Khdn with 
presents on his feast ; thus we entered the Castle of Baku on Friday the first 
Moharrem of the year 1057 (1647). 

Description of the fortress of Baku. 

After a grand repast we delivered the letter of Defterdâr-zâdeh Mohammed 
Pasha the governor of Erzerum, our gracious Lord, with the presents consisting 
of beads of pearls, Irak stuffs, and a fine sword. I also delivered the letters of 
the Khcins of Tabriz and Nakhshivan, complimenting him on the feast of his 
wedding ; the Khân entertained me as a guest in his sister's palace, the festival 
lasted ten days and nights, during which he praised the presents he had received 
through me, in the presence of all the Khans and Sultans ; he then presented me 
with a Persian dress, ten tomans of Abbâssî, and ten tomans of Bisiti ; after 
which, with my companions, I went to view the town. 

The castle of Baku is built on a hill and is of a square form ; the gate looking to 
the west is of iron from Nakhshivan, the circumference is seven hundred paces, 
it has seventy towers, and six hundred battlements, the height of the wall is forty 
royal cubits ; being situated on a rock, there is no necessity for a ditch. Within 
the castle are seventy houses with terraces, a mosque of Hyder Shdh, but without 
a minareh. In the castle is no khan, bath or market, but on the shore of the 
Caspian Sea the suburb (Robat) consists of a thousand houses with gardens, 
mosques and khans, surrounded with walls on three sides ; there are three gates, 
the gate of Guîlân to the north ; the gate of Derbend to the south ; and west- 
ward towards the sea-shore is the harbour-gate. Seven minarehs of as many 
mosques are to be seen, the names of which I am ignorant of, and three baths, 
the most brilliant of which is that of Mirza Khân. This place being a frontier 
fortress opposed to Russia is garrisoned with excellent troops called Shahseven 
and Dizchoken (who love the Shah and bend their knees before him.) It is the 
seat of a Khân in the province of Shirvân, ruled by twelve magistrates. The 
Russian Cossacks have several times pillaged the town of Baku, and the pro- 
vince of Guîlân ; they besieged it at the instigation of the Persians soon after its 
conquest by Uzdemîr-oghlî Osman Pâshâ, when Kobâd Pâshâ was governor, but 
were all cut down, and their bones are yet piled up on the shore. The climate 
is mild and favourable to the cultivation of rice and cotton ; the water all smells 



evli YA efendi. 163 

of Naphtha which is found in seven mines near the town, of different colours, 
yellow, red and black. The inhabitants of the districts of Musekker, Sedan, and 
Rfneb do not use oil or grease, but all burn black Naphtha. The people are sound 
and stout, and some of them fine figures ; they are for the most part Sunm's. The 
distance between this town and Derbend is four days journey, peopled by wan- 
dering Turcomans. Three journies east of Baku is the town of Shabürân, and 
Shamâkhi is five journies to the east ; the port of Shamâkhî is much frequented 
by Chinese, and Tartars, Kalmüks and Russians, who bring different wares, in 
exchange for which they take salt, naphtha, safian, and silk. Round the town 
are many places, where if a portion of earth is dug up fire bursts forth, which is 
used by the Caravans in cooking their victuals. Near the town to the north 
flows the Kür, which is sometimes navigated by Cossack and Russian pirates, who 
ravage the Persian provinces, and sell their prisoners privately in the markets of 
Guîlân. It is a great river like the Danube, broad but not deep. I remained 
some days at Baku to witness the festival at the wedding of the sister of the 
Khan of Erivan, who was married to the Khan of Baku. If I were to describe 
minutely all that took place at this festival it would more than fill a large book. 
During a fortnight's stay I received many valuable presents, from the Khân and 
others, viz. rich cloth, seven horses, three Georgian slaves, a Persian sable pelisse, 
two camels, ambergris, &c. ten tomans of Abbâssî for the expenses of the journey, 
and as much to be distributed amongst my servants. We took leave of our friends, 
and the Khân himself, out of friendship, accompanied us when we left the town. 

Description of our journey from Baku through Georgia. 

We passed to the south over a dreary tract along the sea, where we saw mines 
of Naphtha in seven places ; it boils up from the earth on the seashore, and in 
the district of Musekker in hot springs, on the surface of which it collects. It 
is a Royal lease, let for seven thousand tomans of aspers per year. The men 
belonging to the inspector of the Naphtha collect it from the surface of the 
springs and small lakes, fill jacks of goatskin with it and sell it to the merchants ; 
the yellow is the most esteemed ; the black Naphtha is carried as a Royal revenue 
to the fortresses, and used to light the walls on dark nights, and to be thrown on 
the besiegers. It is also used by the Mihmandars for torches ; all the torches at 
the Court of the Shah and at their great houses are made of Naphtha of 
Baku ; if it catches fire it burns to the last drop ; to prevent, therefore, the de- 
struction of the mines, heaps of earth are piled up near them, and if one of them 
should be ignited by a spark, all the people flock together and throw earth upon 
it to quench the fire. There are also mines of Naphtha in other places, wluch. 



1Ö4 THE TRAVELS OF 

however, I did not see. We advanced to the south, and halted in the district of 
Musker, beneath tents of felt belonging to Turcomans, who with Moghols and 
Kûmüks pass the winter here ; it is a fertile tract of country. 

Description of a Whale with ears like an Elephant. 

A whale had been driven on shore, one hundred yards long, with two heads, 
one at the tail end, the other of the size of a cupola. In the upper jaw it had 
one hundred and fifty teeth, each a yard long, ears like an elephant, and eyes of 
the size of a round table, and covered with beaver's hair. The inhabitants 
of Baku, Derbend and Shamdkhî flocked together to see it. Khoja Sarukhan, a 
voyager in the Caspian Sea, told me that this kind of whale was common in that 
sea ; there are certainly many strange creatures and animals in that sea which are 
not to be found elsewhere ; the shore is covered with bones and carcasses of 
strange kinds with square and pentagon heads, and an immense number of extra- 
ordinary fish. According to the reports of sailors, the circumference of the 
Caspian Sea is twenty-four thousand miles ; it has no islands like the Black Sea 
and White Sea, wherein two thousand and forty islands are reckoned, forty of 
which are great ones, like Cyprus, Creta, Rodos, &c. with large towns and rivers. 
The conflict of the waves of the Caspian Sea is stronger than those of the Black 
Sea ; it is bounded on the west by the Russian provinces ; and on the east by the 
country of the Uzbegs, Kalmuks, and Cossacks. In winter-time the Kahniik 
Tatars pass over the ice of lakes and rivers which are frozen for the space of 
seven months, committing depredations in the Russian provinces, and carrying a 
great number of prisoners away. On the western side its extremity is at Der- 
bend, and south to it, in the district of the Avars, which is comprehended by a gulf 
on the frontier of Dâghistân, is the castle of Terek on the river of the same name. 
Its length from north to south is four thousand miles, and its depth three 
hundred cubits ; thousands of boats and vessels carry on trade, but they are all 
afraid of Russian Chaiks, with whom they fight ; the vessels are not large ships 
like those of the White, Black and Red Sea, but small boats of reeds with small 
guns ; there are no men of war or great Caravellas like those of the White Sea, 
which are necessary to meet the vessels of the Franks in the Archipelago and 
Mediterranean ; such great means of defence are not required on the Caspian, 
as there are only Cossack boats to be met with. 

We continued our journey eastwards through plain fields, and arrived at the 
great town of Shabiiian, an elegant yet ancient town, which was first built by 
Isfendiâr, and ruined by Hûlagû. Uzdemîr-oghli Osmdn Pâshâ, the Vezir of 
Murad III., took possession of this town after the conquest of Derbend, and it 



EVLIYAEFENDI. ]G5 

became the seat of a sanjak Beg. In the beginning of the reign of Sultân Murad 
IV. the Persians became masters of it again, and it is now the seat of a Sultân 
which is the same as a sanjak Beg in Turkey, it is a well inhabited town, with 
seventy mosques, the largest of which are the mosques of Uzun Hassan, of Tokmak 
Khân and of Ashâr Khân. The fountains and china work, with which the mosque 
of Uziin Hassan is inlaid, are no where found in such profusion. Uzdemir-oghli 
used to come every Friday with a great train from Derbend, in order to perform his 
prayers here ; it is adorned with so many arabesques and carvings in marble, that 
the greatest architects are astonished on beholding it. The town is situated in a 
valley rich in bowers, roses, flowers and fruits. Its districts are seven, named 
after the seven planets. We continued our journey to the south in the district of 
Musker, and reached the station of Kent Charkhi on a wide plain at a great 
distance from the Sea. It is the khass of Shah Mikhal, the Prince of Dâghistân, 
with five hundred houses, a mosque, a bath, a caravanserai, and a market-place. 
The inhabitants are for the most part Kumuks of Dâghistân. We travelled 
further on to the south, leaving Regal on our left, and arrived at last in the dis- 
trict of Musker at the capital of it, the pass of Alexander, the strong fortress of 

Derbend. 

Description of Derbend the Gate of Gates. 

It is generally known that Alexander having designed to build the dike of 
Gog and Magog, when he arrived at this place, thought of executing a project 
for uniting the Caspian with the Black Sea, by means of a canal which was to 
join the Caspian Sea with the Phasus ; but being advised by his Vezîrs of the 
danger of this union, as the Black Sea was a great deal lower than the Caspian, 
he left it unexecuted, and built three immense walls with three ditches as a 
stronghold between the Black and Caspian Seas, and as a line of defence against 
the Benî Assfar Sala'at, Rus, and the people of Crimea and Kipchak. These triple 
walls, on Mount Caucasus in the mountains of Irak Dadian, with triple ditches, I, 
poor Evliya, saw, and which all those who travel from Crimea into the country of 
the Kiimiiks also see ; by the lapse of time some of the towers are in ruins and 
the ditches choked up with earth. The author of the History of Tophet 
pretends that the Caspian Sea issues by subterraneous canals cut by Alexander 
into the Phasus, but this is an evident blunder, as I can most positively 
assert, because when I saw the Phasus on my journey to the siege of Assov, 
I found its water clear and fresh, while that of the Caspian Sea is so salt and 
bitter, that it burns a man's skin if used for purification. This is a case for ap- 
plying the Persian proverb ; " Where is hearing, and where is seeing ? " 

We have already mentioned in our journey to Trebisonde, that Alexander 



166 THETRAVELSOF 

built a strong castle on the shores of the Black Sea at the mouth of the Phasus, 
and on the shores of the Caspian he built this gate of gates or iron gate. 

Size and figure of the Castle. 

Yezîb Ben Abd-ul-Melek, the son of Atika, the daughter of Moavia, took this 
place from the Khavarej, and the whole district of Dâghistân was then ennobled 
with the glory of Islam. In the year 986 (1578) Uzdemir-oghli the Vezir of 
Sultân Murad III. appearing with a great army before its walls, the Sunnîs who 
were inside bound Jirdgh Khalifeh, the Shah's commander, cut off his head, and 
surrendered the fortress to the Ottoman general, who was appointed by the 
Porte, Governor General of Shirvan. He repaired the castle and made subject to it 
seventy surrounding villages. One thousand janissaries, four regiments of Sipahis, 
ten of armourers, ten of gunners, sixty cannons, five hundred boxes of ammuni- 
tion and fifteen hundred militia of Erivan completed its means of defence. 
Communications were opened with the Tatars of Crimea and Kipchâk, with the 
garrisons of Akhichka, Genje, Tiflis, and Shamâkhî, and the town was in a highly 
flourishing state, till in the beginning of the reign of Sultân Murad IV. the troops 
rebelled and surrendered the fortress to the Shah of Persia, in whose hands at the 
present time it is in a most prosperous condition. It is the seat of a khân and 
judge and twelve public oflScers, garrisoned by nineteen hundred good troops. I 
occupied a place here on the bulwark of Kainâk khan, and was extremely well 
treated by the khân who gave me five tomans for the expenses of my journey. 

Description of the Iron Gate. 

Alexander closed this passage with an iron gate, which remained up to the 
time of Nûshirvân by whom it was renewed. Jezdejerd Shah, Ismail Shah and 
Uzdemir Pâshâ repaired the castle situated at the foot of mount Arghan and 
Deneb. The foundations of the western walls are washed by the Caspian Sea. 
The walls were built by Herzshâh, as is recorded by the Persian chronostick on 
the gate of the harbour. The remains of the wall of Alexander also, which was 
a broad thick wall, are still to be seen projecting from the Sea. If the govern- 
ment would undertake it, it would be easy to extend the harbour from these 
walls up to the fortress. The length of the wall from the sea to the high moun- 
tain is an arrow's shot, and the breadth of the castle itself is the same. It is 
built in a pentagon form on a high hill, the strongest I ever saw during my 
travels ; the intelligent architect distributed it into three parts, one of which looks 
eastward to mount Safah ; the second gate is the entrance to the town. In the 
wall which looks to Mount Arghan are also two gates, and two others leading to 



evliya efen di. 167 

the lower town ; the first is called Meşkûr because it opens towards the district 
of that name, persons leaving this gate in waggons, may arrive at Sharaakhi 
in three days. Another gate leads towards Kipchak, Crimea and Circassia. In 
Ddghistan, waggons with horses cannot travel, but the roads to Terek, Kazan 
and Desht Kipchâk are all practicable for those vehicles. The third division of 
the fortress looks towards the sea ; it is not so well inhabited as the other two, 
as the barracks for the garrison are the only buildings. The waggons of the mer- 
chants who come from Kîlân and Baku with goods are all put in array in this 
castle ; the circuit of the whole fortress is eleven thousand paces, it has seventy 
towers, at each of which is a college and a mosque. The students are allowed 
Naphtha instead of candles, and are fed twice a day. In this way they have 
contrived to interest the Ulemas in watching the castle ; there are besides these 
seventy towers, seven thousand and sixty battlements round the fortress ; on dark 
nights the whole fortress is illuminated with Naphtha, which is a most necessary 
precaution, as the castle is continually threatened by no less than thirteen mortal 
enemies, the worst of whom are the Cossacks, who come in boats and ravage all 
these districts ; they cannot, however, come near the border of the castle on 
account of seventy large cannons, which defend the avenue, and whose brilliancy 
dazzles the eyes of all the beholders. The other powerful enemies are the 
Tatars, Kalmuks and the Ottomans on the west side ; the Circassians on the 
south side ; and the worst of all enemies, the Kûmûks of Dâghistân on the south- 
east or Kiblah side ; to the east is the inimical district of Georgia belonging to 
Tamaras khan : for this reason the men of the garrison pass the whole night on 
the walls crying Khoda Khob (all's well !) There is also a post of fifty watchmen 
(Tûlüngî) stationed on mount Deneb at a great distance from the town ; if an 
enemy appears anywhere his arrival is made known to the town by fires lighted 
on the top of this mountain. 

Buildings within the Castle. 

The stones of the wall are each of the size of an elephant, but cut square, and 
are so large that fifty men at the present day, could not lift one of them. In the 
castle are two hundred well terraced houses ; close to the southern wall is a large 
palace, the architectural ornaments of which are not to be found in any other 
palace in Persia ; near to it is a great mosque with a ruined minareh, and a bath 
built in the Ottoman style, and a fountain. Near the gate of boats opening to the 
east, is the mosque of Uzdemir-zadeh Osman Pasha, with some khans and shops. 
The suburb outside the castle consists of about a thousand houses, with no 
imaret, but khans, mosques and baths. The people get their living by cultivating 



IgS THE TRAVELS OF 

silk, they are Sunnîs and Shafifs, rich men, and fine youths. On the opposite 
side of the Caspian Sea are the Russian provinces of Heshdek and Kazan ; and 
further on Kipchdk and Heihdt, where twenty years ago Taissi Shah, Moyunjdk 
Khân, and Kuba Kalmâkh Khân with fifty or sixty thousand men wandering about 
in the steppes, pushed their inroads up to the bank of the Kemûklî river and 
there killed Giirgi Mustafa Pâshâ ; these Kalmuks are all Infidels, who have no 
idea of religion and faith, but are a careless slavish set of people, some of whom 
now begin to come with Russian merchants to the harbour of Derbend, which 
is frequented by Chinese, Tatars, and Russians in great numbers. 

When it was governed by the Ottomans its annual revenue was two hundred 
and forty-seven thousand aspers, besides the revenues of the seven Sultans or 
sanjak Begs, and the annual sums given to the Prince of Dâghistân for the 
preservation of peace. This is according to the description of Zal Mohammed, 
made after the conquest of Uzdemir-oghlî Osman Pâshâ. The province of 
Shirvan at present consists of seventy jurisdictions, seven khânliks, and twelve 
Sultanliks. May God bring it back to the possession of the Ottomans ! 

Pilgrimages. 

Yezid Ben Abd-ul-Melek, son of Atika the daughter of Moavia, came from 
Damascus with a great army to make war against the heretic rebels (Khavarej) ; 
seven hundred moslim martyrs, who were killed on that occasion, are buried out- 
side the western wall at a mile's distance. Another army came in the time of 
Heshâm Ben Abd-ul-Melek, which conquered the provinces of Dâghistân, 
Kûmûk, Thâbserân. Kaitâk, and Derbend. The martyrs who fell on this occasion 
were also buried in this cemetery ; their names are written on the tombs in Cufic 
characters and in Tlniluth writing ; the inhabitants of Derbend boast that amongst 
this crowd of martyrs seventy-five doctors of true tradition are buried. Amongst 
these tombs some are to be seen with inscriptions in Jellî (great Neskhi) of 
Ottomans, giving an account of their lives and deaths. 

The Pilgrimage of the Forty. 

There are forty tombs much frequented by visitors. The tomb of Derekhor- 
khot, a great Saint, in whom the people of Shirvan had great faith. Several 
thousand great Saints are buried here, but I visited and made myself acquainted 
with those only that I have mentioned. God's mercy upon them all ! After 
having seen all the curiosities of this town I received from the Khân a horse of 
the race (Kâdhibeg,) and a trotting horse (Chapâr), ten pieces of cotton stuff of 
Guzerat, and two hundred guards to accompany me on the journey; I took leave 



evliya efendi 169 

of ali my friends the Khdns and Sultans, and set out on my journey to Gûrjistân, 
or Georgia. 



JOURNEY TO GEORGIA. 

After a march of sixteen hours to the south-east through woods, we arrived at 
the place called Kur, of a thousand fine houses and a mosque, on the frontier of 
Dâghistân, not far distant from Tâyeserân, the residence of Mikhâl Shah, Prince of 
Dâghistân. Every Friday people flock here together to buy and sell, not for money, 
but by exchange. There are ten thousand inhabitants, all Sunni's and Shâfiites. 
I saw no women at all here ; the women of Daghistan are not allowed to leave the 
house, excepting on a journey to Mecca, or to be carried to the cemetery after death. 
The men are hospitable. We left this place, passed a ruined castle in the midst 
of woods, and then entered the great district of the Avars : it is a district belong- 
ing to the khass of the Prince of Daghistan, and during three days journey we 
saw seventy great kents with mosques and khans. 

Description of the Castle Serir-ul-alldn. 

This ancient town was built by Hormuz the son of Nüshirvân ; it was wrested 
from the hands of the Princes of Daghistan by the Persian Shah Kor Khodabende, 
and fell into those of the Ottomans, who destroyed the castle that it might not 
be used as a defence against them ; it is now a large ancient town situated on the 
border of Mount Caucasus, belonging to the government of Aresh. According 
to fabulous history it was in this town that Solomon set up his throne, which had 
been carried through the air by Genii, when he came with Balkis and an immense 
army to view Mount Caucasus ; this is why it was called the throne of Lan, 
a Persian word signifying both a nest, and one who walks or travels. It is 
situated between the towns of the gate of gates, Shamâkhî, and Niâzabâd, 
but is not much cultivated as it is on the extremity of the frontier, its gardens 
are few on account of the coldness of the climate ; there are three thousand houses 
with terraces, and some mosques not much frequented, seven baths, eleven cara- 
vanserais, and seventy shops : as we remained here but one night, it was 
impossible to see much of it. It is the seat of a Khan, Judge, Kelenter, 
Darogha, and Munshi, and has a garrison of a thousand men ; there are a great 
number of Sunnis, who get their living by cleaning cotton. The waters which 
give life to the plantations of cotton, all issue from the west side of Mount 
Caucasus, and fall into the Kur. We marched for some hours towards the 

VOL. II. z 



170 TH E TRA V ELS OF 

Kiblah, to the district of Khata a dependence of the Princes of Dâghistân, a woody 
tract comprising three hundred kents, with mosques, khdns, and gardens. We 
remained here for three days as guests, and continued our journey on the fourth 
to the district of Zakhor, consisting of a hundred and fifty villages and large 
kents, governed by Yûssûf one of the Princes of Dâghistân, who commands 
seven thousand brave warlike men ; the Beg, with whom we spent a night, pre- 
sented me with fifty skins of wild cats, and I gave him three handkerchiefs 

embroidered by Sultâna Kia. 

Tomb of Emir Sultân. 

He was a great Saint. The Divines of this country, all learned Doctors, have 
no enmity amongst themselves, but they shun all communication with the Revâfes 
(heretic Persians). Here ends Dâghistân, and the province of Georgia begins. 

The frontier castle Ur belongs to the Persians ; we passed it on our left, and 

skirted the boundaries of the castle of Sheki, which I formerly saw on my way to 

Shamâkhi, and arrived at the kent of Zakhorie on the frontier of Tamarass-khân, 

belonging to the Khân of Tiflis ; the inhabitants are all Georgians, Armenians, and 

Gokdiilak. 

Description of the Old Town of Kdkht. 

This town is situated on the frontier of Georgia and now governed by the Persians. 
It was built by Nûshirvân to keep the tribes of the Caucasus in order. It is a 
pentagon castle, fourteen thousand large paces in circumference, with one hundred 
and seventy bulwarks, three gates, two thousand houses within the castle, a 
mosque, a bath, and a khân. Its waters, so many springs of life, issue from the 
west side of Mount Caucasus, and after irrigating the gardens fall into the Kür to 
the eastward. The climate being rather cold, its silk is not much praised. The 
inhabitants are Georgians, Armenians and Gokdülâk ; the Sultân commands a 
thousand soldiers, all Shiîs, and there are twelve civil commanders and a judge. 
Shah Ismail liked its climate so much that he remained here three years before the 
battle of Châldirân, and built a suburb outside of it, so that it bears much 
likeness to the town of Kaschau in the middle of Hungary. After the loss of 
the battle of Châldirân, the Ottoman flying troops arriving at this town destroyed 
it, and since that time many thousand loads of stones have been carried away by 
Ferhâd Pâshâ for the repairs of the Castle of Aras. The Sultân of this place 
accompanied me, out of kindness, to the next station, and we passed the night 
in Khodrai, a kent of a thousand houses, with a mosque, khân and bath, on 
the frontier of Tiflis. 



evli YA efendi. 171 

Description of Georgia or Shûshddisfdn, viz. Befits. 
According to the author of the Sheref-nâmeh, this town was first built by Betlis 
the Treasurer of Alexander, who also built the castle of the same name in the 
province of Van ; its name is now Tiflis, which for a long time was a great 
Persian government, till in the time of Sultân Murad III. Lala Kara Ferhâd 
Pâshâ with an immense army undertook the conquest of Georgia, and conquered 
Chaldir and seventy castles. Daud Khân, who was then governor of Tiflîs, 
garrisoned it with forty thousand men, and fortified it in all possible ways. On 
the other side the Ottoman commander summoned the town to surrender to his 
Emperor; at an assembly held on this occasion it was advised to send back the 
bearer of the summons, and to put themselves into a state of defence, but the 
more prudent foreseeing that they would not be able to make resistance, they all 
fled away one night, and left the Castle without defence. The Ottoman commander 
pursued them with the greatest speed, and came up with the Khân of Tiflîs at 
the Castle of Zekum, where he had entrenched himself with all the treasures carried 
away from his capital. A great battle ensued, in which no quarter was given 
by the Ottoman victors, and forty thousand Persians were cut to pieces. The 
booty taken by the Ottoman army was immense ; the Aghâ of the janissaries 
with seven regiments of his corps was sent to garrison Tiflîs, and the castle of 
Zekum was taken in the year 956 (1578). A few days after, the Castle of 
Kerîm also fell. I have not seen the Castle of Zekum, but I saw that of Kerîm 
without entering it, when passing through the plain of Kâkht. Lala Ferhâd 
pursued his victory as though he had been on a hunting party ; he took twenty-six 
great and small castles, some of which he destroyed, and some he repaired, 
placing a Dizdar in each, and made his entry into Tiflîs amidst the greatest 
demonstrations of public joy. He fortified this castle to such an extent, that no 
fortress of Georgia or Azerbeijdn is equal to it, except that of Baku and Megû. 
The province was given with the rank of a Begler Beg to Mohammed Pasha the son 
of Ferhâd Pâshâ, then in possession of the sanjak of Kastemıinî ; its works were re- 
paired, and its stores completed. He sent the keys of no less than seventy large and 
small castles to the Ottoman Court and then returned himself to Constantinople. 
After his departure the Persians besieged the town of Tiflîs for the space of seven 
months. The garrison being in the greatest distress for food, eat their dogs first, and 
then the dead ; the famine was so great that the dog belonging to the Sübashî 
Alî sold for seven thousand aspers. At last the governor of Erzenim, Mustafa 
Pâshâ, arrived with a flying troop, put the Persian General to flight and relieved 
the garrison. Hassan Pâshâ the son of the Grand Vezîr arrived with a caravan, 
bringing three thousand camel loads of provisions, which were placed in the Maga- 



172 THETRAVELSOF 

zines of the small castle. In short, this fortress remained in the hands of the Otto- 
mans from the time of Sultân Murad III. till that of Sultân Mustafa, when the 
Persians united with the Georgians took the castle by surprise, and gave it up to 
the Shah ; and it has remained ever since in the hands of the Persians. It is the 
capital of Georgia, to which belongs sixteen Sultans, seventy judges, forty districts 
and seven tracts called Oimâk. Three-tenths of Georgia are occupied by the 
province of Tiflis ; the khan commands two thousand soldiers, it has also a judge 
and twelve public officers in honour of the twelve Imams. 

Size and Figure of the Fortress. 

It consists of two castles opposite to each other on the banks of the Kür which 
separates the rocks on which they stand, and which are connected above by a 
bridge leading from one castle to the other. The great castle is on the south side 
of the Kiir and the small one on the north of it. This river rises in the moun- 
tains of Chaldir, passes Erdehân, Akhiska, and Azgura and flows into the Caspian 
Sea ; the Persian historiographers say, that its waters are supplied from a thousand 
and sixty sources ; it is the largest river in these countries next to the Euphrates. 
The circumference of the largest castle is six thousand paces, the wall sixty 
cubits high, with seventy bulwarks, and three thousand battlements, but no ditch ; 
the water-tower which supplies water to the garrison in time of siege is situated 
on the Kür. In the castle are six hundred houses, terraced, some with and some 
without gardens, the palace of the Khân, a mosque and a bath. The small 
castle was built by Yezdejerd Shah, it is of stone, in a square form with only one 
gate at the head of the bridge, and has no Bezestân or imaret. 

Three thousand watchmen light fires every night, and continually cry Khoda 
Khob (all's well.) Though it is a Persian town, yet its inhabitants are for the 
most part Sunnis and Hanefis from the time of the Ottomans. 

Products. 

The white bread of Tiflis, and the peaches are renowned ; the vegetables exqui- 
site ; there is no silk, but most excellent grapes : all these productions prosper 
through the quantity of rain water which falls, and do not require water from 
the Kur, this is the case with an hundred and fifty towns and villages, which it 

passes on its way. 

The Hothath of Tifiis. 

On the east side of the large castle a hot-spring boils out of the ground without 
the assistance of fire ; sheep's heads and feet are cooked therein. There are also 
several pilgrimages at Tiflis, as those of Imam Hossein Efendi, Rizwan Agha, 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 173 

Jem Alî Efendî, &c. Tiflis is five hours distance from Kidkht, from the Castle of 
Aras, four journies, and the the same from that of Genje. We took from the 
khân two hundred men to accompany us, and received three tomans for the 
expenses of the journey. 

Description of the Castle Küsekht. 

It stands on a chalk cliff, is of a square form, aud belongs to the district of 
Tifli's. The castle Lorî near Tiflis was seen on our right side in the mountains, 
but we passed it at a great distance. 

Des cription of Sürdn. 

Though a small castle on a hill, yet it is extremely strong and high : it is one 
of the oldest castles of Georgia built by Nûshirvân. Its inhabitants are Georgians, 
Gokdülâk and Armenians. We proceeded four hours to the west, and reached 
the old town Azgur : according to the author of the Sheref-nameh, it is the oldest 
town in Georgia, and was built by Alexander. In the Georgian language Azgur 
signifies the King of Kings. The immense blocks of stone used in the formation 
of the walls, show that it must have been built by Alexander, because five hundred 
men of the present age would not be able to move one of them ; it stands on a high 
hill, and is of a square form ; it has one gate opening to the south, a mosque, a 
bath, a khân, and forty small streets ; the gardens are beautiful owing to the 
mildness of the climate ; the river which passes below it, issues from the moun- 
tains of Akhiska through which it passes, and waters the gardens of the town, 
falling into the Araxes. This town being on the frontier of Gurgistân Shûshâd, 
tile inhabitants all speak Georgian. 

Specimen of the Georgian Shûshâd Language. 

One, art; two, ?W; three, *am ; four, otkhi; five, khott; six, egst: seven, 
shudi; eight, revai ; uine, khiijrai; ten, atî ; bread, pari ; water, chi'gdl; meat, 
kkarj ; wine, ghita ; cherries, bdk ; pears, bishdl ; figs, leji ; grapes, kurzeni ; 
hazel-nuts, inikhli; melon, weiw ; &c. 

Genealogy of the Georgian Kings. 

Their first kings were Jews, then Dadians and Shûshâd, from whom originated 
the people of G Uriel, Achikbash, and Mingrelia, who are all Christians. They 
speak twelve different languages, and only understand each other by the aid of 
interpreters. The purest language, according to their opinion, is that of the 
Shûshâd and Dadiân. If the dynasty of the Moscovites should be extinguished. 



174 THE TRAVELS OF 

the Princes of Georgia would succeed. The Aiza and Cherkessians who are an 
Arabic colony, have no books at all ; according to the histories of their priests 
they descended from Keikavûs, and then from David. 

There was formerly here a Queen who pretended to reign unmarried ; one 
night having drank with some young men, she was violated by one of them, and 
got with child, which happened to be a girl. To get rid of the ravisher, the Queen 
sent him fowl-hunting on a frozen canal, when the ice broke, and the man was 
swallowed up, so that all talk about the matter was at an end. The daughter mar- 
ried a Prince named Begdivdn, and had three sons, who when of age, divided 
Georgia into three parts. The first Prince obtained the district of Cotatis otherwise 
called Bash Achik, and its inhabitants derive their descent from him. To the 
second, Simon, was allotted the district of Tiflis ; and to the youngest, the pro- 
vince of Bâghat ; from the latter, the Dadiâns derive their lineage. This Dadian 
Prince was a just monarch, and even now the whole of Georgia pay homage to 
the Princes of Achikbash and Dadian. When Sultdn Selim I. was Governor of 
Trebisonde, he lived on good terms with the Beg of Achikbash, and spent some 
time in the castle of Cotatis, and when he ascended the throne after Bayazid II. he 
exempted by a Khattî-sherîf, the inhabitants of Achikbash from all gifts and 
duties, a privilege they enjoy up to the present day ; since that time it has only 
been the custom to send annually falcons and fine youths as presents to the Porte. 
We left the castle of Azgur, and going westward through woods and fields, we 
arrived all well at Chaldiran and Akhaskha. 

Description of the Stronghold of Ahhaska, Sultan Selim s conquest. 

This strong fortress of Akhaskais also spelled Akhachka, Akhjaska, Okhaskha, 
and Oksakha, according to the difference of the languages of the surrounding 
people. In the Imperial register it is laid down by the name of Chaldir. The 
builder was Nûshirvân, the great Persian monarch who built the Tak Kesra. He 
used to spend six months of the summer here, on account of its climate. It 
would be too long to relate all the changes that this place underwent under 
different kings. The first moslim conqueror of it was Hesham Ibn Abd-ul-Melek, 
of the family of the Ommiades, who, proceeding from Syria with an immense 
army, conquered Aintâb, Mera'ash, Malâtia, Haleb, Diarbekr, Erzerura, and 
this castle of Akhaska, which then became the Capital of Georgia. He also 
conquered Genje, Shirvan, and Derbend, and returned to Damascus. Kara Yüssûf, 
the Prince of the dynasty of the Kara Koyiinli, not being able to resist the arms 
of Timur, fled to Bayazid I. for assistance, and Sultân Uzun Hassan became 
the possessor of the castle of Akhaska. Paying homage to Tîmûr he was put in 



evliya efendi. 175 

the number of eleven tributary princes, that marched by the side of Timtir's horse, 
who conferred upon him, the province of Azerbeijan. It afterwards came into 
the power of Shah Ismail of the Saff family, who chose Akhaska for his summer 
quarters and subdued the whole of Georgia. He ravaged the Ottoman provinces, 
and pushed his incursions up to Sivas, the granary of the Ottoman capital. 
Selim I. was then governor of Trebisonde, and many times pursued the Persian 
troops. Having himself ascended the throne, he immediately began the Holy 
war, and fought the famous battle on the plain of Chaldir, which cost the lives of 
one hundred thousand Persians, and nearly that of Shah Ismail, who had a narrow 
escape. He then conquered the castle Akhaska, and subdued the whole of Georgia. 
A survey of it was commanded, and it was assigned as a government to a Pâshâ 
of three tails. As this town is the frontier of Giirjistan (Georgia), Türkistan, and 
Kurdistan, in immediate contact with Persia, it was declared a separate Eyâlet or 
government, of which the following is the description in the Kanûn-nâmeh of 
Sultân Suleiman. The sanjak of Chaldir consists of thirteen sanjaks, the officers 
are a public treasurer of the timârs (Timâr Defterdarı) ; an inspector of the rolls 
(Defter Emînî) ; a kiaya, an inspector and a secretary of the Chaushes, (Chau- 
shlar kiayassi, Emînî, and Kiâtibî). The sanjaks are as follow: (1) Olti ; (2) 
Khortîz; (3) Ardîkh ; (4) Khajrek ; (5)Erdehân ; (6) Postkhû; (7) Mâkhchîl ; 
(8) Achârpenîk ; (9) Akhachka, the seat of the Pâshâ. There are also four 
hereditary sanjaks Yordlik, or Ojaklik, viz. Portekrek, Lesâna, Nussf Levana, 
and Shûshâd ; making in all thirteen. 

Khass or Revenues of the Sanjak Begs. 
Khass of the Beg of Olti, two hundred thousand and seventeen aspers ; Portek, 
forty- six thousand two hundred and nineteen ; Ardenj, two hundred and 
eighty thousand ; Erdehân, three hundred thousand ; Shûshâd, six hundred 
and fifty six thousand ; Lesâna, three hundred and sixty-five thousand ; Khartîz, 
two hundred thousand five hundred; Khajrek, three hundred and sixty-five 
thousand : Postkhû, two hundred and six thousand five hundred ; Makhjil, 
twenty thousand three hundred and eleven ; Ajâra, two hundred thousand ; 
Penek, four hundred thousand. 

Number of Zidmets and Timdrs. 

The ziamets and timârs are altogether six hundred and fifty-six swords, which 
with the Jebellis form eight hundred men ; and with the troops of the Pâshâ 
fifteen hundred troops. In the sanjak Oltî, three ziamets, a hundred and thirteen 
tiraars; Erdehân, eight ziamets, eighty-seven timârs ; Ardi'kh, four ziamets. 



176 THE TRAVELS OF 

forty-two timars ; Khajrek, two ziamets, seventy-two timars ; Khartiz, thirteen 
ziâmets, thirty-five timars ; Postkhu, twelve ziamets, twenty-eight timars ; Penek, 
eight ziamets, fifty-four timars ; Sdszin, seven ziamets, thirty-two timars ; Khatla, 
nineteen ziamets, seven timars ; Isper, four ziamets, fourteen timars. These 
feudal troops are commanded by their Yuzbashi (Lieutenants), Cheribashî 
(Captains), and Ala'i-Beg (Colonels). They possess a thousand and sixty villages on 
condition of going to war when called upon, the annual revenue of which amounts 
to three hundred and twenty Ottoman purses. In the time of Selim I. the Pâshd 
of this province, commanded those of Erzerura, Sivas, Mera'ash, Adana, and 
Rakka. The place of a judge with the rank of Molla was given to Ramazân 
Efendi with five hundred aspers, now it has a judge with three hundred aspers ; 
he may however annually collect from the districts belonging tohis jurisdiction, the 
sum of eighty purses. The Khass of the Begler-beg amounts to four hundred 
thousand aspers ; the garrison consists of two thousand men, regular troops, with 
an Aghâ of the janissaries, of the Jebeji and of the Topji. In the year 1044 
(1634) the Persians became masters of Chaldiran, but after the conquest of 
Erivan, Canaan Pâshâ was sent by Sultân Murad IV. with an immense army 
who conquered the fortress of Akhachka, and put it in a good state of repair, in 
which it is kept by the Ottomans, up to the present time. 

Form and size of the Castle of Akhachka. 

It is a square castle built of stone, standing on a chalk cliff, with two gates and 
about a thousand houses without gardens covered with terraces. One of the two 
gates leads to the east, and the other to the west, there are twenty-eight mosques. 
The old mosque in the upper castle is covered with earth. There is no imaret 
(religious foundation) covered with lead in this fortress. The mosque of Kunbet- 
oghli is also covered with earth, and without a minareh. In the lower castle is 
the mosque of Khalü Aghâ. Besides the five legal prayers a day, there are cer- 
tain lectures in all these mosques on the Koran and tradition, but there are no 
private rooms or establishments for these lectures. The Müderris (Professors) 
hold them in the mosques, the students (Thelebe) are numerous. The suburb 
outside of the castle is well built, and its baths pleasant, but the bath inside the 
castle is very small ; the best is that outside the eastern gate of the castle, the 
waiters are fine Georgian boys ; there are a great number of khans ; no vine- 
yards (Bâgh), but in some places gardens (Bâghje) ; a large number of gardens of 
fruit trees (Mushebek-bostân) full of valuable trees, well watered by springs. 
The water of this place comes from the mountains of Uda, waters the fields of 
the town, goes straight to the castle of Arghân, and falls near the Castle of Kurehkt 



evliya efendi, 177 

into the Araxes. The passage between the castle and the suburb is estabhshed 
by a bridge ; the suburb is not surrounded by walls ; the market consists of about 
three hundred shops, but no Bezestân of stone. The temperature of this place 
being fresh and invigorating its people are strong and brave also ; the Pfishd Sefer 
Pâshâ, by birth a Georgian, is one of the most wise and virtuous Vezirs of the 
Ottoman Court. Erivan is six journeys from Akhashka to the east, and mid 
way is the Castle of Karss. From Akhaskha to Tiflis is five journeys towards 
the north-east, to Genje five journeys direct east, and seven journeys to the north 
is the castle of Georgia. The fortress of Akhaska is situated between them all in 
the plain of Chaldir. 

Castles of Georgia belonging to the Province of Chaldir. 

The castle of Khartiz near Chaldir was conquered in the year 886 (1481), by 
Lala Pâshâ, together with the castle of Adhil, and the castle of Perkan near Chaldir 
at a journey's distance, situated between two high mountains on a high hill. The 
castle of Cotatis is two journies distance from Chaldir, it is the capital of the 
district of Ajikbash near mount Perirat. It is the proper residence of Georgia 
otherwise called Shûshâd, and Selim I. when governor of Trebisonde, sometimes 
came hither to divert himself. It was created by him a hereditary province 
(Ojâklik), the khass of which amounts to six thousand and six aspers. There are 
no ziamets and timars. The castle of Khajrek, situated between Akhachka and 
Erdehân, is the residence of the Sanjak-Beg of Burdehân, and was conquered by 
Lala Pâshâ ; the Khass amounts to three hundred and sixty-five thousand aspers, 
six ziamets and twenty-two timars. The castle of Shatan, which by mistake is called 
Sheitân Kala'am, (the Castle of Satan), was conquered by Ferhâd Pâshâ in the year 
990 (1582) ; it is situated near Chaldir, on a steep rock. The castle of Kizlar (of 
the maiden) near Chaldir, on the border of the river Jâgh, is a magic castle. The 
castle of Altun (gold), the conquest of Lala Pâshâ, is three hours distance from 
the latter. The castle of Odoria near Chaldir, the conquest of Lala Pâshâ. The 
castle of Al near Akhaska. The castle of Postkhö, which is the seat of a Sanjak 
Beg in the province of Akhaska, was conquered by Lala Pâshâ in the year 998 
(1589) ; a jurisdiction, the judge of which is appointed with one hundred and fifty 
aspers. There is an Ala'i Beg and Cheribashf. Shııshâdistân is the name of one 
of the principal provinces of Georgia, governed by a Begler-beg. Shûshâd, the 
castle, has no judge. Shûshâdistân is a mountainous tract full of precipices. The 
castle of Kharbe on the border of a valley, is a steep castle. The castle of Ardikh, 
the seat of a Sanjak-beg in the province of Chaldir, a conquest of Lala Pâshâ. 
The castle of Akhanji, the seat of a Sanjak-beg. The castle of Jâghirmân near 

VOL. II. A A 



178 THETRAVELSOF 

Chaldir, conquered by Lala Pîîshâ. Besides these castles there are a great 
number of others seen on the great road. Georgia is indeed a fine and well 
cultivated country. After having seen all this, I took leave of Sefer Pâshâ, who 
presented me with two Georgian boys, a horse, and a hundred piastres ; I took 
an escort and began my journey westward to Erzerum. 

Stations of the Journey from Akhaslca to Erzerum. 

We passed the summer quarters of Ulghâr, and arrived at the end of four 
hours at the castle of Kinava on the frontier of Ardehân ; we passed through a 
mountainous tract and at last arrived at the Castle of Kara Ardehân, which was 
conquered in the time of Selfm I. and made the seat of a Sanjak Beg ; the khass 
is three hundred thousand aspers, eight zidmets, and eighty-seven timârs ; an Alai 
Beg, (Colonel) ; Cheribashi, (Captain) ; Dizdar, (Commander of the castle) ; are 
the commanding officers of the garrison, which consists of two hundred men ; 
the whole contingent in war time including the troops of the Beg amounts to one 
thousand men. The judge is appointed with a hundred and fifty aspers. There 
is no Nakîb-ul-ishrâf (head of the Sheriffs or relations of the prophet) and its 
Mufti resides at Akhaska. The castle is built on a rock, and is five hundred paces 
in circumference ; it is not commanded by any neighbouring height, it has two 
hundred and seventy towers, and three gates. A company of armourers 
(Jebeji) of the Porte, is in garrison here. In the town, the family establishment 
(Khandân) of Kia Pâshcî is the most renowned. 

Castles in the neighbourhood of Erdehdn. 

The castle of Wala, conquered by Lala Pâshâ 987 (1579) ; the castle of Ker- 
mek, conquered by Lala Pasha in the year 982 (1574) ; the castle of Akharsin, 
conquered by Lala Pâshâ in the year 982 (1574) ; the castles of Mamervân and 
Nazarbdn, the latter built by Ghâzî Sefer Pâshâ in the year 1053(1643); the 
castle Kense Dusal in the district of Erdehân on a hill ; its water flows to Erdehân. 
The houses all have terraces ; there is no college, but a school for boys. No 
gardens on account of the temperature, which is rather cold. Its fruits come 
from the castle of Tortum and Acharas ; the inhabitants are all Sunnis, and live 
by agriculture. This castle is five journeys to the east of Erzerum ; and Karss 
is one journey's distance from Erzerum by the way of Kargha-bazâr. We then 
passed westward sometimes on a stony and woody ground, sometimes in rich 
meadows, and arrived at the castle of Güle. It was built by Levend-Khan, a 
Georgian Prince, and is the seat of a Sanjak Beg, the khass of which is three 
hundred thousand aspers ; it has a Colonel, Captain, Dizdar and garrison ; it is 



evli YA efendi. I79 

an elegant castle on a chalk hill. Eight hours further to the west, we reached 
the castle of Penek also named after its Georgian builder, it is the seat of a 
sanjak Beg subordinate to Chaldir ; its khass is four hundred thousand aspers. 
Its feudatory militia with the troops of the Beg are a thousand men ; there is a 
judge with a hundred and fifty aspers, no market nor garden. The water of the 
river is very good, its subjects are Armenians, Gokdulak, and Georgians. Seven 
hours further is the Castle of Ulini, built by a Georgian king, and conquered by 
Sultân Selîm ; it is the seat of a Sanjak Beg, whose Khass is two hundred thousand 
and seventeen aspers. And has a Colonel, a Captain, a Judge with a hundred and 
fifty aspers, a Dizdar, and garrison ; the castle stands on a chalk hill with two gates, 
one opening to the east, and the other to the west. At the foot of the castle 
flows the river Olti, which waters the gardens of the town, and enters the Aras 
on the Kiblah side. The houses are all inhabited and covered with terraces. 
There are a number of mosques, a khan, a bath, garden, and school for boys ; its 
beauties are celebrated. The inhabitants are good moslims. From hence we 
travelled direct north, and came at the end of two hours to the castle of Maver- 
van built by the Georgian Kings, and conquered by Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha ; it 
is the seat of a Sanjak Beg subordinate to Erzerum, whose khass amounts to two 
hundred and three thousand aspers ; the officers are a Colonel and Captain of 
the feudal militia. The mihtia of the Beg amounts to fifteen hundred men ; the 
judge is appointed with a hundred and fifty aspers. The castle is of a square 
form and gigantic size, standing upon a hill ; its gate looks to the Kiblah, 
there are eight hundred houses, a mosque, a bath, and a khân, the inhabitants 
are almost all poor people. Three hours further on to the west, is the village 
Aide Mamervân, a village inhabited by Armenians and Moslims. Further on 
among bleak mountains is the village Karakunk, it belongs to the district of 
Erzerum; we passed the straight of Georgia and arrived at the village of 
Osmiidum Sultân, a fine kent of a hundred houses on the border of a high 
mountain ; it is situated at the very source of the Euphrates, which issues from a 
cavern in the mountain of Dûmlî Sultân, a delightful, refreshing water, which 
seems to be alluded to in the Koran by the verse : " I gave thee the Keuther." 
Trouts of a cubit's length sport in it ; their bodies are ruby-coloured and inter- 
spersed with smaragdine spots. Umudum Sultân the Saint, who is buried here, 
protects these fish, so that it is impossible to catch them ; but a farsang below 
they are taken by fishermen, and fill the brains of those who eat them with 
ambergris ; however much a man may eat, he is never incommoded by them. 
The Pilgrimage to Rurali Sultân is much frequented. We marched five hours to 
the south, on the plain of Erzerum and entered it, God be thanked ! in perfect 



180 THE TRAVELS OF 

health. Before I changed my dress, I laid the letters and presents of the khdn 
of Erivan at the feet of my gracious Lord the Pasha, and gave him a detailed 
account of all the castles, towns, kents and villages, which I had seen on my 
journey. He gave me a splendid dress and three hundred piastres bath-money, 
besides two purses, which he assigned to me on the extraordinary revenues of 
the custom-houses. I had remained scarcely a week, when a message arrived 
from the Khan of Erivan complaining that some of the soldiers of Karss had 
molested one of his caravans, and requesting that an Aghâ might be sent to 
convey the caravan safe to Erzerum. In consequence of this letter I was sent 
back into Persia on the tenth day. 



JOURNEY TO ERİVAN IN THE YEAR, 1057, (1647). 

From Erzerum twelve hours to the east, is the castle of Hassan Kala'a which 
has already been described ; and further on to the east, through the plain of Passin, 
the village Badil Jovânlî, an Armenian village. We passed it, and reached in nine 
hours the station of Meidânjik ; the inhabitants are all Armenians. Ten hours 
further is the castle of Mishingerd in the province of Erzerum, a square castle on a 
chalk cliff; which has a Dizdar and a hundred and fifty men, two hundred houses, 
but no market ; a mosque of Sultdn Suleiman Khân, without a garden. We 
passed to the east, through the valley of Khândere, by the ruined convent called 
the seven churches, through a narrow straight, and then to the west by a flowery 
meadow for six hours to the castle Bardiiz, in the territory of Karss, built by 
Lady Ken'm-vid-din, the daughter of King Azz-ud-din of the dynasty of the Auk- 
koyûnlî. The chronograph is written on the gate; there is a Dizdar and a 
hundred and fifty men in garrison, a small bath, but no garden. From hence 
we went southward to the castle of Gejkeran built by Nûshirvân ; this is the old 
town of Diideman Gejkeran which is mentioned in the ancient histories of the wars 
of Pizen and Efrasiab. It was ruined by Holagu at the same time as Baghdad, 
but flourished again under the government of Kara Yûssûf Shah of the family of 
the Kara Koyunli. Timur again destroyed it. It was conquered by Lala Kara 
Mustafa Pasha, and now belongs to the government of Karss, it is a square castle. 
The karss of the Beg amounts to fifteen thousand three hundred and fifty aspers. 
According to the canon of Sultân Suleiman there are two thousand two hundred 
men including the troops of the Beg ; a Dizdar, an Aghâ of the Azabs and Gonulli, 
with three hundred men in garrison, a judge of a hundred and fifty aspers, twelve 
hundred houses covered with earth, three small mosques, and from forty to fifty 



evliya EFEN di. ]81 

shops. Eight hours further to the east we reached the frontier fortress of the 
Ottomans, the castle of Karss. There are three towns of that name ; one is in 
Silefka, the Karss of Karatâshhk ; the second, the Karss of Mera'ash, and the last 
that of Düdemân, which is the present one. In the time of Murad III. it was 
conquered by Lala Kara Mustafa Pâshâ. The repairing this town after it was 
ruined by the Persians, was undertaken by the Ottoman generals, and on this 
occasion a large square marble stone was found, which they placed on the gate 
looking to the south-east, and which had the following inscription : — " This 
Castle was built under Vezîr Fîrıiz Akaî in the time of Sultdn Azz-ud-din ; and 
repaired by his daughter Sultana Karîm-ud-dîn. May God illuminate her tomb! " 
Lala Pâshâ who is the last builder of Karss, placed this stone on the wall, how- 
ever, out of reverence for its ancient builders. Lala Pâshâ repaired it in seventy 
days, within which time he completed its munition. A soldier came to relate to 
him a dream which he had, and which was as follows. An old man appeared to 
him, saying, his name was Abül Hassan Kharkanî, that he was buried here, and 
that if a well at his feet was to be dug, marvellous things would be seen. Some 
hundred workmen were instantly set to dig the well, when they found a red granite 
tomb, on which was written " I am the martyr. Said Kharkcini." He was found 
quite fresh, and the blood yet,flowing from his right arm. The tomb was re-covered 
amidst prayers, and Lala Pâshâ raised a convent upon it. The government 
of Karss has been given at different times to Vezirs of three tails as barley- 
money (Arpalik) ; the karss is sixty thousand aspers. It belonged formerly to 
the government of Erzerum, but is now a distinct province with the addition of 
Passin. There are seven sanjaks, a Kiaya, and Emin of the Defter, a Defterdar 
of the treasury and of the timârs, but no Kiatib Kiaya and Emin of the Chaushes, 
Its sanjaks are ; Little Erdehân ; Khojûjân ; Zârshâd ; Gejewan ; Kaghzmân ; 
Werishan, and Karss the seat of the Pâshâ, there are seven ziâmets and a hundred 
and two timârs, with the Jebellis and troops of the Pâshâ, three thousand exquisite 
troops ; a Colonel, a Captain, a judge with three hundred aspers, a Dizdar, 
an Aghâ of seven companies of Azâbs, and an Aghâ of the Janissaries, armourers, 
and gunners ; the Colonels reside for the most part at Erzerum : the garrison 
consists of fifteen hundred excellent men ; the garrisons of Wan, Karss, and 
Akhachka are decidedly brave men. Their pay is collected from the produce of 
the ferry-boats at Birejik on the Euphrates, and from the villages Surilj and Bombiij 
at Haleb, amounting annually to seventy thousand aspers. The government of 
Karss is divided into ten jurisdictions, and eight districts ; there is a Sheikh-ul- 
Islâm (Mufti) ; Nakîb-ul-ishrâf (head of the Emirs), and other distinguished men. 



182 THETRAVELSOF 

Size of the castle of Karss. 

At a gun-shot distance on the north side is a high mountain, at the foot of which 
this fortress rises on a separate hill ; the lower castle is situated in the plain, and 
has five strong walls. The gate of the outer or lower castle looks to the east, and 
that of the inner or upper castle to the west. There is only the house of the 
commander, and barracks for the garrison of two hundred men ; no bath, market, 
or any remarkable building. The lower town or suburb is surrounded by two 
strong walls, and has three iron gates which are adorned with all kinds of armour. 
One of these gates on the west is the water-gate, also called the gate of the 
troops, looking towards Erzeriim ; the second or middle gate opens to Kaghz- 
mun ; the third to the east is the gate of Behrâm-pâshâ, opening towards Erivan. 
Watchmen keep watch the whole night, lighting torches and lamps. The lower 
castle is surrounded by a lake instead of a ditch, which encircles it from the 
middle gate to the gate of Behrâm-pâshâ, and hence it is impossible to get 
possession of the fortress. There are two hundred and twenty strong towers, 
and two thousand and eighty battlements ; the circumference of the whole is five 
thousand seven hundred paces. The buildings consist of three thousand houses, 
forty-seven mosques, in eight of which prayer is performed on Fridays ; the most 
remarkable is that of Sheikh Hassan Kharkânî, built by Lala Pâshâ ; the 
mosque of Waiz Efendi at the water-gate ; the great mosque of Suleiman Efendi, 
which was formerly a church ; the mosque of Hossein Kiaya called the red 
church ; the mosque of Omar Efendi, which was destroyed when the Persians got 
possession of the castle, solely on account of being named after Omar, and turned 
into a stable ; the mosque of Kâltâkjî-zadeh, at the gate of Behrâm-pashâ ; the 
mosque of Beirâm Chelebi-zadeh ; and on the south side of the town across the 
bridge, the mosque of Emir Yüssüf Pasha, all covered with terraces. There 
are eighteen schools for boys, but no colleges for lectures on the sciences, 
which are all held in the mosques. Within the water-gate is the bath of Emir 
Yüssüf Pâshâ ; within the middle gate is the old bath. There are no houses for 
reading of the Koran or tradition, or for dining the poor, who are, however, well 
taken care of by private generosity ; there is no stone Bezestân, but two hundred 
shops in which Indian and Persian wares are found. No gardens and vineyards 
on account of the cold temperature of the climate. The inhabitants are a lively 
set of people who gain their hving by agriculture and commerce. 

We travelled from Karss twelve hours to the north, passed the village of Arjük 
and the valley of Baghirsak, and the summer quarter (Yaila) of Olghâr twelve 
hours long. It is three journies from hence to the castle of Akhiska (otherwise 
Akhaska, Akhachka). From Karss to Erdehân is one journey by the way of 



EVLIYAEFENDI, 183 

Korgha-bazar. I arrived at last at the object of my journey, the castle of Güle, 
and on the same day I entered it, read the letters of our gracious Lord, the 
Pâshâ of Erzertim, to the Aghas of Gule, who excused themselves, saying : " that 
they never had disturbed the Persian caravan, and that it was a calumny of the 
inhabitants of Kaghzemân." Next day we mounted our horses, proceeded for a 
whole day to the south, and arrived at the castle of Kaghzemân. The towns and 
castles on the Kiblah side of the Aras are all reckoned to be on the frontier of Azer- 
beijân. The river Aras rises on the west from the mountains of Bingol (thousand 
lakes) flows to the east, joins the barley river (Arpachayi), and the Zenghi. The 
castle of Kaghzeman being situated on the Kiblah side of the Aras is reckoned to 
be on the frontier of Azerbeijan, but belongs to the Ottoman government of Karss. 
It is named after its builder, one of the daughters of Nûshirvân. It was taken out 
of the hands of Uzun Hassan by Shdh Ismail, and then submitted to Sultan Sulei- 
man. It is the seat of a Sanjak Beg whose khass amounts to two hundred thousand 
aspers, nine ziamets, a hundred and seventy-eight timers ; nine hundred feudal 
militia, a judge appointed with a hundred and fifty aspers, and a garrison of three 
hundred men, who are paid by the impost on salt ; the salt mines, and a quarry of 
mill stones, are on the west side of the castle. The mill-stones of Persia and Rum 
come from Kaghzeman ; the borax of the goldsmiths, barbers, whetting-stones, 
and the common whetting-stones are extracted from the mines of Kaghzeman ; 
in two places gold and silver are found, but as the product was exceeded by the 
expences, they were abandoned ; there are altogether eleven mines. The castle 
is a square strong building standing on a hill on the bank of the Aras, there are 
seven hundred small houses ; it is not a commercial town (Bender), but a frontier 
town (Serhadd). Mount Aghrî which appears to the west, is one of the most 
praiseworthy mountains in the world, it is near the town, and is the summer 
abode (Yaila) of Turcomans. The air is temperate and allows of the cultivation 
of gardens on some spots ; the inhabitants are mild and some of them fair. 

The Levend troops (irregular levies) sing Persian songs with harmonious voices. 
As soon as I entered the town, the Divân assembled, and notwithstanding the 
repeated oaths of the members of it, that they had not molested the Persian 
caravan, but only taken their custom duties, I took seven Aghas of them with 
me to prove the truth of what they said, by their presence at Erzerum, whereunto 
I returned. The Beg and eleven Aghas presented me with a purse of money, two 
horses (Mahmudi), and two Georgian slaves ; and we travelled towards the east 
for nine hours, to the castle of Moghazberd, it is a district belonging to Karss, 
built by Moghdz a Persian Khân ; it passed into the hands of the Ak-koyunli of 
Shah Ismail, and then into those of Sultân Suleiman ; the garrison consists of a 



184 THETRAVELSOF 

hundred and fifty men ; the castle is built of stone in a pentagon form on a rock, not 
commanded by any neighbouring height ; it has six hundred houses with gardens 
and vineyards ; a mosque, khân, bath and ten shops ; at the foot of this castle 
flows the river Arpachai, which comes from the mountains of Georgia, and mingles 
with the Aras at the Kend of Tekelti. The castle of Moghdzberd is contiguous 
to the territory of the Persian castle Shuregil, which alone remained in the power 
of the Persians, meanwhile all the districts of it belong to the government of 
Karss ; the river Arpachai forms the limits : the eastern tract of this town is 
Persian, and the western, Ottoman, belonging to Karss. Opposite to Moghfizberd, 
at a journey's distance, is the castle of Ana on a hill, a square mud castle, built by 
Nûshirvân, the inhabitants are Armenians ; between Ana and Karss are two 
mountains ; we passed this castle and after nine hours journey we arrived at 
Zarshid on the utmost frontier, built by the Persian Shahs, it is the seat of a 
Sanjak Beg subordinate to Karss ; in the time of war, twelve hundred men bear 
arms, the judge has a hundred and fifty aspers ; there is no Muftî nor Nakib ; 
but a Dizdar (Commander of the castle) and a hundred and fifty men. The 
castle is situated on a hill in a plain, at a day's journey from Karss to the east on 
the road to Erivan, there are three hundred houses with terraces, a mosque, a 
convent, a bath, and a khân. Nine hours further eastward is the kent Thâlish, 
on the frontier of Erivan ; we passed Kara Taib, and arrived after twelve hours 
march to the east at Three Churches, a great convent built by the Greek 
Emperors ; the convent is divided into three parts, in one are Greek, in the 
others Armenian nuns ; these Three Churches and the Seven Churches on the 
road to Nakhshivan are the most famous convents of Persia. It is a convent well 
worth seeing on account of its monuments and strange talismans. 

The balsam, called Mirûn-yâghi, is made here, of plants boiled in a kettle upon 
a carpet, to which fire does no harm ; the balsam which is skimmed off from the 
kettle is put into jars, and used through the whole of Frengistan as a panacea or 
universal remedy. In the neighbourhood of this castle is an iron bar suspended 
in a cave without being supported up from above below ; the Infidels beHeve it to 
have been suspended by a miracle of Simeon the Apostle : if a strong wind blows 
it vibrates, and it is enclosed by iron rails to prevent it being touched by the 
profane. The explanation of this matter is, that the architect who made the vault 
of this cave, placed on the top of it a great magnet, and a similar one on the 
floor, so that the iron bar is kept in equilibrium between them. This is what I, 
shortsighted Evliya, found out by my own weak intellect. If it please God, 
there is no blunder in our guess. The convent is inhabited by about five hun- 
dred monks ; almost every night five or six hundred horsemen, either from Persia 



evliya efendi. 185 

or Turkey arrive here, and are entertained by the monks with milk, honey and 
dates. From hence we passed to the east through level fields for nine hours, 
crossed the gi'eat rivers Aras and Zenghi, and arrived for the second time at 
Erivan, where the Khân had just returned from the wedding of his sister at Baku, 
and lodged me at his house. The next day I repaired to the Divân with the 
Aghds of Karss and Kaghzemfln, who con)plained, in the strongest terms, of 
their having been unjustly accused of molesting the Persian caravan ; a long 
discussion ensued, at the end of which the Aghas appeared to be innocent, and 
the men of the caravan to be calumniators. Takki Alî Khan feasted the Aghas 
three days, gave me five tomans Abâssî, and a horse, and for the Pasha a string 
of camels, laden with rice, also some letters. Charged with these, I set out to 
return to Erzerum. 

Journeys on our Return. 

We set out from Erivan, with a caravan of seven hundred persons toward the 
west, and reached after five hours the kent Abdallî, a Persian village of a hun- 
dred houses, which at the time of the conquest was fixed to be the frontier of 
Karss. We advanced to the north four hours to kent Ayârân with five hundred 
houses ; the inhabitants of which are Gokdulak ; from hence through mountains 
of luxuriant vegetation to kent Sherâb-khâneh, situated on a hill, of three hun- 
dred Armenian houses with many gardens, it is a ziamet on the frontier of Karss. 
We continued our journey to the west, passing over fertile steppes, and seeing 
many castles, which had been ruined by Sultân Murad IV. After four hours we 
arrived at kent Begum ; the daughter of Uzun Hassan Shah of that name built 
it ; the Persian Princesses are even now styled Beghum : there are three hundred 
houses of Armenians and Georgians ; it was ruined by Timiir, but seven high 
arches are still extant among the ruins on the border of Arpachai, where the 
Princes of the Ak-koyiinli, Meimendi Khân, Ashâr Khân, Otgabai Khân, Gûn- 
dûzbai Khân and other Shâhs are buried, some lying, some seated on their 
thrones, as if they were in life, with their names, and the chronographs of their 
deaths. The three sides of this old town are a great Yaila. From hence we 
went to the west through marshy ground, and some meadows, to the old castle 
of Shureger ; Hossein Bikara, delighted with its situation on the river Arpachai, 
built this town according to the advice of Doctor Shûrgerî ; it passed into the 
hands of Kara Yûssûf and was destroyed by Timiir ; Lala Kara Mustafa Pâshâ 
ruined it again ; large vaults and masses are yet conspicuous amongst its ruins. 
The musical tune Shureh is said to have been invented by Shureger at the time he 
was building this town, whose inhabitants all delight in music, and are famous 
singers. The castle is in ruins, and no more than three hundred houses with 

VOL. II. B B 



]86 THE TRAVELS OF 

terraces are now existing. The half of its districts being situated on the other 
bank of Arpachai belong to the government of Erivan ; those on this side to 
Karss. It is a mountainous fertile tract of Georgia which extends northward to the 
Arasand Zenghi, and along Mount Caucasus to the Caspian Sea; and on the west 
to Erzeriim. From Shiireger we advanced to the west, crossing five small 
rivers, some of which come from Georgia, some from the mountains of Azghur, 
and flow into the Aras ; some of the ground is marshy. We then arrived at the 
ferry of a river, the name of which I am ignorant of. Sultân Murad crossed this 
river on his expedition to Erivan, and the spot is yet marked, where his tent was 
fixed ; the inhabitants planted trees round it, and made it a prayer-place. Five 
hours further to the west through fertile ground is the village of Bûlânik, a free 
ziamet of Sefer Agha, of three hundred houses. Seven hours further is the castle 
of Karss ; we remained a night as guests with Alî Aghâ, and continued our journey 
next day to the village of Dushen Kia (the falling rock), on the frontier of Karss, 
with two hundred houses ; then five hours, ascending and descending through high 
fir-woods and meadows to Wernishan on the frontier of Karss, formerly a sanjak. 
The opposite shore of the Aras belongs to the castle of Bayazi'd, and the Alaii Beg 
of Wernishan resides here ; it is an Armenian village of three hundred houses. 
Akhiska is two journeys from hence to the north ; six hours further to the west 
through fields to Zeinkhan on the territory of Karss, of two hundred houses,a Dizdar, 
a garrison, a khan, a mosque, a bath, and forty shops ; it is the seat of a Sûbâshî 
subordinate to Karss ; the castle is square and built of stone, the inhabitants are 
an obstinate people. We continued our journey through fir woods for seven 
hours to Soghânlf Beli, a straight famous all over Persia and Turkey for the 
difficulty in crossing it ; three hours beyond this straight we reached the kent 
Kûmadâmî, of a hundred and fifty houses, on the frontier of sanjak Passın, an 
Armenian village on the banks of the Aras. Eight hours further is the village of 
Passln, of three hundred Armenian houses, in a plain, it is the ziamet of Ja'afer 
Efendi the land registrar (Moharerî Wilayet) at Erzerum ; five hours further along 
the Aras is the station of Goz ; we passed in sight of the bridge of Chobcin, built 
by the dynasty of that name, through level fields, and arrived at Hassan Kala'a, 
which has been already described. Four hours from hence we arrived safe at 
Erzerum, where we found our gracious Lord the Pasha, on the walk of Abd-ur-rah- 
man Ghazi ; I presented the camels, letters and caravan of the khân of Erivan, 
and reassumed my functions as Clerk of the Custom-house, assisting every night 
at the assemblies of the Pasha. At this time the Capiji Alı Aghâ arrived from 
Constantinople, with a Khatti-sherff of Sultân Ibrahim, by which the Pasha 
received the Imperial command to repair with all the troops of his government to 



evliya efendi. 187 

Karss, to be ready for the war against the Infidel Persians. The Pâshâ paid 
obeisance to the noble tiighra and instantly dispatched commissaries to Erzerum, 
Mera 'ash and Sîvâs, in order to raise and collect troops. I, poor Evliyii, received 
a commission to go to Sîdî Ahmed Pâshâ, the governor of the sanjaks of Sânja 
and Tortum. 



JOURNEY TO BAIBURD, JANJA, ISPER, TORTUM 
AND AKCHEKALA'A. 

I left Erzerum with nine servants, proceeding to the north in the plain of 
Erzerum, two hours to the village of Kân, of two hundred Armenian houses ; five 
hours more to the north we came to the village of Sheikh Umudum, which has 
been described in our journey to Georgia. Six hours further to the north, through 
vallies and hills, to the bridge of the Georgian straight, a bridge built over the 
Euphrates by Shah Uzun Hassan. It is on this spot that the rebel Abaza Pâshâ 
cut to pieces forty regiments of janissaries sent against him ; their bones are 
piled up near the bridge : the village of Gûrgî-boghâzî (Georgian straight), has two 
hundred houses, in the district of Erzerum. We passed to the north over flowery 
meadows nine hours to Rûmlî Sultân, a great saint buried underneath a cupola. 
Here is the cave whence springs the Euphrates, which is above all praise, since it 
is mentioned with praise in the Koran. At Keifi, one of the sanjaks of Erzerum, 
are the iron mines, where iron shot are cast ; several hundred little rivulets 
run from these iron mines into the Euphrates, and somewhat spoil the sweetness of 
the water ; but from its source in the rock of Rûmlî Sultan unto Keifi it is the 
most delicious and most healthy water in the world. Rumli Sultân was a Saint, 
who appreciating the good qualities of this river, took up his residence at its source ; 
it is a village of two hundi-ed houses. We advanced three hours to the north to 
Akchekala'a in the territory of the sanjak of Tortum, built by Ulama Pâshâ in 
order to control Georgia ; in course of time the castle has been dismantled of its 
walls and garrison. It hes north of Tortum, and has six hundred houses, a than, 
and a mosque ; it was destroyed by Bayazid II. when governor of Trebisonde in his 
youth. We proceeded six hours to the west, to the village of Saûlû of a hundred 
houses in the territory of Janja, on the top of a high mountain without gardens ; 
and seven hours further to the west, to the castle of Janja, otherwise Gumish 
Khâneh (silver house). I went straight to the Court of Justice, and read the firman, 
which all the inhabitants were ready to obey. I remained as guest in the house 
of the inspector of the silver mines and began to visit the town. It was built by 



1S8 THETRAVELSOF 

Alexander, one of whose philosophers discovered the silver mines. Mohammed 
II. conquered it by the sword after the defeat of Uzun Hassan in the field of 
Terjân. Silver is here found in such abundance, that every child has a silver 
plate. The inspectorship is let for seven million aspers ; the inhabitants are 
exempted from all taxes, because they are obliged to labour in the silver mines, 
seventy of which are worked. These are the richest silver mines in Turkey, 
the others are those of Kaghzeman, Hakkârî, Bingöl, Sanjar, Akar, Aswan, 
Libanon, and Merzifun. These are the Asiatic and African silver mines of the Otto- 
man Empire ; the European ones are the following : on the frontier of Bosnia, 
Sira, Berinjesse near Uskiib at Karatova, Novaborda near Pereshtina, Sidr Kaissi 
near Salonia ; but their veins are thin ; those of Jânja are as big as an arm, per- 
fectly pure silver : There was also a mint here, but it is now abandoned, I 
however, got some aspers with the inscription, coined at Jânja. After taking a 
good view of the town I was presented by the principal men with three hundred 
piastres, a vase for rosewater (gülabdan), and a censer (bokhûrdân) of silver, 
and after two days march through mountains and straights I arrived at the old 
fortress of Baibiird. The Princes of the family of Akkoyûnlî, who came with the 
Danishmend family, and with the ancestors of the Ottomans from Mahân to Rum, 
first settled here, and having found a rich treasure of silver in the mines, by which 
they became rich (Bai), the place was called Baiyûrd, which was changed into 
Baiburd. Mahmiid Pasha the Vezir of Mohammed II. conquered it from Uzun 
Hassan. According to the description of Sultân Süleîmân, it is the seat of a 
Subashi separated from the khass of the Vezir of Erzerum, a jurisdiction of a 
hundred and fifty aspers, the revenues of the judge amount annually to six purses. 
There is a Mufti, a Nakib, Sipâh-kiayayerî, and Yenicherı-serdârî. 

Form and size of the Castle. 

It is a pentagon, and stands on a high hill, the height of the wall is forty royal 
cubits, it has no ditch, on account of its position ; there are three hundred old 
houses, but no market, khân, or bath ; two gates, one to the east, opening to- 
wards the gardens, and one to the west, by which you descend to the lower 
town, consisting of more than a thousand houses with terraces ; there are nineteen 
quarters of Moslims, and nine of Armenians ; no Jews nor gipsies, but a great 
number of Greeks, because it is not far from the seashore. A great number of 
its inhabitants are Turks and Turcomans. Mohammed II. transplanted hither a 
colony of three thousand men of the inhabitants of Tire, whose descendants are 
very orderly, good men. Its mosques are pleasant, the most frequented of them is 
that of the conqueror, in the Castle ; in the market that of Zâhid Efendi, a 



E V L I Y A E F E N D I. 1 89 

mosque covered with a terrace in the olden style ; its minareh is a slender build- 
ing of bricks ; at its left are the Court of Justice, the Imperial dyeing-house and 
the Flour-hall, Near to the women's bath is the mosque of Kâzizâdeh Mohammed 
Chelebi, an old but sweet mosque ; near the river Jorugh, is the mosque of 
Shengel-baî ; the part of the town beyond the river Jorugh is called Yoris 
Mahallessi ; there is a dining establishment and college, with three baths, the first 
is the bath at the bridge ; the second, that of Alî Shengâh ; the third, the red 
bath ; the temperature of these baths is most excellent : there are three convents 
of Dervishes, and a great khân close to the mosque of Kâzizâdeh ; before this kh;in 
there is a market every Sunday attended by from five hundred to a thousand 
persons; three hundred shops, an elegant Bezestan, and some coffee-houses. 
Of its provisions, fresh butter, white pies, and a kind of wheat called camel's 
teeth are much renowned ; so are also the carpets and felts of Baibiird, light, 
well-coloured, fanciful carpets, which are exported into all countries. The air 
being rather cold, it is not very favourable to flowers and fruits, but it is amply 
provided with fruit from the neighbouring places. There are some pretty faces, 
and seventy schools for boys, who are quick and clever ; the old men hve to the age 
of a hundred and fifty, who losing their teeth pronounce with difficulty the letter 
S, but the women are very eloquent. Erzerum is two journeys direct north from 
hence. A man may go from here to Erzerum, by footpaths, in two days, and on 
horseback in four days. 

Description of the River Jorugh. 

It rises in the mountains of Erzerum, supplies water to a great number of fields, 
and flows straight to the lower town of Baibiird ; the two banks are adorned 
with many elegant palaces and koshks and gardens, where the inhabitants delight 
to fish ; its name is corrupted from Jûîrûh (river of spirit) a name it well deserves 
by its most excellent qualities. The inhabitants of the town cut their wood on 
the mountain, and putting on it a private mark throw it into the river, which 
it floats down until it is stopped in the middle of the town by a great rake, 
where each person comes to fetch out his wood. This river comes to Baiburd 
from the east, washes the rocks of the castle, passes through many well-cultivated 
villages, and flows at the bottom of the Castle of Conia, a large river, into the 
Black Sea. Some hundred boats of the Lazes, which are called Sarpiina and 
Mengesila, navigate this river to Georgia and Mingrelia, and exchange their mer- 
chandize for slaves. 

Pilgrimages. 

The mountan facing the mosque in the quarter on the opposite bank of the 
Jorugh, is called the parrot's mountain, it is the burying-place of Abd-ul wahhab 



190 THETRAVELSOF 

A'aıî, and is a general walk. This high mountain commands the town, but cannon 
shot cannot reach it from hence, the distance being too great, and the river Jorûgh 
flowing between. The hill which rises in the town, opposite the mosque, is 
ascended in half an hour. The Pilgrimage of Osman Ghdzî, who is here buried 
underneath a cupola of bricks. The Pilgrimage of Jâghir Kânlidedeh has the 
greatest credit with the inhabitantsof this town, as he isa recent Saint ; people yet 
alive having witnessed his miracles. Near this place, an able architect built 
a bridge of fir-tree across the river Jorugh, in the shape of a swallow's wing, to 
which the fir bridge over the Duina at Fuja Shehri in Herzgovina can alone 
be compared ; but this bridge of Baiburd having only a single arch, is higher 
and finer than that of Fuja. In the cemetery to the Kiblah of the town, are 
buried many thousand great men, but I have mentioned only those I visited. After 
taking a good view of the town, and having collected the number of troops fixed 
by the firman, I received from the Sûbashî a present of three hundred piastres, 
and continued my journey accompanied by fifty armed men. 

Description of the Castle of Tortum. 
It was built by the old King of Georgia Mamerul, was conquered by Uziin 
Hassan, and by Mohammed II., and then fell again into the hands of the 
Georgians. Selfm I. first retook it when Governor of Trebisonde, and Sultân 
Suleiman lost it again. He despatched his second Vezir Ahmed Pasha to recon- 
quer it, who took it after a siege of seven days and an assault of seven hours, 
cutting all the Infidels to pieces ; and providing it with stores and men. He then 
advanced further into Georgia, and the two castles of Nejakh and Mirakhor sur- 
rendered. Trom hence he proceeded to Akchekala'a, which being a stronghold was 
not taken till the seventh day. The Begs of the castles of Penkerd, Asherd, and the 
little Akchekala'a paid obeisance. The district of Bevâna with three hundred vil- 
lages did the same, and the inhabitants remain Ottoman subjects even to the pre- 
sent time. The castles Isper and Pertekrek yielded to ihe Ottoman power ; so did 
also the district of Dadânlı with seventy-six villages, and fifteen castles, large and 
small ; the castles of Tekkhiss and the valley of Bersâssa were conquered, and 
Tortum was put down in the register as the seat of a sanjak Beg belonging to 
Erzeriim ; it furnishes sixty thousand men, and the Pasha's revenues amount 
annually to twelve thousand piastres in a fair way : Its judge is appointed with a 
hundred and fifty aspers, and there are nine well cultivated districts, the principal 
of which are those of Bervâna, Dadânlî and Isper, their annual revenue amounts 
to three thousand piastres. 



evliya efendi. ]gı 

Size and Shape of the Castle. 

It is built in a square form, on a high rock ; an iron gate opens to the east ; in 
the castle is a mosque of Sultan Suleiman's time, and in the lower town is seven 
hundred houses and seven mosques, two baths, two khans, twelve schools and 
seventy shops, but no stone bezestân, imaret or medresseh. The pears, grapes 
and peaches are much praised ; as it is only two journeys from Erzerum, the mer- 
chants send chests full of fruit to that place ; the inhabitants are righteous, hospita- 
ble men ; the river which flows through it goes into the Black Sea ; in the town 
of Tortum saltpetre is produced for Government. While I was collecting troops 
here, and visiting the town, news arrived to Ghâzî Sîdi Ahmed, the Pasha of the 
place, that the Cossacks had assailed the castle of Gonia ; he instantly put on his 
armour, mounted on horseback, summoned all the Zaims and Timariots who 
wished to volunteer in this expedition, assembled about a thousand men, and 
started with his troop under the triple shout of Allah. We marched a whole day 
and night, reinforcing our number on the road, and halted next morning in a val- 
ley. We continued our course to the north for the whole of the second day, 
passed on to the frontier of Trebisonde and entered that of Gonia : here we met 
the Mingrelian troops, which came to join the Pâshâ, and were honourably 
received, they consisted of three hundred well armed horsemen with lances, and 
about a thousand riflemen with flying hair, between forty and fifty years of age, 
with strange figures and ugly faces, whom the Pâshâ flattered with good words- 
This night we passed along the river Jorugh, and arrived next morning at the 
castle of Gonia on the Black Sea, which we saw filled with Infidel Cossacks, who 
at the moment they saw us roared out, Jasus ! Jasus ! (Jesus) ; seventy Chaikas 
were moored behind the castle. The Pâshâ with a hundred and fifty Aghas, and 
all the troops which had joined him on the way, with loud cries of Allah, attacked 
the ships lying in the river, cut the cables, and let the boats float out into the Black 
Sea, cutting down or making prisoners, those who were left to guard the boats, 
and towing the Chaikas intg a bay at a gunshot's distance from the castle ; the 
Infidels, seeing they could not escape in their boats, acted like swine that are laid 
hold of, and began to fire. The Moslim troops on their side prepared every 
thing for an assault ; and made ladders of the masts and rigging of the captured 
ships. The Mingrelian and Georgian troops entered the trenches in broad day- 
light, the walls were fired upon, and the assault was made from all sides. The 
Pâshâ led the assault himself with such courage and spirit, that the Infidels 
had not time to recollect themselves, but fled to some ships, which were left 
on the Jorugh. Some of these boats being overloaded went to the bottom, 
those who by swimming reached the opposite shore were received by the muskets 



132 THE TRAVELS OF 

of dheMo^BBsandwena to Hel: seicnleeii of tiie ships on the J(xûgfa were 
hmmia, sod two fignodred InfiMs, wbo cooM not re-ester the castle, were taken 
peisiiEiieis ; sef^oity Mo^ms fell mMl»ti» in this trij^ asault. Tbe Pâshâ now 

{leessed tiie snirxl of tike troops from Ûne dasintt o£ Sanjâk Baiam. FîzkaDy there 
amred s: ' : Lizes sxmed witii Isoces, casques, motets» aad s o o wfe^ 

tibeir — '~ ^ rib, with wtnte basoos wztİdş; tfaej joioed the Pâ^â, 

hsl-^' - r river. The Fâ^tâ k& tiian oot a mcnöent s rest, bot 

er - ---^g sfng - thetn in the Cnrrssâaıı laz^oase. Thus a crowd 

is brfore tbe castle, on which 
tne s' - i were i - - .ntains re-echoed the 

: tw^s, and began to 
■ '■ - 2:îed up befiire 

; :- the Urwer 

ax chr - - *- FrtKn 

eartf ^ of 

- : r Eviira, had the 

__: ^__ L _- ;. :_i ir r_:;-5eTeii 

— CT-o. ^^^w^ back t: - . - - ît with all provisi'^îîs aiî-d ma- 

, ee days and three nights, daring w. . :.e 

lonqoest. At tJi rUt 



-f KiT^"?. "■^?d b^'orr- Çr''vj:2. îfter a flvin^ march fironi Erzerdnu and 

'^T sDonBaned by tbe 

_ _ ; tüıTûT Ol SİûT uCıâls Cıi \ ^J. . . "XSKSOkkA tZIB 

--:::--—- --e casüe was 

i .: _^ .^._ -_; _;: . -_ :;_.-_:ped ak«ç 

-yt~. Tbe^ ^e ^ed by S: iî Ghizf Pâshâ, who captnred 

ibrcT-sere t i Mingreli: s. and drowned aba«â 

sı: r rİTer. This e: :: was thus crowned with three Tİctories : 

1. Töe et«iıC|LMcât î; 2, iii^x of tbe castie; 3. the ctHxpest of the 

"" . " - r Gossans with pro- 

._^-_^. ~ _- arruHigst the Moslim 

mtûîs, &: \ , . ?• The inght was again 



evliya efendi. 193 

passed with illuminations and feasting ; the shouts of Allah, and the sounds of the 
Ottoman drum interrupting the silence of the night. The next day clouds of dust 
rising on the side of the Jonigh announced the arrival of a new army, whose gUt- 
tering armour dazzled the eyes ; it was that of Koja Sefer Pasha, the Vezfr of Chal- 
dir, who summoned by the command of our Lord the Pasha of Erzerum, arrived 
with the Georgian army in gi-eat speed to the assistance of the Castle of Gonia ; 
Sîdî Ahmed Pasha went mth the other Pashas to meet them, and it was a 
grand sight to see these troops on fine horses, well armed with spears, swords, 
shields, and muskets, with flying hair and strange figures. \Mien Sefer Pâshâ 
himself came with the train of his guards (Mataraji, Tufenkji, and Shatir), he 
received Sîdî Pasha's salute, and then rode on his right. Baki Pâshâ keepmg on the 
left. When they approached the castle a general salute of guns and musketry gave 
them welcome. Provisions now arrived in abundance at the Imperial camp from 
Georgia, ^lingreha, Lâz, and Batüın. Xext day fresh troops appeared to the 
south of Gonia, it was the Pâshâ of Trebisonde, who came with three thousand 
good troops ; in seventy boats (sandal) and a hundred ships of the Lazes, called 
Mengesila, he carried plenty of provisions, and ten guns. SîJî Ahmed Pâshâ 
being acquainted with his arrival neither went himself to meet him, nor sent anv 
troops to perform that ceremony. He halted with his troops on one side of the 
castle. Having waited on Sîdî Ahmed Pâshâ he received him without the least 
honour, but with the following speech. 

" I am the Pâshâ of Tortum, which is from tour to five journeys distant fi-om 
Gonia, and it was not my duty to hasten to its assistance ; but I did it for the sake 
of the faith and the Empire. You, Pâshâ, who are the Governor of Trebisonde. 
and Begler-beg of two tails, and at only two journies from Gonia, why did vou 
not arrive till within these seven days to its assistance. Quick, executioner !" 

The Pâshâs of Passın, Akhiska and Kaighi interfered, saying, that it was against 
constitutional law, that he being only a Pâshâ of one tail, should kill one of two. 
He replied, "By God ! if it is righteous, according to religious duties, I'll cut off 
his head, even if he be a Pâshâ of seven tails ; in consideration, however, of vour 
intercession, I won't kill him, but relate the business to the Emperor ; call quicklv 
for the Divân Efendî (Secretary)." "While the dispatch was being drawn up, 
orders were given to put seventy of the principal oflicers of the troops of Trebi- 
sonde into prison, and they were accordingly shut up in the castle, for not hanng 
urged the Pâshâ to hasten to the deliverance of Gonia. The Divân Efendî made 
out the account of the conquest of Gonia, and the accusation against the Pâshâ 
of Trebisonde ; it was signed and sealed by the three Begler-Begs, by the Judges 
of Gonia and Trebisonde, and was ready to be sent off, when the inhabitants of 

VOL. II. c c 



194 



THE TRAVELS OF 



Trebisonde threw themselves at the feet of Sîdî Ahmed Pâshd, supplicating not to 
be accused to the Porte. Sîdî Pâshâ persisting in his resolution, showed all the 
obstinacy of a Circassian. The principal men of Trebisonde however, solicited the 
Pashas to intercede with the Commander-in-chief Sîdî Ahmed ; and it was ultimately 
arranged, after three days negotiation, that the Pâshâ and principal men of Trebi- 
sonde should give forty-three purses of money, three sable pelisses, twelve beautiful 
boys, twelve girls with eyes like Narcissuses, and of sweet language, a silken tent 
richly embroidered with gold, a sword set with jewels, a mare, seven quivers, vases 
of silver, the work of goldsmiths of Trebisonde, bridles, hatchets, candlesticks of 
silver, three strings of camels, three of mules, and a hundred and twenty horses. 
By these gifts they obtained the favour of not being named in the report to the 
Emperor ; to whom only were mentioned the Begler Begs, Alai and Sanjak Begs, 
who had hastened to the deliverance of Gonia, and this report was sent by Gurji 
Beg Zadeh to Constantinople. Another Kapijî Bâshî was despatched with the 
same news to the governor of Erzerum, but at the moment he was setting out, 
clouds of dust announced the arrival of fresh troops on the banks of the Jorugh ; 
these were the troops of Erzerum sent to the succour of Gonia, under the com- 
mand of Hassan Atlî Aghâ. The Zaims, Timariots and Jebellis of Erzerum with 
half the garrison, and the guards of the Pdsha, forty banners of Segbân and 
Sârîja (irregular levies of the Pâshâ), led by their colonels (Boluk Bâ^hî). They 
were followed by a squadron of Deli, by another of Gonullî (Volunteers), six 
squadrons of Tatar horsemen, a squadron of six hundred Moteferrika, a squadron 
of two hundred Châshnegîrs (carvers), a squadron of two hundred Serraj (saddle- 
men), squadron of two hundred Kîlarjî (men of the cellar), and lastly a squadron 
of two hundred Ichaga (indoor servants), led by the Key-keeper (Miftah 
«Thûlâm agassî). They were also followed by forty chamberlains, each one 
surrounded by from forty to fifty men clad in armour, on horses of the finest 
breed, caparisoned with silver, and ornamented with sea-horses bristles ; they rode 
two and two, and immediately after them came Hassan Atlî Aghâ himself, with 
trumpets sounding, and took up his encampment on the border of the fortress. All 
these chamberlains were men, who had seen service in the quality of Kiayas 
(substitutes), Kaima Kâms (Lieutenants), MotesseUims (Vice-governors) and 
Administrators of provinces. Sfdi Ahmed Pâshâ gave them a great repast, and 
next day assembled all the architects of the country to repair the castle of Gonia. 
The Turkish music played from seven sides, seventy tables were spread, and day 
and night was spent in festivities. The side of the castle that was damaged by 
the fire, and the mosque of Bayazîd H. was first put in repair. Seven hundred 
men forming a new garrison, with a new Beg, as Commander, were put into it 



evliya efendi. 195 

with sufficient stores, and all the arms taken from the enemy. Thus the castle of 
Gonia shone forth in greater splendor than before. God be praised that I, poor 
Evliya, was so fortunate as to proclaim the first prayer on its newly conquered 
walls ! 

The troops of the sanjaks of Trebisonde and Bâtûm were left for the safety of 
the castle of Gonia, and the whole army of sixty thousand men, then began to 
march along the banks of the river Jorugh towards Erzerum. The army having 
halted on the bank of the river Joriigh on a large meadow surrounded with trees, a 
council was held, and Sfdf Ahmed Pâshâ said : — " The Minsfrelians, thouch 
belonging to the Province of Trebisonde have rebelled, and I have related to the 
Emperor, that we took their boats ; which, together with those of the Rus- 
sians, may now wait in the port of Gonia for the Emperor's decision. I have also 
acquainted His Majesty that so many thousand Cossacks and Mingrelians have 
fallen to the share of the Ottoman victors, as prisoners, and I now intend to 
take vengance on the Mingrelian infidels with this army, ready for expedition, that 
it may gain some booty as compensation for its journey." The governor of 
Georgia, Sefer Pâshâ, who was very angry at the Mingrelians, proposed that all 
the horsemen should join the foot and undertake an inroad for booty, the Moslims 
of Akhiska and Georgia leading the way, who were then also to share the spoil. 
The Council broke up with this resolution, for the happy execution of which 
I said a Fâtihah. The cryers gave notice, that all Moslims who wished for 
breeches and horses, for boys and girls, for money and booty, should be ready in 
arms. This notice produced an astonishing effect, the Moslim victors roared like 
lions, armed and washed themselves, and waited for the orders of the Commander, 

Account of our Inroad into Mingrelia. 

Ketgâj Pâshâ led the van of three hundred men, towards the Kiblah, followed 
by three thousand men of Georgia and Akhaska, and by Sidi Ahmed Pâshâ, at the 
head of nine thousand men. Bakî Pâshâ commanded the rear of three hundred 
men ; the troops of Erzerum and Kara Hissâr formed the two wings ; the sanjak 
Begs of Khinissin, Tekman and Melazjerd were deputed to provide the forage. 
We marched this day ten hours to Zârchairî, a pleasant position between Min- 
grelia, and the sanjak of Batiim. The next day we passed the Jorugh, and Sefer 
Pâshâ began to pillage the district of Darına ; the twenty-two companies of Sârija 
(irregular levies) of the Pâshâ, our gracious Lord, two thousand two hundred brave 
men, pursued the fugitives in the mountains, made seven hundred prisoners, and 
lost seven men as martyrs. The troops proceeded till they arrived under the walls 
of castle of Merava, which was taken by assault, with the loss of seventy Moslims, 



196 THE TRAVELS OF 

who drank the sherbet of martyrdom ; seven hundred men, five hundred women, 
two hundred girls, and six hundred boys, were made prisoners. The pillage was 
pushed as far as the districts of Georgia, and we arrived at the end of nine hours, 
at the field of Boghdii ; here a Soffa (or meadow seat) is shown, where Sultân 
Selim I. was seated when Governor of Trebisonde. Two spies sent by the Prince 
of Mingrelia, were taken prisoners, and they showed the way (the necessary pre 
cautions being taken) to the district of Tamaras Khân, whose son with a thousand 
horsemen and two thousand infantry, met the Commander-in-chief, and led the 
Ottoman party of pillage further against the Mingrelians, with whom he was 
angry. 

The pillaged districts were those of Pernak, Selsel, Perkân, Penâk, Cümle, and 
Samârgha ; we halted before the castle of Akhâr, a small round castle on a hill, 
built by Hormuz the son of Nushirvan ; the inhabitants are not very brave, but 
great thieves ; two hundred and fifty castles and villages were pillaged, and nine 
thousand prisoners taken. Ketgdj Pasha, the leader of the van, alone took two 
thousand beautiful girls, whom the commander-in-chief bought for a thousand 
piastres, and sent them to Sultân Ibrahîm with twenty other fine maidens ; they 
were so beautiful that the text of the Koran, " We have created man in the 
finest sliape," seems to have been revealed only for their praise. The booty was 
so rich, that a slave was sold for ten piastres, an ox for half a piastre, and a sheep 
for five aspers. The Beg of Bâshajik sent to the Commander-in-chief a present of 
five boys and five girls, and also gave me a boy and girl. We arrived after eleven 
hours predatory march at a plain, in the middle of which was a building raised 
by the Beg of Mingrelia, it was ruined by Uziin Hassan, and is now contiguous 
to Batiim on the frontier of Mingrelia. We passed the Castles, Nejâkh, Merkhor, 
Akchekala'a, Chepek, Penkerd, Asherd, Kûchük Akchekala'a, the Begs of 
which all came with presents, paying obeisance to Sidf Ahmed Pâshâ. These 
castles being situated on high mountains, and in woody tracts, were passed by 
indulgently, but the villages situated in the plain were all ravaged ; the district of 
Yuvana, overrun for the space of seven days, furnished such beautiful boys and 
girls, that each of them was worth a treasure of Egypt. We halted underneath 
the castle of Tekrek, the inhabitants of which came with presents, to ward ofT 
the danger of the pillage, they were threatened with ; six districts more, the names 
of which I am ignorant of, shared the common fate of havock. . The Ottoman 
victors were now so loaded with spoils and booty, that it became impossible to 
carry it all away. Many of them returned bringing their booty to the Castle of 
Gonia, and from thence to Trebisonde. 



evliya efendi. 197 

Of tlıe Language of the Mingreliaııs. 

Georgia is inhabited by seventeen christian tribes, the principal of which are, 
the Achikbash, Dadiân, Shüshâd, and Güriel. The Mingrelians are the last and 
most despised specimen of their language: Qr\e, artı; two, xheri ; three, s fiunii; 
four, dmekh ; five, khoti; six, pishhU ; seven, ishküi; eight, rvo ; nine, jit g/ıûr : 
ten, weit. Bread, gûpdl ; fire, ddjkhir ; shield, pi'ir ; sheej), ashkhori ; girdle, 
derkdt; head, dudl; wood, deshke; dog, jogkûr ; ox, klıijâ; calf, k issin ; salt, 
ajim; swine, ghdj ; ass, kirût ; hear, nut; cheese, MZ; curds, ?ner/m« ; come, 
wai ; man, chai ; sit down, dakhûr ; girl, tine ; go, halawli ; come mother, wai 
dids, &c. 

Mingreha is inhabited by a great number of different tribes, who speak different 
dialects ; there are seventy different products ; its sheep, goats, swine and fine 
breed of horses (Kohailan) are renowned ; there are neither mules nor asses in the 
whole of Georgia and Mingrelia, but a great number of foxes, wild cats, and martens ; 
corn and wheat are scarce as hardly any thing but millet and Lazud (?) is 
sown ; on the high mountains are many nut and fir-trees, box-trees and cedars. 
The inhabitants, like those of Mingrelia, Abaza, and Circassia, are settled in the 
mountains ; they have castles with gardens and churches. In short, during seventy- 
seven days, we made the tour of Mingrelia and Georgia, after which time the 
Ottoman troops took the direction of Erzerum ; on the third day we came to 
the district of Darâtlî, which is contiguous to the sanjak of Tortum. Perfect secu- 
rity being restored, the troops were licensed to break up by the Vezir of Akhiska, 
Sîdî Ahmed Pâshâ, and we then went with the Georgian Begs towards Chaldir. 
After fourteen hours we reached the valley of Yuvana, where the inhabitants of 
Isper and Tortum met us with presents. At the public entrance into Tortum, the 
Cossack and Mingi-elian prisoners were dragged along in chains ; the inhabitants of 
Tortum all assembled to form the istikbâl (solemn meeting. See Morier's travels). 
Srdi Pasha himself wore the plumes of honour (Jîghateiî) which the Governor of 
Erzerum had sent to him, put on his well caparisoned state horse, trappings of six 
pieces of steel of Nakshivan, wrapped round his head a red sash in the Moham- 
medan fashion, clad himself in blue steel with armour on his thighs, and, looking 
of stupendous size, like a seven-headed dragon he passed through the crowd who 
received his salute crying, " Aleik awnallah ei ghâzî seifollah !" " God's assistance 
be upon thee, O victor, sword of God !" The guns of the castle of Tortum saluted 
and the mountains re-echoed the thundering noise. Sîdî Pâshâ repaired to his 
palace, and Ketgâj Pasha, Bakî Pâshâ and eight Sanjak Begs encamped before 
the town for three days, and on the fourth the whole of the troops moved towards 
Erzerum, the territory of which we reached on Kassim (St. Demetrius' day) and 



198 THE TRAVELS OF 

passed the straight of Ghâzî-boghîîzî. The governor expecting the troops, was in 
his tent at Gumishlî Kunbed (silver vault) where Si'di Ahmed, Ketgâj, and Bakî 
Pasha were received with the greatest distinction, treated with a splendid repast 
and invested with pelisses of honour. Here the Pasha and Sanjak Begs laid with 
great pomp their presents before the governor. The season being now too far ad- 
vanced to think of the expedition against Erivan, we remained in this place spend- 
ing our days in pleasure. The Governor, my gracious Lord, being a little angry 
with me on account of my having accompanied the expedition without leave, Sidi 
Ahmed Pasha interceded in my favour, saying, " If it is a fault that I took Evliya 
with me to the siege of Gonia, it is he that proclaimed first the Mohammedan 
prayer on its walls; he is a traveller of the world, a good companion of mankind, 
a Hafiz (who knows the Koran by heart) and a warrior in the ways of God." 
Having asked pardon for me in this gentle manner, the Pâshâ said, " His duty 
was to collect troops and not to assist at the siege of Gonia, I will not pardon 
this fault unless he finishes in eight hours the recital of the Koran (Khatem 
sherif)." I began with the Bismillah and finished in somewhat more than nine 
hours, after which I kissed the earth before my gracious Lord, and received from 
him a sable pelisse, a thorough bred horse, two fine boys, and a sinecure ; so that 
I now spent all my time both day and night in pleasure. 

Moral Reflections. 
The end of all joy is disappointment, and the end of every day is bitter. There 
is no doubt about this. So at the end of this 1075th year we received the news 
by a swift messenger despatched from Constantinople, that Sultân Ibrahim had 
killed without reason the Grand Vezir Saleh Pasha, and had appointed in his 
place Tezkereji Ahmed Pasha. Though this news greatly afflicted the Pâshâ yet 
he kept it secret not to spoil the pleasure of the company, and transacted the rest 
of his business at Erzerum. Saleh Pâshâ, who had been one of the favorite slaves 
of the father of our Governor, had for this reason given him the government of 
Erzerum ; but the present Grand Vezi'r, ever since he had been the Tezkerejf of 
Kara Mustafa Pâshâ, had become his mortal enemy. He kept however this 
secret to himself and continued to feast in his tent with his guests, Sidi, Ketgâj, 
Bakî and Dilaver Pâshâ. 

{Here follows the separate history of these four Pdslids and of the Governor, 
which we omit. In the chapter of Sidi Pdshd it is mentioned that playing at 
jerid one day with Evliyd lie broke four of his teeth.) 



evli YA efendi. 199 

Account of our return from Erzerûm to Constantinople in the 
month ofZUkadeh 1057 (1647). 

We left the town by the gate of Erzenjan and halted first in the plain called 
the circles of Bazar-bashi, where farewell presents were lavished on us by all the 
Aghfis and principal men of Erzerûm, who both by day and niglit formed their court 
around the tent of the Pasha. The Kiaya of Saleh Pasha, the governor of 
Baghdad, accompanied by an hundred and fifty Aghâs, an hundred and seventy 
Kapijî-bashî, seven hundred men, Sârija, and three hundred Segban, arrived here 
with the news of Saleh Pasha having been killed. The next day a messenger 
came from Constantinople with a Khattf-sherif conferring on governor -Mohammed 
Pasha, our gracious Lord, the Governorship of Karss with the obligation to take 
the field against the Persians by defending the frontier. The Governor, our 
gracious Lord, said, " Be it now as it may," and without paying attention to the 
Khatti-sherif continued his way to Constantinople. The first station, three hours 
to the vvest of Erzerûm, was the village of Kân, an Armenian village in the 
midst of the plain. Five hours further westward, the village Ilija, possessing a hot 
spring, covered with high cupolas by the munificence of the Princes o£the dynasty 
of Akche-koynnli. The basin is not paved with stones, but only strewed with 
white sand. The water is of a moderate heat and smells like that of other hot 
springs, but is more conducive to health than the warm spring of Zia-ud-din. 
From hence we advanced five hours to the westward to the village of Khinnis, an 
Armenian village of two hundred houses, and in five hours more came to the 
village of Mamakhatun, a mussulman village of two hundred houses. This Lady 
was a pious Lady of the Akche-Koyûnlf family, and lies buried here with her 
children beneath a high cupola ; there is a mosque, an imaret, and a college. 
Advancing for five hours over valleys and hills we reached tlie village of Ketur on 
the territory of Erzerûm, where the Euphrates is crossed by a bridge of fir-tree. 
The Pasha halted here for three days, and sent me on a mission to Mirakhor 
Aghâ, the inspector of the salt of Kumâkh. 

Our journey to the Castle of Kumdkh. 

The Castle of Kumâkh was built by the Greek Emperors and then came into 
the hands of the Akche-koyûnlî. When in the possession of Uzun Hassan, the 
king of Azerbeijan, it was besieged by Timur for seven months, during which the 
besieged disdained to fire a single shot or throw a single stone on the besiegers. 
After the defeat of Uzun Hassan it was also besieged by Mohammed HL, dur- 
ing three months without success. Selim I. when governor of Trebisonde, availed 
himself of a good opportunity and conquered it. He then crossed from Trebi- 



200 THE TRAVELS OF 

sonde with three liundred ships to Caffa and Crimea on the opposite shore with 
the intention of wresting the sovereign power from the hands of his father, Bâya- 
zîd II. assisted by the Tatars of the Crimea. The Father and Son met near 
Hâjî Oghlî-bazarı in the valley of Oghrash, and Selim being defeated left his son 
Suleiman, Governor of Trebisonde, and went himself into Persia, where he visited 
the tombs of great Saints like imân Mûssa and played at chess with the Shah, who 
at this time had taken possession of Kumâkh. Selim then defeated his father at 
Chorli, who exiled to Demitoca died at Hâssa. Selim I received at Yenî-bâghje 
the obeisance of the inhabitants of Constantinople, and instantly fixed the tails at 
Scutari as the signal of a Persian expedition. The castle of Kumâkh was con- 
quered by Bikli Mohammed Pâshâ. It is one of the strongest fortresses of the 
Ottoman Empire, like those of Diârbekr, Mârdîn, Van, Sın Kara-hissâr, Afiûn 
Kara-hissâr, Megu, Eremnâk, Merkâb, Hassan, Karak in Asia, and in Rûm 
Mengesha, Napoli, Misistra, Rodos, &c. it is loftier than all these and is invisible 
till noon, from clouds which pour frequent showers upon it. At the time of the 
description of the country by Sultân Suleiman it was set down as the seat of a 
Voivode, subordinate to Erzerum. Three districts belong to it ; that of the town, 
ofGerjanis, and of Kûrûchaî, from which the Judge gathers an annual revenue 
of three thousand piastres. The Castle has a Dizdar and a garrison of five hun- 
dred men, an officer of the Janissaries (Serdâr), of the Sipahîs (Kiayayeri), and a 
Nakib ; another officer rules the village of Gomur on the other side of the 
Euphrates, which consists of seven hundred houses : this officer is the Inspector 
of the salt, which is sweeter than the salt of Hajî-begtâsh. 

The inhabitants of Türkistan and Turcomania get all their salt from Kumâkh. 
A linen which is no where else to be found in such perfection, is made here for 
tents. There is a proverb in praise of the linen of Kumâkh, the sheep of Erzenjân 
and the girls of Baiburd. The river Komur, which passes through the gardens 
of the village that bears its name, comes from the mountains of Jerjânish and joins 
the Euphrates near the convent of Melek Ghâzî Effendî. Near, and opposite to 
it, is Mobarek, an armenian village, the khass of the garrison of Erzenim. The 
water, which distils in the caverns of the mountain freezes in the summer time 
and in the winter is as warm as a hot spring. Tlie inhabitants keep in these 
caverns their cheese called Katik-peiniri. In coming hither from Erzerum you 
cross the Euphrates over a large single arched bridge, ascend a height of five hun- 
dred paces and pass along the rocky tract called Keban. There towering rocks 
are on the right, as you ascend the castle and on the left are deep precipices. 
The small river Ain Manzar here flows into the Euphrates. This river issues from 
Mount Manzar, unites with the Sâterdereh, a torrent which supplies water to the 



EVLIYAEFENDI, 201 

gardens of the town and joins the Euphrates below the rocks of Kepân. The 
water is clear and fresh. Near it is a rock called All's rock, where people 
believe they are cured of pains in the limbs, because Alî is said to have rested 
here his weary limbs ; it is a stone like a magnet, and the inhabitants call 
it Kullikia ; above is the suburb of the Infidels. The houses, with and without 
gardens, are all covered with earth. The subjects are all Armenians ; there are 
three hundred shops, but no bezestan of stone, two khans, two baths, and a great 
mosque : the bath near it is called Chorbdjî-hamâm. The suburb has no fortifica- 
tion (Robat) round it, but above it is a great castle. 

Description of the Castle of Kumdkh. 

This castle is a pentagon of stone situate on a chalk cliff; it may be compared 
to the castle of Sin-hissar on the frontiers of Erzerûm. On the opposite side 
of the Euphrates is a height by which it is commanded, but the distance is too 
great to make it of consequence. It has three strong gates one behind the other ; 
on the right and left of the first gate are two brass guns, well worthy to be seen, 
of such dimensions that a cobler might very well work in them without complain- 
ing of the narrowness of the place. They are of the time of Sultân Suleiman -, 
their length twenty-seven spans and their balls of three quintals weight. The 
greatest wonder is how they succeeded in bringing such large guns to so high 
a place. At the innermost or third gate is suspended the mace of a Pehlivan, 
and a bow of Alî. The number of the houses great and small is six hundred, but 
they want gardens and water. Five magazines have been filled with rice and 
millet ever since the time of Sultân Selîm I., which seem as though they had 
been laid up but to-day. There are eleven mosques ; the Beg's is a large mosque 
with a minareh of stone ; though this castle is built on a rock, yet the houses are 
paved with flat stones. On the tower called the Martyrs towards the north are 
thirty-two large and small guns ; from the gate of the Martyrs, a water-way cut 
in the rock leads down to the foot of it, by which they fetch the water at the time 
of a siege. There are three cisterns here near one another, the first is full of 
good water, the second smells of saltpetre and the third is very salt. Though 
this town is a town of Türkistan, situated on the territory of Erzerüm, yet its 
inhabitants are goodnatured, sound people. The linen for tents, the white salt 
and the cheese called Katik-peinirî, which is better and sweeter than that of 
Mytilene and of Koreisha at Damascus, are famous all over Asia. The quails, 
which in summer come in great numbers, the inhabitants preserve in vinegar for 
the winter. 

Near the magazines are the pilgrimage of Kend Effendî and at the head of the 

VOL. II. D D 



202 THE TRAVELS OF 

bridge, that of Melek Ghazî. As this town is not situated on the great road, 
caravans do not pass here. The Euphrates on the east comes from the moun- 
tains of Riimli Sultân and flows round the rock towards the west to the Izûlî 
Kurds. From the Alps of a thousand lakes (Bingol) comes the Murad river, 
which joins the Euphrates. Whoever travels from Malatia, Kharput, Ekin, 
Pâlava, or Diârbekr can only cross it in a boat. I viewed this town for three 
whole days, collected what was due by the Voivode to the Pasha, and received 
from him an hundred piastres as a present of arrival (Küdûmie). I returned in 
five days to Kumakh and set out next day northward along the Euphrates to 
Shurim, which has two hundred houses ; ten hours further, to the station of 
Jebjeh-khânı ; then leaving the Euphrates to the right, to the village of Jemen, 
an Armenian village on the plain of Erzenjan ; from whence we arrived at 

Erzenjân. 

Description of the Castle of Erzenjdn. 

This castle belongs to Erzerum and not to Azerbeijân. There are four towns, 
which bear the name of Erzen, viz : Erzen in Mesopotamia (Jezire), Erzen 
Akhlat, Erzenriim commonly called Erzerum, and Erzenjan. It is a delightful 
spot, the possession of which occasioned many wars, till in the year 855 Sultân 
Bayazîd I. received it from its prince, Zâhir-ud-dîn, who, the very same day he 
heard of the conquest of Amasia, repaired to this town and delivered to Sultân 
Bayazid the keys. Bayazîd out of generosity returned the keys to Zahir-ud-dfn 
on condition that Khutbeh be performed, and the coinage struck in his name. 
Zâhir-ud-dîn died three years afterwards and the town was taken possession of by 
Kara Yûssüf, the Prince of the dynasty of Kara-koyûnlî, who held it for seven 
years, until Timiir overrun Asia. Kara Yûssüf fled from his residence and sought 
shelter at the throne of Sultân Bayazîd, together with Ahmed Jelair, the Com- 
mander of Baghdad. Timur required Bayazîd to deliver them up to him, but 
Bayazîd refused, and this refusal was the chief cause of the war between them. 
Kara Yûssüf and Jelair afterwards fled into Egypt to Sultân Berkûk. Erzenjan 
fell into the hands of Uzun Hassan, who being already Prince of Azerbeijân 
became also Prince of Erzenjan. His mint is still extant near the convent of the 
Mevlevîs. After the defeat and death of Bayazîd, the Empire was disputed 
by the Princes Issa, Mussa, Suleiman and Mohammed, the latter obtained it and 
became absolute Lord, but was unable to conquer Erzenjan, which remained in 
the hands of Uzun Hassan until the time of Mohammed H., who took possession 
of it after the defeat of Uzun Hassan on the plain of Terjân. He repaired the 
castle of Sultân Zahir-ud-dfn and garrisoned it with Ottoman troops. In the reign 
of Bayazîd II., when Sultân Seh'm was governor of Trebisonde, Shah Ismail 



evliya efendi. 203 

took possession of Azerbeijan, which returned to its first Lord after the battle 
of Chaldirdn in the year 921 (1515) ; Erzenjân was then made a part of the 
revenues of the Pasha of Erzerûm. Its magistrates are a Sûbashi and a judge 
with one hundred and fifty aspers, who may collect annually six purses. The 
other officers are the Mufti, Nakîb, Serdâr, Kiayayerî, a Mohtessib (judge of the 
market) and a Shehr-naibi (inspector of the town.) 

The castle is situated in a delightful plain in the midst of woods, its gates 
and walls are very low and its fortifications very old. At the time of the rebellion 
of Abaza at Erzerûm, the ditch was cleared and the walls repaired, but Abaza 
Pasha became nevertheless master of it. It has an iron gate, and the communi- 
cation from the fortress to the suburb is by a bridge ; in the castle are three hun- 
dred houses with and without gardens, a mosque, a khân and a bath. 

The great suburb consists of eighteen hundred houses with and without gar- 
dens, all covered with neat terraces and but few of them having upper stories ; 
seventy-six mosques great and small without cupolas, and seven convents, the 
most renowned of which is that of the Mevlevis ; Chelebî EfFendî, the son of the 
great Mevlana Jelal-ud-din, is buried here. This convent built in the olden style 
is situated in the midst of a delightful Persian garden, the nightingales of which 
with their delicious songs feed the brains of the poor Dervishes, and intoxicate 
them with divine love, while they themselves are singing mystic hymns in the 
tunes of love. Round the music-room (Ima'a-khdneh) are the cells of the 
Dervishes, and the convent is endowed with a good kitchen and cellar (Kîlâr). 
They preserve here Jelâl-ud-dîn's habit, a Kordn, and a Mesnevi written by his own 
hand. The second convent is that of Châdirjî Sheikh Abd-iil-kadir Gîlâni. 
There are various excellent baths, eleven great khans, forty abecedarian schools, 
no houses for reading the Koran (Dar-ul-kirayet), tradition (Dar-ul-hadith) nor 
for dining the poor (Dâr-ul-ita'âm), but there are a great number of students 
(Talebe) ; and lectures are read in all the mosques. Amongst the inhabitants 
are found many clever, goodnatured, learned, pious, well-bred men, who w'ear 
short dresses, but no silk with the exception of the soldiers, who dress in cloth 
of various colours and also in silk. The youth of both sexes are pretty, and the 
ladies are chaste as Adiiyeh Rabia, and wear when walking boots and a pointed 
cap (Arakjin) ; they are prohibited from walking in the market-place, which con- 
tains six hundred houses. Precious articles are kept in a small bezestân. From 
hence to Erzerûm situated beyond the mountains is two journies. The climate 
of Erzerûm is rough and very cold, while that of Erzenjan on the contrary is 
mild, and favourable to roses and flowers. Snow falls sometimes, but remains no 
longer than three days. Its gardens are productive of the finest flowers and the 
sweetest fruits. 



204 THE TRAVELS OF 

Praise of the Eatables and Beverages. 

Seventy sorts of pears are produced here ; and though the season of winter 
was far advanced at the time of our stay here, yet we now saw seventeen various 
sorts of pears offered as presents to the Pasha, with raisins and apricots ; its 
mulberries both white and black are much renowned and when dried are exported 
to all countries. The sherbet of mulberries seasoned with different spices gives 
new life to the soul. Erzenim is provided with fruits from this town, from 
whence they are transported in two days. 

Pilgrimages. 

The convent of Khizr, a convent of Mevlevîs ; the convent of Sheikk Khaled 
Efendî ; and the tomb of Himmet Pâshd, one of the vezirs of Sultân Selim, who 
was killed on his way to Chaldiran. 

I remained here for three days to collect the sums due from the Inspectors of 
salt and the Sübâshî of Kürûchai. Whilst the inhabitants were giving feasts to 
the Pâshâ news arrived of the rebellion of Vârvâr Pâshâ, with a letter to the 
following intent : " My son ! Hezarpara Ahmed Pâslıâ the Vezir of Ibrahim 
has killed eleven Vezirs and deprived me of the Governorship of Sivas, because 
I did not send to the Sultân the wife of Ipshir Pâshâ, the daughter of the Prince 
of Georgia, the Lady Perikhan. Three Kapijî-bashî came with orders to take my 
head, but I happily escaped from them. I have now received letters from all the 
great and principal men at Constantinople, and from the officers of the seven 
military corps, summoning me to come with my troops to Scutarf, and to demand 
there the heads of the Vezir, of Jenji Khoja, Begtâsh Aghâ, Chelebî Kiaya, 
Mossleh-ud-dîn Aghâ and Kara Chaiish. I am now united with three Vezirs, 
seven Begler-begs and eleven Sanjak-begs ready to march against Constantinople. 
If thou wishest to save thy head from Ahmed Pâshâ (the grand Vezir), I invite 
thee to join us at Tokat, from whence we shall march our united forces to 
Constantinople to try our fortune." This letter having been received at 
Erzenjân a council was held, and the levies (levend) having determined to 
follow the auspices of the Pâshâ, the resolution was taken to join the party of the 
rebels, and a Fâtihah was said to that intention. Alaja Atlî Hassan Aghâ was sent 
on with a foraging party to be quarter-master general, and letters were sent to 
Vârvâr Pâshâ with the declaration upon oath to join him. I, poor Evliya, was 
quite perplexed and out of my wits, I had so many things and goods, which I 
knew not how to dispose of. We were in the midst of winter, and the tradition 
of the prophet, "a journey is a portion of hell, be it but a farsang's length," 
received its full application. I did not know where to leave my things in safety ; 



evliya efendi. 205 

and only with my horse and sword accompany the Pasha, my gracious Lord, 
as a rebel. 

We first moved from Erzenj^n to the north and halted after seven hours at 
Bâshkhdn ; five hours further, to the village Erzensî, an Armenian village, six 
hours further to the village of Sheikh Sinan, near which at Bârûgünde is the 
tomb of Behlul of Samarkand, a convent of bareheaded and barefooted Beg- 
tâshîs ; and three hours further we crossed the bridge of the Shepherds near 
Hassan Kala'assi. Shah Kürtidûmân of the Chobân family is buried in the same 
place with Behlul of Samarkand. It is said, that the tomb being opened. King 
Chobân Kûrüdûmân with all his family was burnt by a fire that issued out by 
talismanic virtue. He was a Prince of great enterprise, built the bridge of Tiflis 
and near Melazjerd the bridge with golden rings over the Araxes. Adjoining the 
bridge is a magnificent caravanserai, the windows of which look on the river, so 
that travellers lodging there have the pleasure of fishing out of their windows. 
I have sometimes passed this bridge on my way to and from Erivan. This 
time I visited the builder's tomb and said the Sura yass, for his soul. We left 
Bârûgûnide and came after a march of eight hours to the north to Ezendeler, a 
cultivated village in the district of Terjan, and after four hours more to the north 
to the station of Tapan Ahmed Aghâ, where a feast for ten days was ordained. 
Here I took leave of the Pasha and proceeded with the men of Ahmed Aghâ to 
Shin Kara Hissar. I first travelled towards the east through woods and deserts 
along the valley of Kara hissar, and villages belonging to it, and reached the town 
itself after a nine hours march. 

Description of the strong Castle of Shin or Shdbm Kara-hissdr. 

There are in the Ottoman Empire various castles, which bear the name of 
Kara-hissar, the most renowned of which is that before us. The others are 
Kara-hissar called Afiun (Apamea), Develi' Kora-hissâr, Adalia Kara-hissârî, and 
Van Kara-hissârî. The two first are superior to the others. Shâbîn Kara- 
hissar is so called because a mine of alum (Shab) was found in its mountains ; 
the stones of the castle being black, it is also called Shabîn from Shab (night, dark 
coloured). It was built by the Armenian kings, fell into the power of the Greek 
Princes of Trebisonde, and then into that of Zâhir-ud-dîn, the Prince of Erzenjân, 
who conquered it on a dark night, which is another reason given for its being called 
Shabîn. It passed into the power of Uzun Hassan, the Prince of Azerbeijan and 
was taken from him by Mohammed II. In the time of Sultân Selîm I. it was 
described as a sanjak belonging to the government of Erzerum. Its khass is thir- 
teen thousand aspers ; and there are thirty-six ziamets and nine hundred and forty 
timars, which furnish, together with the men belonging to the Beg, two thousand 



206 THE TRAVELS OF 

men. The revenue of the Pâshâ amounts annually to forty purses. It has some- 
times been given as a supplementary allowance (Arpalik) to Pashas of three 
tails. It was so given to Ghâzî Sefer Pâshâ, the vezir of Akhiska, in addition to 
Akhiska. His administrator (Motessellem) was Dei-vish Aghâ, a Georgian and 
powerful commander. He once sent me on service to the vallies of Mendvdl 
and Tûsdereh by which I gained a horse, a sword, two red mules, and a Georgian 
boy ; presented to me by himself. The judge is appointed with an hundred and 
fifty aspers and may annually make four thousand piastres from the different 
districts. There is a Mufti, a Nakîb, a Serdâr, Kiaya-yerî, Subashî, Mohtessib, 
a Dizdar and an hundred and fifty men invested with timars. 

The castle of Shabîn Kara-hissâr is of a heptagon form and stands on a high 
mountain, appearing like a man of war dismantled and dismasted. It is the work 
of an architect who was a second Ferhâd. It is one of the twelve fortresses in 
the Ottoman Empire, which, not being commanded by the neighbouring heights, 
seem to have been built by the hand of Omnipotence. The height of the walls 
on all the seven sides is seventy cubits, with seventy bulwarks and seven hundred 
battlements. The whole circumference is three thousand six hundred paces ; 
there is no ditch, it being surrounded by precipices. It has three strong gates 
where the garrison keep watch day and night, because the inhabitants of the 
villages along the shores of the Black sea send all their best goods into the 
castle to protect them from the inroads of the Cossacks ; there are seventy houses 
with terraces, but they suffer from want of water, which is obliged to be brought 
upon asses from the river below ; in case of siege they use the water kept in 
cisterns. The magazines are full of millet and rice, and have been for more than a 
century. As it is not a frontier fortress the artillery is neither heavy nor numerous. 
A small mosque bearing the name of Sultân Mohammed II., a khân, bath 
and market are in the lower town or suburb. This suburb, with gardens around 
it, consists of sixteen hundred terraced houses, the windows of which look 
towards the north ; the courtyards are spacious. There are forty-two mosques, 
none of which are covered with lead, hke those of the Sultans at Constantinople ; 
the one within the market place near the court of justice is much frequented : 
three convents, two baths, four khans, seven schools for boys and an hundred 
and fifty shops ; as this place does not lie on the great road, but on one side of 
it, its establishments are not very elegant. Tapan Ahmed Aghâ began a new 
bezestân with eighty shops on both sides of the main street ; it is sheltered by a 
roof against rain and foul weather, and protected by two gates on each side against 
thieves and bad men. Watchmen keep guard every night because many precious 
things are deposited there. 



evliya efendi. 207 

Description of a Lion. 

Upon the gate leading to the outer town a Hon, stuffed with cotton, is to be 
seen, it has oranges in the place of eyes, yawning like a seven-headed dragon, with 
a piece of red felt instead of a tongue, and teeth as sharp as Turcoman daggers or 
Arab lances. It measures from its nose to its tail forty-five spans. This moun- 
tain lion continued his havoc on the cattle of the neighbouring country for seven 
years, when it was killed by a brave man, and placed by the order of Ahmed Tapan 
upon the gate of his new built bezestân. It is a terrific beast, with feet resembling 
columns ; it is not so beautiful as the lions of Baghdad, Helle, Jevazer and 
Kavarna, with their yellow coloured hair of a span's length, like Angora-goats. 
Lions being generally the inhabitants of deserts, this one of the mountains 
deserves so much the more to be noticed. The mountains of this part, being 
all covered with thick forests, abound with leopards, lynxes, wild sheep, martens, 
wolves, foxes and jackals, and men are scarcely able to fetch wood from the moun- 
tains because they are so full of ferocious animals. A party of Cossacks, who had 
once pushed their inroads as far as these mountains, became the prey of wild 
beasts ; intending to devour men's goods they were themselves devoured, and ever 
since the town has enjoyed perfect security from the roving Cossacks, who availed 
themselves of the vicinity of the Black Sea. 

In this town I saw another marvellous thing, it was a boy standing before a 
barber's shop with his father who begged alms ; the boy was about eight or nine 
years of age with a stupendous head, like the heads of the people of A'ad and 
Themud, like the head of Salsfil (?) at Akgermân or like pumkins of Adana and 
cabbages of Van, on a neck no thicker than an arm, which not being capable of 
bearing such an enormous weight the head was supported by a wooden fork, 
which was fixed in the ground, and on it the weight of the head rested. 
This monstrous head, held up in this way before a barber's shop, laughed in the 
faces of all who passed by. It had no turban but a kind of coarse saddle-cloth 
wrapped round it, the brows were of two fingers breadth extending to the ears, 
which were of human form, but of immense size, as were also the eyes, the lashes 
of which resembled arrows ; the nose was somewhat of the shape of a Melonyena 
(Bâdinjân) of Morea, and when breathing, the nostrils were like those of a snorting 
horse ; the mouth opened to such an astonishing width, that he was able to swallow 
at once a small water melon ; of his teeth two were curved outside of the mouth 
towards the upper, and two downwards to the under lip ; the lips were ruby- 
coloured but like the lips of a camel ; the spittle was continually running out of 
his mouth. The physiognomy was that of a Kalmuk, and the hair crisped like that 
of black Arabs. The arms and breasts were those of a boy's of his years, the fingers 



208 THE TRAVELS OF 

very thin and the feet like sticks. This was a case to apply the verse of the 
Koran to : " God does what he wills and orders what he likes." I asked the 
father whether' the mother of this monstrous child was still alive, he said 
" Yes, and that she was actually again with child." I said, " Bandage her body 
tightly, that she may miscarry, for if the head of the child should grow to the 
size of its brother's, its entrance into tiie world might cause an inconvenient 
enlargement." The father said, " You are joking, but I assure you most earnestly, 
that when the mother of this boy laid in with him, the birth was so easy that 
she was aware of nothing at all and thanked God for such an easy deliverance." 
I, poor Evliyd, said, " But never has there been created a creature with such a 
head, such a face and such teeth ; do you believe it to be the real produce of 
your loins?" The man answered," Having once gone to the mountain with my 
wife to cut wood, we there enjoyed a shepherd's hour in most pleasant conversa- 
tion. I then left her reposing under a tree, and went on my business, when 
I suddenly heard her cries, and saw her running towards me pursued by a naked 
giant, tall as the fir-trees. When she got home she fell sick, and her figure in- 
creased in size daily, until at the end of a year's time she was delivered of this boy, 
whose head grows bigger and bigger every day." I said, " If it please God, that it 
should still grow to a larger size, you must come to Constantinople, where if 
shown to the Vezirs and great men of the Empire he may easily gain two thou- 
sand piastres in a year." 

Praise of the Alum, called Solomons Alum. 

This is a reddish alum produced in the mountains of this town, which is there- 
fore called Shâbîn Kara-hissâr ; it is much sought after by the goldsmiths of all 
countries. The Inspectorship is let at seven hundred thousand aspers a year. 
It breaks up into pentagon and sexagon stones shaped like the seal of Solomon ; 
the goldsmiths use it to brighten the silver, and the surgeons for plasters. It has 
many excellent qualities. The temperature of this town being mild the inhabitants 
are fair. Its quinces and a kind of small bread are famous. We remained here 
three days as guests in the palace of Tapan Ahmed Aghâ, purchased coffee, horse- 
shoes and some other necessary things and then returned. 

On our journey we passed a great river, which flows into the Kerkük, and 
whose waters collect from the vallies of Mând, Yâl, and Kürd-dereh. After six 
hours march to the west we reached the village of Yakûb-aghâ and further on, 
along the shores of the Kerkük, through steep and stony ways and the tremendous 
pass of Boghâz-kessen, to where the river, which flows through Amasia, enters 
the Kerkük, and falls into the sea at Ener. Having passed it we continued our 



evliya efendi. 209 

way for eight hours over hills and valleys and arrived at the Castle of Hdji Murâd, 
built by Uziin Hassan's vezfr. After the defeat of Uzun Hassan it surrendered 
its keys without contest to Mahmud Pâshâ, the vezir of Sultcin Mohammed H. 
It is a high and steep castle like that of Kavilî-hissâr, of a thousand paces in 
circumference and without a ditch, which from its situation on a hill would 
be superfluous. In the castle are seventy small houses, but no market, khan, 
bath, college or imiiret. There are a great number of nut-trees. On the border 
of the Kerkük, which flows at the foot of the castle in a deep valley is a khan. 
The Sûbashî resident here is subordinate to Shâbîn Kara-hissâr. I here informed 
the Pâshâ of the strength of Shâbîn Kara-hissâr, at which he was surprised. 
From hence we ascended a high mountain to the north and came in six hours to 
the village of Chatidâr ; in seven more to Emirler, a village in the territory of 
Shâbîn ; in five more to an Armenian village ; in four more to the west to the 
village of Kîlârjî Veliaga, on the border of a high mountain, consisting of two 
hundred houses, in the jurisdiction of Iskefser, in five more to the station of 
Bâsh-chiflik also in the jurisdiction of Iskefser on the frontier of Erzerum and 
Sivas, which has already been mentioned on our road to Erzerum. Further to 
the west is the castle of Nîk-hissâr (good castle) and five hours further the 
village of Kazan -kia in the province of Sîvâs, in the jurisdiction of Nîk-hissâr. 
Still passing to the west by Boghâz-kessen we came through thick woods to the 
village of Kûmânova ; in two hours more to the great village Sontissa, on the 
frontier of Nîgissâr, with three hundred houses, a mosque, and bath ; and in five 
hours more to Zavâdî-tekiessî, of two hundred houses, on a high mountain on the 
frontier of Lâdîk ; a great foundation, being a great convent at the tomb of a 
great saint. Its Dervishes are almost all of the Prophet's family. I here per- 
formed with the Pâshâ the prayer of I'idî-asha (Kurbân-bairâm) and the Sheikh 
of the convent gave us a repast. The tails having been sent on, we passed the next 
morning in five hours the pass of Setlî-pûlî, and arrived at the village of Hamîd, 
which has a mosque and gardens ; and in five hours more to the west, at Lâdîk. 

Description of the Castle of Lâdik. 
This castle was built by one Havîk one of the Greek Princes of Amasia. Melek 
Ghâzî of the Dânishmend family, who came from Mahân with the Seljiik family, 
conquered both Nîk-hissâr and Lâdîk in the same year. There are three Lâdîks 
in the Ottoman Empire, viz : that of Konia now quite ruined by rebellions, that 
of Korlâdîk in the province of Van and the third, Lâdîk of Amasia. After the 
conquest of the town by Bayazid I., Lâdîk surrendered its keys to Timür-tâsh 
Pâshâ, who accepted them with the good wish that the inhabitants might live 

VOL. II. B E 



210 THE TRAVELS OF 

long. Tlie blessing of this wish is still evident in the long and prosperous lives 
of the inhabitants. Bayazid II., when governor of Amasia, passed six months of 
the year in this place and made a delightful garden, which is kept in order by 
a Master (Usta) and forty Bostânjîs, Kurüjî and Tablakjî. It is a town free from 
all duties and gifts, because it is the wakf of Bulbul Khatun the mother of Ahmed 
I. The governor of Sivas has no right to interfere by his officers. The judge 
has the rank and pay of three hundred aspers, but may collect in a fair way six 
purses annually from the districts. There is a Muftî, Nakîb, Serdâr, Kiaya-yerî, 
Naîb and Mohtessib. The Castle is an old pile of building, which is now without 
a commander or garrison ; the Bostdnjis run over the woods and heaths and 
watch the town, which has seventeen quarters ; forty-seven Mihrâbs, six of which 
are jamfs and three of them Imperial ones ; three thousand and twenty houses 
covered with bricks and surrounded with gardens ; seven convents, the most re- 
markable of which is that of Seid Ahmed Kebir ; two baths ; seven khans ; a large 
caravanserai, built by Ghâzi Davud Pâshâ ; four hundred shops, and a bezestan ; 
forty-one palaces of Vezirs and great men, all having baths ; no particular college, 
but lectures are given in all the mosques ; eighteen schools for boys and two 
dining establishments. The Noblemen wear sable pelisses, the merchants ferraje 
and kontosh of cloth, and the women velvet trowsers, boots, ferraje of cloth, 
white veils and pointed caps ; they are no where to be seen but in the bath and 
in the houses where they pay visits. They are most modest, lovely creatures, who 
entangle lovers with sweet words and gracious behaviour. 

Its eatables are large pears better than those of Malatia, Nissû, Khûî and 
Merend; delicious cherries, a kind of bread called Memejik-ekmek which is the 
first bread in the world after the Sumun of Sapanja : there are no raisins, 
melons, water-melons, figs, &c. The white honey called Tâghbâlî is not equalled 
either by that of Creta, Adana or Sicily. Its fine cotton linen excels the linen 

of Mossul and Lekefur in Persia. 

The Walks of Lddik. 

The head fountain of the water Bâllî-kiasü, which flows through the town, is 
a pleasant walk on the Kiblah side. Another famous walk on the east side is 
called Frenk-gozi, the Frank's eye ; Hossein Pasha built a koshk by the splendid 
spring which arises here ; the water is so cold that people cannot take out of it 
three stones consecutively. The rivulets formed by those two sources of Ballf 
and Frenk-gozi flow through the town supplying water to the palaces, khans, 
mosques, gardens, and mills, and terminate in the lake of Lâdik. Another 
walk is that called Akbînâr, a fountain of cold water, which does not flow through 
the town, but outside. All these sources rise in the high mountains to the north 



evliya efendi 211 

of the town and find their way into the lake of Ltidik. On the west of Lâdik, a 
pleasure-place called the monastery, a delightful spot with a water called Râmja, 
which is sweeter than the water of Ma'avia. These united sources divide below 
the castle into two branches, one of which waters the gardens of Kowa-mahallessi 
below the pilgrimage of Khizrlik, and the other passes by the pilgrimage of Balî- 
dedeh, where the principal men come to meet the pilgrims returning from Mecca. 

The warm baths of Lddik. 

A hot spring is situated one hour and a half on the west of Lddik on a 
high hill in a village, called Khalliz, below which it flows as a small rivulet, turns 
some mills, and falls into the Kizil Irmak ; being situated behind the mountains of 
Lâdik it cannot fall into the lake. The warm bath of Khalliz is much renowned. 
In the cherry season this place is visited by thousands of people, who here 
renovate their health by God's command. An outlet from this hot bath flows 
into the river Khalliz which empties itself into the Kizil Irmak. Another warm 
bath (Ilije, Turkish ; Humma, Arabic ; Germâb, Persian ;) is on the west side of 
Lâdik in the jurisdiction of Kaiiza. Kauza is in this country the name of a hot 
bath, which in Rumeli is called Kainarje ; in Tartary, Ilissi ; in Mogolastân, 
Kerenda ; and Frangistan, Bagno. It is a double bath so that men and women 
have their separate bathing places. The basin in the men's apartment is ten feet 
square and is such a delightful sight that it might restore dead men to life. The 
water rushes forth from four lions' mouths, which are at the four corners. The 
water is not very warm, but in addition to this great basin there is a small one 
the water of which is so extremely hot, that no man can bear it. On the four 
sides of this great basin under vaults are eight bathing troughs, where thousands of 
men are cured in the cherry season. In the same bath is a cold, limpid spring, 
called the maiden's eye (Kiz-gozi), which gives fresh life to those who drink 
of it. The distance between this spring, cold as ice, and the hot spring is but 
a yard. 

Description of the Lake of Lddik. 

This is a large lake to the east of Lâdik, which would take a day to go round ; 
eleven different sorts of fish are found in it, the description of which would be 
too long to give. Twenty-six springs and rivulets flow into this lake on its four 
sides, from the districts of Zedai, Sunssa, Kauza and Zeitum ; it has no outlet. 
On its border is Boghâzi-koî, a pleasant village, and the village of Otuz, renowned 
for its kaimak (cream), which is no where better ; it can be cut like cheese and is 
elastic as gum. If any Kaimak can be compared with it, it is that of Bfngol 
(thousand lakes). Amasia lies eight hours to the south of Lâdik, and to the 



212 THE TRAVELS OF 

eastward is Nîk-hissâr ; the jurisdiction of Kavâkelî is at a journey's distance. 
To the west is the town of Koprî and the jurisdiction of Zeitum at a journey's 
distance. North to it is the harbour of Samsun and further on Sinope. 

Pilgrimages of Lddih. 

Sheikh Seid Ahmed Kebîr, buried in his own convent, was the disciple of 
Sheikh Ekber who is also buried here in the old mosque, built by himself in the 
year 952 (1545) ; he was one of the Sheiks of Sultân Orkhân. Beneath the 
castle Sheikh Ya Wiidiid is buried, and Bâli-dedeh at the meeting place of the 
caravan of Mecca. Ghâzî Taydr Mustafa Pasha is also buried here beneath a 
lead covered cupola. 

I remained at this place three days with my gracious Lord, the Pasha, to whom 
great feasts were given, and then marched five hours to the west to the village 
of Shabfn-dghci, of two hundred houses, where Kâssim Aghâ gave a grand feast ; 
five hours further on we reached the village of Korkof, of three hundred houses, 
a mosque and gardens. The next day, when the tails were about to be carried 
forward, two Chaushes arrived as messengers from Constantinople to Diarbekr, 
whom the Pasha arrested. On their being searched nothing was found but a 
Khatti'-sherif to the Pasha of Baghdad, Saleh Pasha, removing him from his 
government and recalling him to Constantinople in order that he might be made 
Kâpûdân Pâshâ. The same day the Pasha despatched his messenger Saleh to 
Murteza Pasha, the brother of Saleh Pâshâ, the governor of Baghdad, to acquaint 
him that couriers from the Porte were on the way with an invitation to Constan- 
tinople to which he should pay no attention, but beware of the snare laid for him, 
and join instead the party of Varvar Ah' Pâshâ, who was marching to Constan- 
tinople. The Courier Saleh received an hundred ducats to join Murteza Pâshâ 
with all speed ; and on the fourth day the Khasseki and Chaiish, who were the 
bearers of the Imperial rescript, were set at liberty and continued their route to 
Baghdad. The Pâshâ remained six days at Korkoî and moved on the seventh, 
when after five hours march we reached the old town of Merzifun. 

Description of Merzifun. 

It was built by the Dânishmend family and conquered by Bayazid T. It is now 
a castle in good condition and useful against rebels, in the sanjak of Amasia, 
belonging to Sîvâs, and is guarded by watchmen. The town is a wakf of Saint 
Pirdedeh and is commanded by the Kizlar Aghâ. The judge, appointed with 
three hundred aspers, may annually collect from the different districts six purses. 
As it is an inland castle it has neither commander nor garrison. Its public 



evliya efendi. 213 

officers are a Mufti, Nakîb, Serdâr, Kiayayerî, Mohtessib and Naîb. We were 
here the guests of Dilawer Aghâ, the Silihdflr of Tabanı Mohammed Pâshd, who 
treated the Pâshâ and fourteen hundred men of his suite for ten days witfi the 
greatest hospitahty : so that not even a bag for the horses nor a cup of coffee were 
provided for by the Pâshîi's people. The officers were lodged in the town by 
billet (Ydfteh) and lived with their hosts in perfect harmony like fathers and 
sons ; four thousand men of the troops were provided with lodgings in the neigh- 
bouring villages, the inhabitants of which, though Turks, are of a gentle and 
mild temper, and give freely of what they have. Every necessary for sustaining 
life is here found in abundance. The town is situated on the border of Mount 
Deshan and contains four thousand houses covered with brick, forty four quarters 
and seventy mosques, the oldest of which is that of Murad II., in the market- 
place ; it is in the olden style with one minâreh, and is much visited. 

The colleges are, that of Murad II., where lectures are held also on tradi- 
tion, seventy schools for boys, and two dining rooms, one of which is at the 
convent of Pirdedeh. At an hour's distance from the town is the Convent of 
Akasha, and in the towns are those of Abdul Kadir Jîlanî, and one of Khalveti's ; 
the Khans are in the market. On the left corner of the gate of the old khan is 
suspended the mace of a Pehlivan. 

Description of the Baths. 

The old bath, divided for men and women, was built by Mohammed I., and has 
more than seventy troughs or basins. Round it dwell the felt and safian makers, 
who tan blue, yellow and red safian. The walls of the bath are all lined with 
chalk mixed with musk and amber, the odour of which pervades the whole 
building and renders it so dry that neither on the walls nor on the windows does 
a drop of moisture collect. Being an old building, however, it is not light, but 
rather dark. The water is very warm and limpid. 

Praise of Pirdedeh. 

When Murad 11., the father of Mohammed II., was building a mosque and 
college here, the enemies of Pirdedeh calumniated him by saying, that he accom- 
panied the women into the bath and foretold to them hidden things, which are 
forbidden in the Koran, such as whether they would lie in with a boy or girl. 
Murad II., angry at such scandalous behaviour, took his sword with the intention 
of performing a meritorious action by killing the accused. When he came to the 
bath and saw Pirdedeh walking about with an apron round his loins, he upbraided 
him for mingling with the women in the bath and rubbing them instead of letting 



214 THE TRAVELS OF 

it be done by the waiting women. Pirdedeh said, " My Princej I do such 
service only to women who are pregnant with great Doctors and learned men, and 
therefore enter not the bath in the common way." Thus saying, he entered 
through the stone wall which opened for him, and the place is yet shown where 
he passed through before the eyes of the Sultân. The Sultân then said, " I 
came hither Dedeh to kill you with this sword in a legal way." " Such is not 
the act intended for you sword," replied the Saint ; " your sword is destined to 
conquer Smyrna, which Timur was unable to subdue ; but which has fallen into 
the hands of the Greeks, Go, therefore, and conquer Smyrna and eat this bread." 
On saying this, he took up two pieces of marble lying before the bath, kneaded them 
like dough and presented them bread, one to Murad II., and the other to his son 
Mohammed II., foretelling the conquest of Smyrna to the first and that of Con- 
stantinople to the second. This prediction being fulfilled, twenty-six years 
afterwards Mohammed gave to his convent an endowment of three hundred and 
sixty-six villages, so that the whole town of Merzifiin belongs to this foundation. 
Every year a Mütevelli (administrator) from the Kizlar Aghâ, who is the Nâzir 
(inspector) accompanied by three hundred horsemen, comes to take possession of 
the village and distribute its revenues among the dervishes and other poor men. 
The two pieces of white marble bread are actually shown fixed into the wall, where 
the Saint passed through it. This bath is a place for miraculous cures, and is the 
counterpart of the bath built by Avicenna. 

The houses of the town, adorned with Shâhneshîns (projecting wdndows) all 
look towards the kiblah. Its inhabitants are sound and healthy on account of 
the prevalence of easterly winds. In the summer the inhabitants repair to Mount 
Deshan for summer lodgings (Yaila). These alps were given of old, when the 
Danishmend family came from Mohan in Khorassân, to the sons of Deshan and 
are now in possession of one of their descendants, who receives a duty for the 
pasture of many hundred thousand head of cattle. Some hundred rills and 
rivulets, flowing down from these heights, water all the fields and gardens of the 
town. The nature of the soil is such, that however copiously it may rain, the 
fields are not productive unless watered by the rills of Deshan ; but then they 
become so fertile that the corn returns an hundred fold ; for one kile at least 
eighty. These rills are under the inspection of a particular Aghâ, who regulates 
the distribution of them, for if such a magistrate were not appointed, the inhabi- 
tants of Merzifiin would kill each other for the sake of the water. A part of the 
rills and sources of Mount Deshan flow in the direction of Koprî and water its 
fields and gardens ; another into the district of Kauza in the valley of Lâdik ; 
and another still to the northward to the valley of Osmânjik. The town of 



evliya efendi. 215 

Merzifun stands on a hilly site backed by Mount Deshcin. Amasia is fifteen 
hours on the kiblah-side of this town, Ltidik twelve, Osmanjik sixteen, Gumish 
ten, and Kerkerân eight. On the northern border of Mount Deshan stands 
the castle of Koja Kala'assi, looking upon the town of Kopri. If you march 
from Merzifun along Mount Deshan for five hours to the northward you arrive at 
Kopri, and in three journeys further at Samssun, which is the harbour of Merzifun, 
it being nearer to it than Sinope. 

Products. 

Must, pure as that of Aintab, sweet raisins, and the white bread of Pirdedeh ; 
six hundred shops almost all occupied by dyers, who dye a peculiar blue even 
finer than the Persians. Its cotton stuffs are exported in great quantities to 
Crimea and exchanged for prisoners ; the ferrajes and dresses of the inhabitants 
of Crimea are made of the stuffs of Merzifun. Its spun cotton, shirts, blankets, 
cushions and other printed articles are also in good estimation. 

Pilgrimage to the Saints of Merzifun. 

The first of all the Saints of this place is Sheikh Pirdedeh, who came with 
Haji Begtash from Khorassan by permission of Koja Yessiii. He dwelled outside 
of Merzifun to the north on a hill, and spent his days in the baths as a Santon 
from the time of Orkhan to that of Mohammed II. His convent which is a 
larger building than even that of Koyün-bâbâ at Osmanjik, is provided with a 
kitchen and cellar (Kîlâr) and affords every night lodgings and food to two or 
three hundred travellers ; two hundred dervishes of the order Begtâshî, barefoot 
and bareheaded, serve their guests who visit the tomb of the Saint, say a Yass in 
honor of the deceased and perfume their brains with the sweet odour of musk, 
which exhales from his tomb. So great a number of candlesticks, lamps, 
candelabra, vases for rose water and censers are not even to be seen at Iman 
Riza. His habit, carpet, banner, drum, crown, mace, sling and strap, the treasure 
of these dervishes, are preserved in boxes, and many thousand travellers both on land 
and sea have here suspended their slings and maces in eternal remembrance. I, 
poor Evliya, being a great friend of Dervishes, according to the Prophet's 
tradition : " Poverty is my glory !" put with their permission the crown of 
Pirdedeh, which is a Turkish cap of felt, on my head ; the whole convent mean- 
while resounding with the cries of Allah and pious prayers. The building is 
entirely covered with lead. The second pilgrimage is that of Sheikh Abd-ur-rahim 
Ben Emir Merzifûnî, who was the disciple of Zein-ud-di'n Hâfî at Brussa and 
composed the work, Wassayai Kudsie (Mystic Admonitions). He accepted a 
living of eight aspers a day at the mosque of Sultân Mohammed I., at Merzifun, 



216 THE TRAVELS OF 

where he hved and died ; his tomb is now a place generally visited. In his mystic 
poems he has taken the name of Rûmî, they are all in the style and cant of the 
Sofis. We remained ten days in this town to look at its curiosities. On the 
tenth day arrived Murâd the Khasseki and Haunizji the Chaush, who had been 
put into prison for four days by our gracious Lord, the Pasha, that his messenger, 
Sâleh, despatched before them to Murteza Pasha, might arrive first ; but " Man 
proposes and God disposes ; " Sâleh was struck by apoplexy at Nissibin and 
remained there, while the two messengers of the Porte, who started four days 
after him, arrived at Murteza Pasha's lodging at Diarbekr, presented him first 
with the diploma of Captain Pâshâ, for which good news they received a sable 
])elisse and a purse of money each, and then attacked him suddenly and severed 
his head from his body. They now arrived at the Mehkemeh (Court of Justice) 
of Merzifun with the head in a box, which they there deposited, and then came 
into the presence of the Pasha, who was surrounded by all his men, their hands 
grasping the daggers in their belts. The Khasseki and Chaush trembled like 
leaves, kissed the threshold of the gate and after having sat down on their heels, the 
Pâshâ upbraided them saying, " Infidels, why have you killed this unfortunate 
Murteza Pâshâ? All your things and saddlecloths had been searched, and 
nothing was found but the diploma appointing Murteza, Kapûdân Pâshâ ; where 
did you hide the order for his death ? Pray, speak the truth." They said, " Most for- 
tunate Vezir we are servants who but do what we are ordered. The proverb says, ' If 
there were not the Sultan's words the executioner would not commit the deed.* We 
hid the order for death in a leaden box, in the water-bottle, where it escaped 
the search. We reached Murteza Pâshâ before your messenger, who was struck 
by apoplexy, and after having prevailed on him to return from Baghdad to 
Diarbekr, we there opened the bottle, took out the firman and executed it. The head 
is now at the Mehkemeh, and the command is yours ; who should beware of your 
own head. Health to you ! " The Pâshâ satisfied with the Khassekfs answer 
gave him a purse of money, saying, " Now get you gone, or God may send you 
misfortune !" The Pâshâ was now troubled about his own fate, and began to 
collect Sarija and Segbân (irregular levies), wrote letters to Vârvâr Pâshâ and 
sent me to Koprili Mohammed Pâshâ, who was then in the town of his birth 
(Kopri) and to Hassan Aghâ who was at Kilis. 

Journey from Merzifun to Kopri. 

We set out on the 10th Moharrem in a northerly direction along Mount 
Deslıân, passed the village of Begorân and in six hours reached Koja Kala'a 
a small castle on a rock accessible but by one road and one gate. It was besieged 



evliya efendi. 217 

at different times by the rebels Karayâzijf, Said Arab and Kalender, but never 
was taken by them. It was however conquered by Bayazi'd I., from the Danish- 
mend family and belongs now to the district of Koprî ; the garrison consists of 
an hundred men, and it has a mosque, cistern, magazine for corn and seven or 
eight small guns, but no bath, khan or bezestân. The inhabitants make cans of 
fir-tree, which go by the name of boduj, they also manufacture musical instru- 
ments called chekur, tanbur, râdha, karadozen, yıinghâr, &c. In six hours more, 
after passing many villages on the border of Mount Deshân, we arrived at Koprî. 

Description of the old town and great bridge of Kopri. 

We dismounted at the house of Yûssüf Aghâ, where we stopped as guests, and 
delivered our letters to Koprili Mohammed Pâshâ and the other principal men, 
we then collected the Buluk-bashfs and ordered cryers to proclaim that all those 
who wished to have goods and slaves, and possessed breeches and a horse, were to 
come to us. After this w^ went to view the town. Koprî is a fortress in good 
condition on the border of Mount Deshân, in a tract intersected by hills and 
valleys at a place watered by two rivers. One of these is called Bogha-koî and 
flows past the bottom of the town ; the other is at an hour's distance, and is 
called Astavoluz. The town of Koprf is situated between them. At the time of 
their overflowing they inundate the whole plain of Koprî ; the town derives its 
name Koprî (bridge) from the great wooden bridge by which the Astavoluz 
river is crossed. It is a wonderful work constructed of fir-trees. At an early 
period this town was called Shebender, the name for a bridge in the language of 
the Amalekites. The stone bridge, which was formerly here, broke down on the 
night of the birth of the Prophet, and was replaced by this wooden one. The two 
rivers which flow past the town of Koprî unite below it and fall into the great 
river Bafra. This town was first built by the Amalekites and was taken by Melek 
Ghâzî, the Prince of the Dânishmend family, from the Greek Emperors of Trebi- 
sonde. Bayazîd I. took the fortress, the abovesaid castle of Koja Kala'a, by 
capitulation. It now belongs to the government of Amasia, half of it being a 
ziâmet and the other half a subashilik subordinate to Tokdt; the judge is 
appointed with three hundred aspers. Its districts contain no less than an hun- 
dred and forty villages with gardens, khans, mosques covered with lead, and from 
three to four thousand houses all covered with bricks ; the great borough Boghâz- 
koî has three thousand houses ; the other remarkable places of similar extent are 
Baghjeh-koî, Doyân-koı, Akdepeh-koî and Akoren-koî. From these hundred and 
forty villages and boroughs the judge annually collects seven thousand piastres. 
There is a Muftî, Nakîb, Serdâr, Kiayayerî, Mohtessib and Naîb, but as it is an 

VOL. II. F F 



218 THE TRAVELS OF 

inland castle it has neither commander nor garrison. The rebels Kara Yaziji 
and Said Arab were natives of this town, but having been defeated at Erla they 
fled and became rebels. To secure this town against them a second castle of 
earth was built close to the stone castle, and the two have four gates, but the 
shops and markets are outside in the suburb. 

The town of Kopri consists of six thousand houses covered with bricks of two 
stories, the lower story being built of stone and the upper of oak whitened with 
chalk ; so that all the houses dazzle the eye by their brilliancy. The winter 
being severe they are all provided with chimneys, which lift their bonneted 
heads like white Minârehs. These chimneys looking like tall white columns give a 
good appearance to the town, which is all covered with red bricks. The principal 
building of stone in the castle is the Serai of Elhâj Yıissûf Aghâ built by Koprilî 
Mohammed Pıishâ; there are altogether seventy palaces, and twenty mihrâbs, 
in eleven of which the khutbeh is performed. In the stone castle is the mosque 
of Hâjî Yûssûf Agha, with a water basin, a jet d'eau, and a minâreh covered with 
lead. Of the convents the first is that of the great Sheikh, that of the Kâderites, 
and of the Khalveti, but there are none of the Mevlevi. The people generally are 
friendly to Dervishes. There are eleven khans, two imârets, and five colleges, 
because its lawyers, divines, medical men and students are numerous. The 
schools for boys are forty-eight, that of Hâjî Yûssûf is covered with lead and 
richly endowed. There are various baths, the best of which is the double one of 
Ahmed Pasha, a thousand shops, and a strong bezestdn with four gates. Yûssûf 
Aghâ may be called the last builder of this town which he enriched by a great 
many endowments ; the bezestan was also his building. The most elegant 
market-place is that of the tanners, who illuminate every night their shops with 
candles ; there are also a great many dyers. Its gardens are in full cultivation 
and produce excellent fruits. The pears, grapes, cotton wares, wove and spun, 
and the blue linen are as famous as its rosy-cheeked beauties. The harbours of 
this town on the shores of the Black Sea are Bafra and Sinope, which are but a 
journey distant. At five hours distance is the strong castle of Ardoghan, which 
I am now about to describe. 

The castle of Ardoghan is situated on a high hill, which is ascended by five 
hundred steps and therefore only accessible to men ; it is a single rock like the 
fortress of Mardfn. The highest point is a crooked rock, which seems to threaten 
ruin every moment. Melek Ghâzî, the conqueror of Nigissar, also conquered this 
town ; and it was afterwards taken by Bayazid I. It is commonly called Seddi 
Turkman, the dyke of the Turcomans. The castle now contains an hundred and 
fifty houses, a cistern, mosque, and magazine for corn. Precious articles are kept 



evliya efendi. 219 

within this castle and in that of Koja Kala'a on the border of mount Deshân. A 

Dizdar and forty-eight men do the duty. The castle is rendered safe by a 

drawbridge against the attacks of rebels. There is no market khan or bath. 

The district belongs to the jurisdiction of Koprî. Six hours westward is the 

station of Gol, a village in the district of Zeitiin, with a mosque, a khân, and a 

bath. Six hours further, the village of Sûrük in the jurisdiction of Zeitûn ; and 

after a march of six hours along the Yaila of Konduz we arrived at Zeitûn, a large 

place in the territory of Amasia of two thousand houses with khdns, mosques, 

baths, schools and numerous gardens. Six hours further is the large place 

(Kassaba) Karghu, belonging to the sanjak of Kanghri, of six hundred houses 

with gardens, a mosque, khân, and bath. Six hours further, the town of Tusia 

which has already been described. We remained here one day and returned 

again to Merzifun. The third day I arrived at Koprî, where I found every thing 

in the greatest confusion and the whole town in an uproar, because Koprili 

Mohammed Pasha had received orders from the Porte to march against the rebels. 

From hence I went in six hours towards the kiblah to the village of Begoran on 

the border of mount Deshan, which we had passed in coming but did not stop at. 

In another six hours we again reached Merzifun and met Defterdâr-zâdeh 

Mohammed Pâshâ, my gracious Lord, to whom I brought two hundred men, 

Sârîja. He was overjoyed at this and instantly formed them into two companies 

(Boluk), giving them the names of the company of Evliya Guzerli and Habib ; 

and in addition to twenty-four other companies of irregular levies, they made 

together twenty-sis hundred men. I remained ten days longer at Merzifun 

employing my time in collecting men, and on the 27th of Moharrem left it 

for the farm of Murteza Pashd, whicli I reached in six hours. 

This is a very productive farm (Chiftlik) situated in the plain of Merzifun. As 
snow was falling here we suffered much from the cold and in three hours, after 
many difficulties, reached Kulak Hâjî Koî, a village of two hundred houses with a 
ruined khan and a mosque. The inhabitants had all fied and there remained 
not even a cock in the village. The troops were dying of hunger, and during the 
night so heavy a storm blew that the snow was five spans deep in the morning. 
When the trumpets of departure sounded we moved on, though every one cursed 
the march, and struggling with difficulty against the gale and snow reached the 
straight called Diriklipûl, where the distress was very great owing to the fury of 
the gale, the quantity of snow, the uncertainty of the road and the want of pro 
visions. The Pâshâ distributed money and encouraged some of the bravest to go 
in search of the road, through the midst of the snow, which they passed over in 
shoes made of horse-hair. This sort of shoe is called Pachila, and is used in 



220 THETRAVELSOF 

Türkistan and Persia when snow has fallen to any depth. It consists of a circle 
like a sieve, the inside of which is fashioned into a shoe made of horse-hair ; 
this they put on their feet to walk over the snow. The circle round the shoe is 
to give a greater surface to the foot in order to prevent it from sinking into the 
snow. Provided with such shoes the troops entered the straight, but were in the 
greatest distress, for some were lost notwithstanding these Pâchila. Mules, camels 
and horses were stumbling one over the other and cries and lamentations pierced 
the air. The Sarija and Segbans, so many Calibans (Kaltiban) were the first who 
fled. In short it was impossible to pass the straight of Diriklipul and therefore 
we were obliged to repair with the rest of the troops and the heavy baggage 
of the Pasha to Gumish Kala'a (Silver Castle), which we reached after a six hour's 
march. We remained here three days till tlie falling of the snow had ceased. 
All those who hastened to the fire lost their sight for some time, and those only 
who did not approach it, but endured the cold, retained the use of their eyes. 
Seventeen men lost either a leg or a hand or a foot by the excessive cold, and 
the leg or hand being cut off, the stumps were dipped into boiling resin, so 
that their cries pierced the air. 

Description of the toxvn of Gumish. 

It was built by the Byzantine Emperors and was conquered by Melek Ghâzî 
of the Dânishmend family. When Bayazid I. marched to the conquest of 
Amasia the inhabitants of Gumish met him, and presented him with some silver 
vases and the keys of the castle. The inhabitants are therefore free of all duties, 
but it is incumbent upon them to work the silver mines. The inspectorship is 
held by lease, and furnishes annually to the Porte seventy quintals of pure silver, 
and one thousand pair of horse-cloths. In the Ottoman Empire there are no less 
than seventy silver mines, but this affords the purest silver ; the goldsmith alloy 
an hundred drachms of this pure silver with ten of copper, and yet it is a good white 
silver, which receives the Imperial stamp. There are seven veins underground, 
which increase from day to day. The inhabitants of the town are all employed 
in the mines, and their commander is the inspector of the silver mines. The judge, 
appointed with an hundred and fifty aspers, may collect seven purses a year. 
The castle of this town situated on a hill is in a ruined state and has no accommo- 
dation at all within ; being an inland castle it has neither a garrison nor com- 
mander. There is a Serddr and a Kiaya-yeri of the Janissaries, and the town 
consists of a thousand houses covered with planks, eleven mosques, of which that 
in the market-place is the most frequented, but no hospital, the salubrity of the 
air rendering one superfluous. Its products are the purest silver and horse-cloths 



EVLIYAEFENDI. 221 

and bags, which the Imperial stables and those of the principal men of Constan- 
tinople are furnished with from hence. The gardens produce good grapes. In 
the town are heaped up mounds of earth taken from the mines. We remained 
here three days on account of the heavy gales, and then advanced five hours to 
the south, suffering from the snow, to Dankaza-kof, a village of an hundred 
houses belonging to the jurisdiction of Gumish in the territory of Amasia. Near 
the farm of Kosseh Sha'abân Pâshâ is the Pilgrimage of Bardâklî-bâbâ and Akche- 
bâbâ, who are both buried here. The first gained his living by making cans 
(Bardak) for which the village is still famous. We visited the tomb of Bardâklî- 
bâbâ ; after holding a council we approached, amidst a thousand difficulties, the 
high mountain of Kirk Dilim, which was passed with much suffering and the loss 
of many stragglers who returned to Dânkaza. Alî Aghâ, the Kiaya of the Pâshâ, 
encouraged some brave lads, who had not yet lost their hands and feet, to wrap 
up the feet of the horses and mules by tearing up many carpets and coverlets, 
and in this way passed them over the snowy mountain of Kirk Dihm ; but the 
heavy baggage, the munition, cellar, kitchen, and artillery were all left in the 
snow. The Kiaya of the Pâshâ again distributing money, the bags and casks 
were dragged up and rolled over the snow. This night was passed in a woody 
valley without the means of getting on, and seventy men, who had lost their 
hands and feet, remained behind. The next morning we continued our way 
amidst snow and storms through the straight of Kirk Dilim, and arrived after 
eight hours painful march at a village, the name of which has escaped my 
memory, whose inhabitants had all fled upon the news of our arrival. Men and 
horses during the night were nearly dying of hunger, and there was such a gale 
and heavy storm of snow that in the morning it was five spans in depth. On the 
signal of departure being given the Kullâkjî, conductors (Sarban), and tent-pitchers 
(Mehter) assembled before the Pasha's tent and declared they were unable to 
stir. Ten piastres were promised to the men, but they answered, " Health first, 
then weath." The Pasha said, " My children, how is it possible to remain in this 
place, where there is not a grain of provisions ?" In short the Kullâkjî (leaders) 
could not be induced to move on until they had received a present of fifteen 
purses from the Pâshâ. There was, however, such a storm of wind, hail and snow 
that the horses danced like Dervishes Mevlevi, and the camels like Lulus (Tatar 
robbers). The unhappy leaders of them put their hands in their bosoms and 
uttered a piteous cry. Praise be to God ! we now entered a forest and were a 
little sheltered against the wind and snow, and after a march of five hours arrived 
at the great village of Bardâkji, in the jurisdiction of Gumish, consisting of an 
hundred houses. From hence continuing our march to the south we arrived in 



222 THE TRAVELS OF 

four hours at the station of Kirk Dilim, a place of two hundred Mussulman houses 
in the sanjak of Chorûn. Here both men and horses rested till the following day, 
when the weather clearing up we proceeded through cultivated villages to the 
town of Chorum, said to have been built (God knows if truly) by Kilij Arslân, 
the Prince of the Seljuk family, who sent his son Yakub Mirza and some hun- 
dred sick men to this town, where being cured, it received in consequence 
the name of Choriun. From the hands of the Seljukides it passed into those of 
the Dânishmend family from whom it was taken by liderim ; it is now the seat 
of a Sanjak Beg in the government of Sivas. His khass is three hundred thousand 
aspers, nineteen ziâraets, and thirty-one tinicirs. There is a Colonel (Alaî-beg) a 
Captain (Cherî-bâshî) a judge appointed with an hundred and fifty aspers, and 
receiving from its districts annually five purses, a Mufti, Nakîb, Serdâr, Kiaya-yerî, 
Mohtessib, Sıibâshi, Inspector of the hall (Kapan Emini) and Nâîb of the town. 
The military officers are in great favour because the troops are numerous and 
there are a great number of bad men. Lodgings were positively refused to our 
Pâshâ ; but mediators were employed and documents were made out at the 
Mehkemeh (Court of Justice), so that they were prevailed upon to give us 
lodgings, but only for the space of three days. The town consists of forty-two 
quarters in which are forty-two mosques, four thousand three hundred houses 
covered with bricks and surrounded with gardens ; nine mosques were the Friday 
prayer is performed, of which that of Sultân Murad is the best, it had but one 
minareh which was throw down by liderim Bayazîd. The mosque of Sultân 
Ala-ud-dîn was repaired under Sultân Suleiman by the architect Sinan ; as it is 
situated in the market-place it is much frequented. That of Murad covered with 
lead is the finest. The new bath is a foundation belonging to the bath of Alî 
Pâshâ at Tokat ; in the palaces are many other baths. Of the colleges, of which 
there are seven, that of Murad is the most frequented ; there are eleven schools 
for boys, seven khans and eighteen fountains, the water by which they are supplied 
was conducted hither by Sultân Suleiman, in honour of the martyrs of Kerbela 
(who died of thirst). The convents of Dervishes are three, but no house for 
reading the koran or for tradition exists. The shops are three hundred, in which 
all the necessaries of life are to be found, although this is a town of Türkistan. 
Tlie temperature of the climate gives red cheeks and good proportions to the 
inhabitants, who almost all wear cloth. The fair sex and the winter are both 
renowned. The Castle on the kiblah side of the town has only been built for 
protection against riots and rebellion. It has an iron gate, a commander and 
garrison. God knows ! but it seems to have been built since the Islam, because 
there is no trace of any building of the time of the infidels. 



evliya efendi. 223 

On the day we came here the hite chief barber of the Sultân arrived in the 
quahty of Kapijî-bâshî accompanied by forty other chamberlains, saying, that he 
was the bearer of the diploma of the government of Diarbekr. The Pasha 
surrounded himself with all his guards, Sarija, Segbân, Gonullî (volunteers) three 
hundred pages and all the Levends. The forty kapijis entered trembling and 
the Pasha having asked, where the diploma was they had boasted of, was 
assailed all at once by them, but before they were ablo to do any harm to him, 
they were all disarmed and bound by his guards and soldiers. The Segbân and 
Sârija called for the executioners and were going to cut off their heads, when the 
principal men of the town kissed the earth before the Pasha, and begged the 
lives of these kapijî-bashîs, who were, they said, O'llv servants executing their 
master's commands and therefore should be spared. The Pasha yielding to their 
prayers set them at liberty, instead of thrashing them to death as he ought to have 
done. Being liberated they went to the Mehkemeh, called the Sanjak Beg, read 
the firman and demanded in consequence that the troops should be driven out of 
the town. The inhabitants remonstrated against it, showing that they might all be 
in danger of being cut to pieces and their houses burned down, if they were to 
undertake the least thing against the troops. The Pasha being made acquainted 
in time of what was going on, sent word to the kapijis immediately to quit the 
place if they wished to escape in safety. Thus they were all driven out of the 
town. The next day a messenger was despatched to Vârvâr Alî Pâshâto acquaint 
him with what had happened. The inhabitants finding that our Pasha was a 
goodnatured and righteous Vezir gave him the salutary advice not to march to 
Constantinople, but always to remain at one or two journeys distance from Vârvâr 
Alî Pashâ, and to take his station, until the snow should melt and the weather 
clear up, at Tokat or Kazova. The Pasha approving of their advice, visited the 
tomb of Sheikh Olvân Chelebî, the son of Ashik Pâshâ, and proceeded to Tokat. In 
this plain we remained ten days, during which the Pâshâ received letters from 
Vârvâr Alî Pâshâ, exhorting him to be on his guard, and, as the spring was now 
approaching and the weather clearing up, to collect as many troops as he could 
for the march to Constantinople. The Pâshâ made as though he were going to 
Angora, and on the eleventh day we arrived in the plain of Chorum at the 
convent of Sidim Sultân, a convent of bareheaded and barefooted Begtâshî, 
where the Pâshâ was lodged and splendidly feasted. The village of Kara 
Kecheli of two hundred houses in the territory of Chorum is an hour's distance 
from the red river. Here the snow beginning to fall and the wind to blow, the 
Sârija and Segbân drove the families out of their houses, threw the cradles with 
the children in them on to the snow, dug out the gates and thresholds to bring 



224 t'hetravelsof 

their horses into the rooms to the fire, and committed the same excesses, that 
they did at Gumish and Dânkaza, and which exceeded even the tyranny of 
Yessuf Hejâj. The next day we left Kara Kechell and instead of passing over 
the bridge of Chashnegir on the red river, proceeded to the passage of Kara 
Yechid ; which was indeed a bad measure, because the passage is a cruel one. 
It had ceased snowing but was so piercingly cold that the men and horses 
trembled like leaves ; nevertheless the orders for the passage were given. It 
commenced with the tent-camels, the kitchen, stable and other heavy baggage of 
the Pasha's led by twenty able pilots. Two hundred strings of camels and one 
hundred of mules belonging to the Pâshâ, as well as mine and the Kiaya's passed 
over, and, went with all this heavy luggage to Kûrdseraî, but myself and the 
Kiaya remained on this side of the river waiting to see the passage of the baggage 
of all the Aghâs. In the morning their heavy things arrived along with the 
treasure-camels of the Pasha, but at the moment the pilots had entered the river 
with them, there arose such a storm of hail and snow, of thunder and of lightning, 
that the strings of mules and camels were broken, numbers of them upset in the 
middle of the river, and a great many lost. Great masses of ice, the shape of 
mill-wheels, now began to float down the river and blocked the shores at the 
bridge of Chashnegir. In the midst of the confusion which took place on both 
shores of the river, the Pasha arrived with his music sounding. He distributed 
large sums of money amongst the inhabitants of Kûrdseraî, who rescued the men 
and animals, while the troops on both side of the river were running about crying 
and lamenting. Some brave fellows swam amongst the drifting shoals, l)ut others 
were submerged, and camels, mules, horses and men, were floating about in con- 
fusion and dismay ; some of whom were drowned and some saved. Some 
Kurds and Turcomans swam into the midst of the ice and rescued many camels, 
mules and horses, but as those who had crossed had left their clothes on this side 
the river, it so happened that a great number perished from cold. Of all the 
baggage, only that which had passed over before the ice began to drift was saved, 
the rest was lost. An hundred and sixty men, more than a thousand horses and 
mules were drowned, but only a small number of camels. The drowned men 
were for the most part Kulenkjî, Sârija and Segbân ; some going to paradise and 
others to hell : the latter were at least delivered from the hell of winter. This 
horrible discomfiture lasted only from the morning till afternoon, when the 
drifting of the ice and the storm suddenly ceased, so that the Tatars, Delis, and 
Gonillâs, who had waited till then, crossed over without the least difiiculty. 
Witnessing these misfortunes I reflected on the cruel conduct of those troops, 
who had behaved in so barbarous a manner in the passage at Chardâkli-pûlî, and 



evliya efendi. 225 

now at Körd-dereh : burning down the houses, throwing infents on the snow and 

wounding men and women with battle-axes. The inhabitants of the villages 

came crying and lamenting to the Pasha ; but what was to be done with this 

crowd of Sarija and Segban, of whom the Pâshâ stood in need and whose excesses 

therefore he was obliged to tolerate. I, poor Evliya, whilst witnessing those 

scenes, shivered at the thought of the vengeance which God would send one day 

on those cruel troops. 

Praise of Sheikh Bdrddkli-hdbd. 

Near the above mentioned place is the pilgrimage of a Saint called Bârdâklî- 
bâbâ, a disciple of Sheikh Hâjî Bairâm. He obtained his living by making cans, 
which afforded a continual supply of water for the ablutions of his disciples. His 
can is suspended from his tomb and therefore he is called Bârdaki î-bâbâ, the 
father of cans or tankards. With the leave of the tomb-keeper, I took down the 
suspended can to perform my ablutions and found it full of clear water, though 
covered with the dust of forty years. The Pasha's Imdm and some others of his 
suite were astonished at this extraordinary sight, they asked the keeper if he 
would swear the can had not been recently filled with water. He swore that it 
had not been touched for forty years until I, poor Evliya, had taken it down to 
perform my ablutions. The Imam and the others said, " Well then Evliya hang it 
up again," but I being determined to carry my point would not until I had per- 
formed the ablution in the legal way. The Imam and four other persons then 
did the same, but the water was not diminished in the least to our great 
astonishment. We again hung up the can, which was of a reddish colour, and on 
its side was written the verse of the Sûra Ra'ad, " He sent water from heaven," 
the number 66626, three Ks, two Js and one M, the figure of a glass and of a 
can. I now began to recite the Koran according to the intention of the Saint, 
with whom I made spiritual acquaintance, remarking the Prophet's tradition, " If 
you are perplexed in your affairs look for assistance from the Inhabitants of the 
tombs." The mirror of my heart was polishing and rubbing off the rust of 
sadness, when a woman walked in, who threw the body of a dead child and herself 
on the threshold of the tomb, crying and lamenting that her child had been killed 
by the troops, who had cast it on the snow, and calling down divine vengeance 
upon them, tln-ough the aid of the Prophet and the Saints. She was followed by 
a great number of injured men, who united their prayers and imprecations with 
hers. I trembled at hearing them, and drawing near with a friendly face, kissing 
their hands and cheeks, I said to them, " People of Mohammed, I also belong to 
the troops of the Pasha, who, God knows, does not approve of thc"r excesses ; but 
he has been forced to collect them in order to save his own head, which is 

VOL. II. G G 



226 THETRAVELSOF 

endangered by the Grand Vezfr, Ahmed Pasha, on whom must be laid the fault 
of all this." An old man gave me some comfort by saying, that I was not in- 
cluded in this imprecation, which was to full only on the troops ; and a good deal 
of it was realized at the above described passage of the river, where so many lost 
their lives and goods, while I, poor Evliya, God be thanked for it ! passed over 
safely to the opposite side. 

The borough of Kûrdlar-seraî (wolves' palace) is situated in the Sanjak of 
Kânghrî in the jurisdiction of Kala'ajik on the bank of the red river and consists 
of four hundred houses covered with terraces, a mosque, a khân and a bath. 
Here the Pasha appointed two Aghâs to watch the endeavours made to retrieve 
from the river some of the lost baggage. Moving on to the north we arrived at 
the village of Boyalı, situated in the territory of Kanghrî ; five hours further, the 
village Akche-Koyûnlî of an hundred Turcoman houses ; and three hours further, 
the village of Kojı-bâbâ, situated in the jurisdiction of Kala'ajik, of two hundred 
Turcoman houses, which do not appear above ground but are all below it, with 
stables, kitchens and sitting-rooms. The reason for the construction of these 
subterraneous houses is the violence of the winter ; they are all built of a soft stone, 
which has the appearance of having been whitened with chalk. Chests, boxes, 
and rafters are all cut in this stone, which is as soft as cheese ; the houses are so 
large, that a thousand men might be lost in them, and yet is there nothing seen 
of them above ground. Here is the pilgrimage of Kojf-bâbâ, one of the disciples 
of Hâjî-begtâsh. There is no other building but the convent ; the tomb is 
adorned with lamps and candelabras. His banner, drum, habit and carpet are all 
preserved as though he were himself present. The Turcomans have great faith 
in this saint. At Keskin (the name of this place) is also the tomb of Sheikh 
Ibrahim Tenûrî Ben Sarraf Hossein, one of the disciples of Ak-shems-ud-din ; he 
was born at Sivas. Five hours further to the north is the village of Sheikh 
Shâmî of the order of Bairamis, whose name was Hamza ; the sect of the Hamzevi 
take their name from him. Many miracles are recorded of him, one of them 
is the spring which he called forth by his staff and which is, therefore, actually 
called the Spring of the Staff. He is buried beneath a high cupola near the 
mosque which he himself built, but which is not covered with lead. Its mihrab 
is of very great dimensions, and the stones are adorned with inscriptions in Kufi, 
Jelli, Mostea'assemi, Rı'hânî, and Thuluth characters. The verses : " Every time 
Zacharias went before the Mihrab," and " He was standing praying before the 
Mihrdb," and the verses Kursi and Emen-er-ressul are written upon it. On both 
sides it is carved and sculptured in a most astonishing way with flowers and ara- 
besque ornaments, so that the stone seems rather to be engraved or painted than 



evliya efendi. 227 

sculptured. Some say it is the work of Sheikh Sham himself, and it is indeed 

probable because it is such a wonderful work, like the paintings of Mdni and 

Behzad Aghâ Riza Wdnî. Before his tomb rises the Spring of the Staff which is 

much visited. From hence we went five hours to the north to the village of 

Hossein Aghâ in the district of Kala'ajik and five hours further to the village of 

Kala'ajik itself, which was built by the Prince of Briissa Sirtina for his daughter. 

Topal the commander of Kastemûnî conquered it ; and he resisted the Ottoman 

power, till at last liderim Bayazîd took by surprise this castle, which is not to be 

conquered in any other way. It is now the seat of a Subâshî of the Sanjak of 

Kânghrî, and a judge is appointed to it with an hundred and fifty aspers, and 

collects from the districts annually four purses ; there is also a Dizdar and a 

garrison of twenty men. 

Form of the Castle. 

It is situated on a high reddish cliff, towering into the clouds, as though built 
by Ferhâd. The walls are sixty royal cubits high, as it is an isolated rock there 
are no ditches. An iron-gate opens to the kiblah side and within the castle 
are about twenty houses, a mosque, a magazine of corn, a cistern, and six small 
guns. The inhabitants of the neighbouring tracts deposit in this castle their 
effects and precious things from fear of rebels and robbers, and the commander 
is the keeper of these deposited goods. It is not commanded by any neighbouring 
height and is surrounded with gardens. One the kiblah-side is a well-built 
suburb, but without fortifications (robât), consisting of two thousand houses partly 
covered with bricks and partly with earth ; the largest is the palace of Shehsuvdr 
Pâshâ, they all face towards the kiblah-side ; the streets instead of being paved 
with stone, are all strewn with sand. There are seventeen mosques, that in the 
market place having one minâreh, thirteen schools for boys, a small bath, three 
khans and six coffee-houses ; the air is good, but not the water. We lodged here 
in the palace of Shehsuvâr Pâshâ, and I thanked God that I could change clothes, 
and lie quietly down after the many fatigues undergone. 

TJie Pilgrimages of Kardnji-bdbd Sultân. 

There is but one steep path from the castle, at the bottom of which near the 
market is the tomb of this saint in a narrow place. On leaving it we marched five 
hours to the North to the village of Kürbâghlî, in the territory of Kânghrî and 
the district of Kala'ajik, of two hundred houses with mosques and gardens, where 
Sheikh Abd-allah, the son of Sheikh Shâmî, is buried ; his tomb is covered with 
a simple roof, and is without a convent. Five hours further to the North we 
came to the village of Nenegler, in the territory of Kala'ajik, a Turkish village of 



228 THE TRAVELS OF 

an hundred houses ; a cubit of snow fell during the night, so that nobody could 
leave their lodgings. In the morning when departure was sounded the horses 
were loaded with the greatest pain ; Turks served as guides, and thus we marched 
three hours to the straight of Alâk-pııh', where we were assailed by such a storm 
and rain, that the confusion and horror was general, and many lost their lives. 
The Aghds of the Pâshâ, and even his treasurers left the treasure and fled away. 
Mustafa Beg the son of the Pâshâ with his governor (Lala), master (Khoja) and 
servants were missing ; the strings of mules and camels were broken and they were 
straying on the mountains. I halted a little in a sheltered valley and then with 
six of my boys and three packhorses looked for a house, where I found three 
others of my slaves and ten Châshnegîrs ; so that we were now twenty-five 
persons. Thus we passed the straight of Sâri Alâk and arrived happily at the 
plain on the other side without knowing where we were going to. 

(Here six pages of the original are omitted, ivhich give a detailed account of 
Evliya s falling into a nest of robbers, headed by Hyder-zddeh, Kdtirji-zddeh and 
other robbers, who held their meeting at Hdji-bdbas, an old rogue. The robbers, 
on being informed by Evliya of the Pashas being near, made off, and Evliya was 
kept by Hdji-bdbd until rescued by his people and other armed men of the Pdshd's 
suite, with îühom he shared the rich presents ivhich he forced out of Hdji-bdbd 
upon taking an oath that he would not betray this den of robbers. Evliya again 
joined the Pdshd at the village of Hossein Aghd.) 

The village of Hossein Aghâ is situated in the district of Jubiik-owassa on a 
high hill. This is the pilgrimage of Ghazi Hossein of Malatia the father of Sîdî 
Battal. Where there are more than an hundred Dervishes Begtâshî versed in 
Arabic and Persian knowledge. The tomb is surrounded with golden candlesticks, 
Korans, &c. There are two places of religious exercise for the summer and 
for the winter. The valleys of Jubuk, Yebân, and Merbiit are at the foot of this 
convent : Every year a Mevliid or birth-feast is held here, when forty to fifty 
thousand men assemble to celebrate the feast of Hossein Sidi Batal's father, one 
of the descendants of Imam Hossein, and who like him was killed by the hands 
of the Infidels. I gave to the Dervishes ten piastres for alms, immolated three 
victims and received the Sheikh's benediction amidst the general shout of Allah ! 
At the foot of the hill I met my Lord the Pâshâ with whom during ten days 
I overran the plain of Jubuk, as if I were going on conscription. This plain 
comprehends seven districts, and seventy villages. We spent ten more days on 
the plain of Yebân, containing an hundred cultivated villages belonging to the 



evliya efendi. 229 

jurisdiction of Angora, and ten days more in the jurisdiction of Jorba of eighty-six 
villages. We passed a month in these three plains and celebrated Nevruz (the 
spring's commencement) near Angola. The weather now was mild, but we were 
all exhausted from the continual fatigue of loading and unloading heavy loads. 
At last we returned to the village of Hossein in the commencement of the year 
1058 (1648). From hence we marched in seven hours to the north amidst 
cultivated villages and arrived at Angora. 

Description of Angora. 

On the day that our quartermasters entered the town with the tails it was 
declared to them in the court of justice, that the Pâshâ would not be allowed to 
enter the fortress on account of his intentions being known to be those of a rebel, 
but that in consequence of the great number of friends and clients in the town, he 
would be well treated and lodged there for three days. We entered with a great 
istikbâl (procession of meeting) and were saluted by the firing of twenty guns I 
was lodged in the house of Keder-zadeh and went straight to the convent of 
Hâjî-bairâm, where I read the Koran, and fulfilled the vow I had made when 
in the hands of the robbers, distributing to the Dervishes an hundred piastres 
of the money obtained at the village of Balik-hisscir from the robbers. 

Angora was conquered by Yakübshâh, the Prince of Kiitahia of the Germidn 
family and by his Vezir Hezâr-dînar, and then by Sultân Orkhân. If Angora is 
viewed from the village of Erkiksii, which is a journey's distance from the north, 
it appears a brilliant place ; for the houses rising one behind the other, similarly to 
Buda on the Danube, makes it look like a ship of transport (Mauna) which has 
set up its trees and adorned its head. Buda, Van and Angora are the three first 
fortresses of the Empire : its name (Engûrî) is Persian, given from the quantity of 
grapes (Engur) which are found here. It is said to have been built by a Byzantine 
Emperor, and employed forty thousand workmen for seven years, who each day 
received forty nuts and a loaf apiece. It is also called the leafy castle (Motabbak), 
because its different parts cover one another like leaves of a tree, and the 
castle of the chains (Selasil) because the Emperor HeracHus surrounded it with 
seven chains on the birth year of the Prophet. The Mogols call it Ankra ; the 
Tatars, Kermen Ankra ; the Germans, Constantinople (!) the Turks, Aidin Karı, 
Unkûr and Ungorû. In the Imperial Registers it is spelled Ankra. It is the seat 
of a Sanjak Beg in the province of Anatoli, and has been given many times as 
living (Arpalik) to Vezirs of three tails. The khass of the Pâshâ is two hundred 
and sixty three thousand four hundred aspers, fourteen ziâmets, and two hundred 
and fifty seven timars, an Alai-beg (Colonel) Cheri-beg (Captain) and Yûzbâshî 



230 THE TRAVELS OF 

(Lieutenants). The Zaiins and Timariots with the Jebelle make three thousand 
armed men. The Sûbashîs depending from Angora are, those of the town, 
that of Mertâtova, of Yebdnava, of Jubûkova, and of Jorba, which annually 
import forty thousand piastres. The Judge is a Molla of five hundred aspers, 
whose revenues may be calculated at twenty purses a year. There are also 
a Shiekh-ul-islam or Muftî, a Nakib-ul-eshraf, or head of the Emîrs, Seids and 
Sherifs (the relations of the Prophet), a Serdâr of the Janissaries, a Kiaya-yerf 
of the Sipâhîs, a Nâı'b of the town and a Mohtessib (provost and lieutenant of 
police) the commanding officers of the Jebeji and Topji, a Dizdar (commander of the 
castle) and a garrison of an hundred men. The castle is situated on a high moun- 
tain, mocking all assaults, rising in four natural terraces, so that there is a distance 
of three hundred paces from one enclosure to the other ; the height of each wall 
is sixty cubits and the breadth ten royal cubits ; the foundations are all built on 
vaults. The castle forms an oblong square from east to west. It has four iron- 
gates one behind the other towards the west, each strengthened behind by iron 
cages. These iron cages or gratings are thrown before the gates in time of sieges, 
the bars are of the thickness of an arm. The gate on the extremity of the fortress 
looking to the Horse market opens to the west, on the upper part of it are sus- 
pended the arms of old knights, and the bones of a whale. The guards keep 
watch here day and night. If the commander leaves the castle the garrison are 
empowered to kill him, or at least to exile him for ever. Abaza, the rebel, besieged 
this town with an hundred thousand men, and took possession of the lower town, 
but wounded by a cannon shot from the upper castle, he was obliged to return 
to Erzerum ; the commander ever since has been prohibited from leaving the castle, 
and the watchmen all night long cry, Yegdir-allah, One is God 1 It has no ditch on 
one side on account of the rocks, and it is not easily to be attacked by mines 
because its quarters rise one behind the other. The four enclosures have eighteen 
hundred battlements, and its circumference is four thousand paces. On the east 
side is a place of pilgrimage situated on a hill, it is called Khizrlik ; this hill looks 
over the town, which is of no consequence as it is not within gun-shot distance. 
The inner castle is defended by sixty-eight guns, but none of them are large. The 
houses number six hundred and are all terraced, but have neither gardens nor 
vineyards ; the old mosque was formerly a convent. The lower town was sur- 
rounded with a wall by Ahmed Pâshâ against the rebels. It has four gates, and 
its circumference on the three sides, on which it does not join the citadel, is six 
thousand paces. On the east side of the superior castle you descend into the 
valley of Khizrlik by a road leading down for fetching water. In the inner castle 
are cisterns and magazines ; but in the lower town are no cisterns, because water 



evliya efendi. 231 

is in abundance, there being an hundred and seventy fountains, three thousand 
wells, seventy-six mosques, those of Ahmed Pâshd and Hâjî Beirâm the saint, 
having been built by the great Sinan, fifteen convents of Dervishes with mihrâb 
(mosques) the greatest of them is that of Hâjî Bairâm, where three hundred 
Dervishes of his order follow the rules of their founder. Their first patron is 
Khoja Abd-ul-Kadir Jeilanf, by whom they ascend to the prophet ; in Rûmelî 
they are called also Hamzevi from Sheikh Hamza. There is likewise a fine con- 
vent of Mevlevis founded by Ahmed Pâshâ. The colleges are richly endowed, 
three houses for lectures on tradition, an hundred and eighty schools for boys, two 
hundred baths, seventy palaces with gardens ; all these buildings are of brick not 
stone, and covered with earth instead of with bricks, six thousand six hundred and 
sixty houses, and two hundred sebîl-khâneh or establishments for distributing 
water. The shops are two thousand, and there is an elegant bezestan with four 
gates with chains ; the market places are almost all on elevated spots ; the coflPee 
houses and barber's-shops are always crowded ; the public places and streets are 
paved with white stones. Its divines, poets, and learned and pious men are 
innumerable, although it is a Turkish town, it counts more than two thousand boys 
and girls who know the Koran by heart ; some thousand also know by heart the 
Mohammedieh, or works on the Mohammedan religion by Yâzijî-zadeh Moham- 
med Efendi. Some of its inhabitants have the repute of performing miracles like 
Abd-ur-rahman Efendi, a pious man, who is free of four enticements, viz. hair, 
brows, beard and eye-lashes ; he is descended from Hâjî Bairâm's family, who had 

the same advantage. 

Praises of Hdji Bairdm the Saint. 

In his youth he was once invited by a cunning woman, who in order to seduce 
the Saint, with whom she was in love, began to praise his hair, beard, brows and 
eye-lashes. The Saint retired into a corner and prayed to God that he might be 
dehvered of these four inducements to lust, and become of an ugly form ; he then 
returned without a hair into the woman's presence, who shocked at his ugliness 
had him turned out of doors by her maidens. Hence the descendants of the 
Saint by his daughter actually wear short beards (Kosseh). 

The rich inhabitants of the town wear Ferrâjes of sable, those of the middle 
class, Serhaddîs of cloth and Contoshes, the workmen Ferrajes of white linen, the 
Ulemas, of wool, and the women also of wool of different colours. The climate 
and temperature being mild the inhabitants are fair with red faces. 

The Eatables and Products, 
The calves and sheep's feet of Angora are the counter part of those of Kvitahia ; 



232 THE TRAVELS OF 

the salted flesh (Passdh-ma) of its goats has an excellent perfume. These goats 
called Teftekgechî are of a brilliant whiteness ; of the hair is made the soft 
(Shalloon) of different colours which is worn by Monarchs. If the wool is cut 
by scissors it becomes coarse, but if pulled out it is as soft and as fine as the silk 
of Eyilb (Job). The poor goats, when the hair is pulled out in that way, raise 
lamentable cries; to avoid this some wash them with a mixture of chalk and ashes, 
by which they are enabled to pull out the hair without difticulty or giving pain ; 
thus the poor goats are stripped naked. The hair is then worked into Shalloons, 
and both men and women are busy at making or selling them. The Franks tried 
to transport the goats of Angora into their own country, but God be praised ! they 
degenerated into common goats, and the stuff wove from their hair was no Siif 
(Shalloon). They then took the hair of the Angora-goat and tried to work it into 
Sof, but were never able to give it the true lustre (Maj). They now make of it 
for their monks a kind of black shalloon, which however has neither colour nor 
lustre. The inhabitants of Angora say that the exclusive working of fine shalloon 
is granted to them by the miracles of Hâjî Bairâm, and the water and air. Indeed 
the sof (Shalloon) of Angora is the most famous in the world ; the chalk also of 
Angora is renowned. Its inhabitants make great journies to Frengistan and Egypt 
to sell their Shalloons. There are a great number of Jews, but few Greeks and 
Copts. The inhabitants are a goodnatured hospitable people. It is an incomparable 
town, which may God preserve till the end of time in the hands of the Ottomans ! 
The day I entered Angora I visited the tomb of Hâjî Bairâm, recited the Koran 
and then returned to my lodgings where I soon fell asleep. In a dream I saw a 
man with a yellow beard, honey-coloured cowl and a turban of twelve folds on his 
head, who upbraided me for having visited Hâjî Bairâm's tomb and passed by his- 
I asked, who he was ? and he said, " Didst thou not call on Sâri Sâltik Dedeh, 
when in thy youth thou performed prayer in the Convent of the Wrestlers at Con- 
stantinople in Sultân Murad's presence ? didst thou not say that I was known 
here by the name of Er Sultân ? I am lying here under a thick cupola near the 
wood market, where thou shouldest visit me and give me joy with a fâtihah. I will 
send to-morrow morning a man of my resemblance, who shall lead thee to my 
tomb." I awoke, said my prayers, and was waiting, when a man came of the form 
of him I saw in my dream, and told me, that Er Sultân had appeared to him in a 
dream and had commanded him to show me his burying place. This man had a 
radiant face, and his voice was as hollow as if it came from underground. We 
passed through eleven quarters of the town and visited in passing all the tombs of 
Saints, which I shall mention by and by, if it pleases God ! At last there appeared 
on the western side of the wood-market a small cupola, which my companion 



evliya efendi. 233 

pointed out to me, saying, " This is the tomb of Er Sultân." Whilst I was 
looking at it on my right side, he disappeared on my left, and I was at a loss to 
know what had become of him and fancied that he must have walked through a 
door covered with felt which was near me. I opened it, walked in, and saw it was 
a Bûza-house full of riot. Ashamed of having got into such society I left the 
room immediately and made the best of my way to the cupola which had been 
shown to me. There I laid my face on the threshold and prayed to the Saint, 
saying, that I had arrived by his blessing, and begged he would not let me depart void 
of benediction in this and the other world. I now commenced the recital of the 
Koran, and sheltering myself under the green Suf with which the coffin was 
covered, said, " Protection, protection, O Er Sultân ! " I then fell asleep and 
sweated to such a degree that when I woke my clothes were wet. Er Sultân ap- 
peared to me again and I begged that he would not let me go hence void of 
benediction. He replied, " Thou wilt not be void of it, because thou art a Hdfiz 
(knowing the Koran by heart) and a lover of the Saints (Evliya) whose tombs thou 
always visitest. I led thee myself to this place, I am a perfect leader (Murshid 
Kâmil), thy path is straight. Be merciful to the poor and weak, and tell thy 
Pasha not to molest the inhabitants of Angora. God will grant to thee travel and 
good health, and in thy last moments faith. Eat, speak, sleep and know little, but 
do a great deal, for actions are necessary to discover the way to God, because He 
hath said in the Koran, ' Good words ascend, and good works exalt.' Honour thy 
parents, and the Sheikhs (Pır), and thy end shall be happy. Say now a fatihah 
with this intent." Here I was awoke by a noise and voices saying, " Is there no 
tomb-keeper ? " I arose from beneath the cover of the coffin and to the question 
of the visitors, " Whether I was the tomb-keeper ?" replied, " Yes ! " When they 
were gone I returned home shedding many tears, and related my vision to the 
Pasha, who also related to me a similar dream that he had had. He instantly 
gave orders that all the Sarija and Segbân should deliver up their arms and leave 
in quiet the inhabitants of Angora. The Pasha had had some idea of shutting 
himself up in the town and declaring it in a state of rebellion, but he immediately 
abandoned it after these visions. I then made it a duty to myself to visit every 
day, during my stay at Angora, the tombs of Hâjî Bairam and Er Sultân and 
others of the Saints, which I am now about to mention. 

Pilfrrimaffes. 

Sheikh Hâjî Bairâm, the pole and column of sanctity, was born on the bank of 
the river Chepul in the village of Solkof and was the disciple of Sheikh Hâmed. 
At the time when Sultân Bâyazîd I. was at Adrianople, Sheikh Bairâm preached 

VOL. II. H H 



234 THE TRAVELS OF 

there in the old mosque, and the pulpit which he ascended is still shown. Differ- 
ent Sheikhs who tried to ascend this pulpit could never utter a word, because none 
were worthy to preach after him in the same place. After his death, which hap- 
pened in Bâyazîd's reign, he was buried beneath a high cupola in the inner castle 
of Angora. Sheikh Er Sultân, the leader of divine truth, the discoverer of 
mysteries, called Mahmud by his proper name, was born at Angora, and reposes 
beneath a small cupola in the wood market. East of Angora on a high mountain 
is the pilgrimage of Hizr, a pleasure place from which a fine view of the town is 
enjoyed. This Saint was the disciple of Sheikh Hossam-ud-din, and being impri- 
soned at Angora he gave the order one evening to be buried the next day, and in 
the morning, without any body having been near him, he was found washed, 
perfumed, and ready for burial. Sheikh Katib Salâh-ud-dîn was a great astronomer, 
a second Pythagoras. There are a great number of other Saints, which I do not 
mention, as I could not visit their tombs during my short stay. 

The day of our departure being fixed, I made myself as light as possible, by 
giving away a part of what I had taken from the robbers' den in alms, and the rest 
as a pawn to the master of the house where I lodged and got ready with seven 
Mamlucs and one light pack horse. In the morning I heard an uproar and riot by 
which heaven and earth was thrown into confusion. Some were exclaiming that 
they were satisfied with the Pâshâ, others that he was a rebel for having united 
with Vârvâr Pâshâ, and that it was necessary to obey the Emperor's com- 
mand. In short Mustafa, one of the Emperor's Kapiji, had arrived with forty 
of his companions ; they had shut the gates of the castle and proclaimed a 
general call to arms (Neffr-a'âm). Most fortunately the Pâshâ, who had been 
terrified by a disastrous dream, was gone incognito to visit the tomb of Sidi 
Battal's father, and could not therefore be found in his palace, which was searched 
in every part by the Kapiji. The Pasha of course did not re-enter the town but 
repaired to the village of Erkeksii, which is to the north of it, and sent a 
letter to his Kiaya to request him to send his troops. In the mean time the 
Pâshâ not having been found the gates were opened and a proclamation issued, 
that all who belonged to the Pâshâ were to leave the town instantly ; I therefore 
took leave of the master of my house and Haji Bairam and Er Sultân, and arrived 
after seven hours' march at the village of Erkeksû consisting of two hundred 
houses and a mosque at the foot of a rock. Seven hours further on we arrived at 
the great place Istanozi, with a judge of one hundred and fifty aspers, in the 
district of Mortatova, bordering on a valley, on each side of which are towering 
rocks ; it has a thousand houses without gardens, a mosque, a bath and market : 
the river Erkek flows through it. This place had formerly two great gates at either 



evliya efendi. 235 

end, which were destroyed in the time of Murad III. by the rebel Korayaziji; if 
these two gates were restored it would be impossible to take the place, because 
it is situated between two walls of high rocks on which eagles and vultures build 
their nests, but to which man scarcely dares to lift up his eyes. These rocks are as 
tremendous as those of Van, Shabîn and Mdrdin, some of them are excavated 
below like Mount Bisütön and some are shaped above like dragons, lions and 
elephants. The inhabitants are for the most part Armenians. About a thousand 
looms are employed in working Suf. This place being enclosed by two rocks the 
air is very warm. The Armenian girls here are famed for their beauty. There 
are caverns which can hold a thousand horses. Formerly an old castle stood here 
on a rock. 

The day we entered the town there was a great conflux of men to see tumblers 
and wrestlers exhibit their tricks ; Istanoz and the town of Kodoz in Anatoli being 
the places where tumblers and wrestlers assemble to make bets. They stretch the 
rope from one rock to the other and place watchmen at each end, that enemies 
may not cut it when they are dancing on it. The rocks and the valley beneath 
are crowded with spectators and on both sides of the river, which flows through 
the valley, tents are pitched for the spectators. We witnessed during three days 
the tricks of seventy six tumblers, who were followed by three hundred scholars, 
to whom they gave lessons in their art. 

(The Description of the tricks, and an account of two letters from and to Vdvdr 
Pdshd, are here omitted.) 

Having received the letters of My Lord the Pâshâ I passed Hossein Ghâzî and 
Bâlik-hissâr, halted at the village of Sâri Alan, and further on passed Kala'ajik, 
Sheikh Shâmî, Akche-koyûnli, and the river Kizil Irmak with great ease at 
Kârdlar, heard that Vârvâr Pâshâ had left the station of Turhal, and met him 
further on to the eastward at Gergezâr. I first went as the rule requireth to his 
kiaya, who conducted me to the presence of the Pâshâ. He was seated in a tent, 
like Solomon surrounded by many thousand Sârija and Segban. I kissed the 
ground and delivered the letter in the usual form. Having looked into my face 
and said, " Art not thou Evliya Chelebî, who at the mosque of Aya Sofia recited 
in the night Kadr, the Koran in eight hours ? and who was received by Sultân 
Murad amongst the pages of the Kîldâr." Having replied, " Yes," he asked 
further in what office I was to the Pâshâ. I said, that on the way to Erzenim I 
was head of the Muezzins, but that he afterwards made me clerk of the Custom- 
house and sent me three times into Persia, and that now I was his Imam and 
intimate companion. The servants having been ordered to withdraw he called 



236 THE TRAVELS OF 

the Divân Efendî and read the letter. " It is a pity," said he, " that your Pâshâ 
did not with such an army shut himself up at Angora ; he might have played the 
devil there, and by this glorious deed have hung his sword in the skies (like that of 
Orion)." Rejoiced, however, at the number of our troops he gave me an hundred 
zechins, a rosary of corals and a watch set with jewels. I was also invested with a 
magnificent sable pelisse and recommended as a guest to the Khazinedâr. 

The same day news arrived that Koprili Mohammed Pasha and seven Vezirs 
had taken post at the bridge of Osmânjik and the rocks of Sarimshik, where they 
were entrenching themselves ; and that Hossein the Pâshâ of Amasia had closed the 
pass (PÛ1) of Dirikli and carried the population away to the mountains. Upon this 
news Vârvâr Alî Pâshâ directed his inarch straight to the passage of the Kizil 
Irmak. Our march was, from Kiraz to Dânkaza seven hours, to Bardâklf-bâbâ 
seven hours and to the river Kizil Irmak six hours. The passage of the river was 
effected in the best order, without the least harm happening to any body. We 
halted at Airak which lies north of the Kizil Irmak in the Sanjak of Kangru ; it 
has an hundred houses and a mosque. We here visited the tomb of Mohammed 
Shah Dedeh, who came with Haji Begtâsh from Khorassan to the court of 
Bayazid I., a large hospitable convent of an hundred Dervishes Begtâshî. I 
witnessed the Pasha perform his visit to the tomb with a devotion and a faith 
outshining that of many preachers from the pulpit. The tomb is surrounded with 
censers, vases for rose-water, lamps and candelabra. Every year the Sheikh of 
this convent kills a horse and abandons the carcase to the eagles and vultures 
of the rocks, who live upon it till the next year. The Sheikh has bred eagles 
instead of falcons for hawking beasts of all kind. From hence we marched for 
three hours along the bank of the Kizil Irmak to the village of Torduk, in the 
territory of Kânghrî. At the convent of Hassam Efendi a great repast was given 
to the Pasha. Three hours further on we came to the convent of Kûm-bâbâ, and 
then we entered the Keskin of the Turcomans in the land of Kânghrî. Having 
overran it for ten days we halted on the eleventh at the village of Sâlî. I 
perceived that the army was preparing for battle and learned that spies had 
brought the news, that Koprilî Mohammed Pâshâ, who had been named com- 
mander against Varvar, was ready to give him battle on the following day. The 
troops having armed during the night, the Pasha put himself in the morning at 
the head of six thousand men of light troops, and pushed on for seven hours 
towards the kiblah. Here the two armies engaged and that of Koprilî was 
entirely routed ; a great number were killed and the rest dispersed or made 
prisoners. Amongst the last was Mohammed Koprilî Pasha himself, the Pasha 
of Amasia, Kor Hossein, and the Pâshâ of Kara Shehr, both of two tails, who 



evliya efendi. 237 

V?ere obliged to walk on foot with chains on their feet and blocks on their necks, 
along with the tails of Vârvâr. Such is the state of the world, that these great 
and powerful men were now in the power of the Sârija and Segbân, who tortured 
and killed their men before their eyes and the executioners flung their swords 
over their necks. In brief a Vezir (Koprili) and five Begler-begs were bound 
to the poles of Vârvâr's tent, who elated with this victory declared now more 
than ever open rebellion, collected all kinds of rabble, wrote letters to Begs and 
Begler-begs enforcing them to come and join him with their troops, and in fact 
collected an army of thirty-seven thousand men. When we arrived at the village 
of Buzoghldn, in the Sanjak of Kanghril, I waited on him wishing him joy of his 
victory, and begging he would despatch me with the letters expected. I endea- 
voured to persuade him to be mild and merciful, and to pardon and set at liberty 
his prisoners, according to the text, " O God ! Thou art all-pardoning, Thou 
likest pardon, pardon me." He however remained obstinate, saying, I should see in 
a few days what would happen when his friends little Chaush Pasha, Ipshir Pashd 
and Shehsuvar Oghlf Pasha should arrive to join him. He was an open frank 
man, but extremely simple and of little judgment, and therefore blindly believed 
in the assurances of these Pâshds ; and being overjoyed with the news he had 
received from them, he despatched me with letters to my master, presenting 
me with an hundred piastres, a completely caparisoned horse from Koprili's stable, 
and a complete dress. 

From YÛZ Oghlan in the Sanjak of Kanghrii I rode for three days trusting in 
Cod, left Angora on my right and met with the Pasha on the plain of Murtât. 
The Pâshâ hearing of Vârvâr's blind confidence glowed with anger and said, " He 
shall see it, the blockhead (Potur)." He then gave me Ipshir Pasha's letter, 
which he had sent him to read, and I saw it was full of flattery and deceit. The 
Pâshâ was about to answer this letter, when a Khasseki and Kapiji-bashi arrived 
with Kiatib AH Chelebf, the Khazinedâr of Seyavush Aghâ Kiatib Alî Chelebî. 
The Imperial rescript was instantly read, and contained the most positive orders 
to join till the first of Jemâzî-ul-akhir the united troops of Ipshir, Chaush, Bakî, 
Ketgâj and Sîdî Pâshâ against Vârvâr, whose head or the Pasha's was required. 
If he refused to comply all his property was to be confiscated, and his children 
and relations killed ; but under the supposition of ready obedience the Governorship 
of Egypt was conferred upon him. The Pâshâ made immediate obeisance, 
ordered the tails to proceed, gave to the Khasseki a purse for the expenses of the 
road, and recommended him as a guest to his kiaya. The next day the Châhne"-îr 
(head carver) of Vârvâr arrived from Constantinople with a Khatti-shen'f of the 
following tenor : " My Lâlâ (Governor) thy fault is pardoned, but the rebellion of 



238 THE TRAVELS OF 

Defterdctr Oghli, who wished to put himself in possession of Erzerûm and Angora, 
is evident. His head or yours is demanded. If you send the first the Governor- 
ship of Egypt is assured to you." The Pasha remained dumb at the sight of this 
Khatti-sherif and instantly despatched me back with that which he had received 
to Vârvâr. 

(Here follows the relation of Vdrvdrs complete defeat by Ipshir Pdslid hy whom 
he was ensnared; occupying three sheets of the original.) 

Evliya at last, afraid for his head, waited on Ipshfr Pasha and asked for letters, 
that he might return as he came. " Here," said Ipshir showing Vârvâr's dead 
body, " is the man from whom you may ask your expedition." Evliya begged 
to be spared as he was no rebel and no Sanjak Beg. Ipshir Pdshâ laughed and said, 
" What art thou doing at thy master's ; wert thou not previously with Melek Ahmed 
Pasha?" " By God," I, poor Evliya, answered, " I am the common servant and 
joint subject of two Vezirs, whom I accompany alternately as they come into high 
offices for the pleasure of travelling. Defterdar Zâdeh must now be removed 
from office at this place, and your Excellency is most likely to go as Governor to 
Damascus or Baghdad, in which case I attach myself to your service." " No," 
said Ipshir, " go and follow Melek Ahmed." " Well," I, poor Evliya, replied, 
" there is no difference between you three. Is not the mother of my present 
master the nearest relation of Melek Pasha's and your mother ?" " Look here," 
said the Pasha, " he reminds me of my relationship with Mohammed Pâshâ, in 
order to become the mediator of peace between us." I got up, kissed his hand 
and begged he would give me a letter to My Lord the Pasha, to give him some 
solace in the present state of his affairs. He ordered me a tent, seventy secchins, a 
horse (being an extremely avaricious and low born Abâzâ) and a letter, with 
which I got under way. 

From Cherkesh (where Vârvâr's defeat had happened) I rode for eight hours 
to Dûlûshja, a village of an hnndred and fifty houses with gardens and a mosque ; 
eight hours further to Mestibeg, a village of an hundred houses, a ziâmet ; and 
nine hours further to the village of Alî Zaîm, a Sûbashilik in the plain of 
Mûrtât, a ziamet of an hundred houses, where I met the Pasha, who had heard 
of the defeat of Vârvâr, Kor Hossein, and Haji OghK, but knew not as yet of their 
deaths, which I related to him as it happened three days ago. The Pasha read 
Ipshîr's letter, and hearing at the same time that Bakî Pasha had left him and 
joined Ipshîr's camp, he became very melancholy and prepared for attacking 
Ipshir, who from Cherkesh moved towards Karamanla by the side of Keskin. 
The Pasha followed him at three day's distance, took a great deal of booty of the 



evliya efendi, 239 

baggages of Vdrvâr, Koprilî and Kor Hossein and arrived in three days at the 
river Sakaria. At the village of Merja in the district of Begbazârî the Divdn Efendi 
of Vârvâr Pâshâ was overtaken with forty-three tliousand zecchins and seven 
purses of money. He confessed to ten thousand zecchins besides and a sum 
deposited at Angora of forty purses of money, after which confession his head 
was cut off, and sent to the Porte as being that of a rebel. According to the 
assignation of Khali'l, the Divanî Efendî, on Hassan at Angora in whose hands the 
money was deposited, Alaja Atli Aghâ was despatched with three hundred horse- 
men to take possession of it. We marched along the bank of the Sakaria 
river to the village Shikenji Ahmed Aghâ in the district of Ayâsh, a village 
surrounded with gardens. We passed the village of Istanos and after seven hours 
reached Erkeksu at last arriving at Angora, where Atlı Aghâ was lodged in 
the house of Hassan, from whom he demanded the money deposited by the 
beheaded Divân Efendî, and I lodged with my old friend Kedr-zâdeh who returned 
to me all my things and effects, which I had left in his hands. The next day 
Hassan Chelebî was obliged to pay the sum mentioned by the beheaded Divân 
Efendî and to accompany us in irons. My friend, Kedr-zâdeh made me a present 
of two pack-horses to facilitate the transport of my things. We left Angora, 
passed as before through Istanos, then during eight hours along the pass of Ayâsh ; 
Ayâsh is a foundation belonging to the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina. It 
is a jurisdiction of an hundred and fifty aspers, and contains a thousand houses 
and ten mosques ; the castle is in ruins, but there is a Serdâr and Kiaya-yerî ; the 
air is heavy because the ground is uneven. I here visited the tomb of Emîr- 
dedeh, and on the opposite side that of Sheikh Bokhara buried under a cupola on 
the mountain. 

Description of the town of Beg-bazdri or Bebek-bazdri. 

Dinâr-hezâr, the vezîr of Yakub Shah of the Germiân family, having conquered 
this town gave it the name Germiân-hezârf. Once a week there is a famous mar- 
ket chiefly of goats-hair spun and woven. It is now the Khass of the Mufti of 
Constantinople who appoints the Sübashî. The judge, appointed with an hundred 
and fifty aspers, may easily collect seven purses. There is a Serdâr and Kiaya-yerî, 
but no Dizdar and garrison, the castle being too small to hold any. At the foot of 
it lies the town distributed over two valleys, and divided into twenty quarters. 
There are forty one mosques, three thousand and sixty seven elegant houses, all 
of mortar, but the roofs of wood, a room for reading the Koran, another for lectures 
on tradition, but no stone built colleges as in other towns, and seventy schools. 
There are more than seven hundred men and boys who know by heart the Koran, 



240 THE TRAVELS OF 

and the Mohammedieh, a Mufti and Nakîb-ul-eshrâf ; the inhabitants are for the 
most part Ulemds. This being a Turkish town the people are chiefly Oghûz, that 
is to say good men of the old Turkish simplicity. There are seven Khans, pleasant 
baths, six hundred shops in which precious articles are found, but no bezestan of 
stone. On the bank of the torrent, which flows through the butcheries, a market 
is held every week ; this torrent falls into the river, which runs below the town, 
and with this river into the Sakaria. The roads are strewn with sand and not 
paved. The young men are fine, and the girls very retired and modest, but not 
pretty. The gardens of Beg-bazârî are numerous ; among its products is a par- 
ticular melon much distinguished for its sweetness ; the inhabitants make of it a 
Zerdeh (dish) with cinnamon and cloves, sweet as the Zerdeh which was first in- 
vented by Moavia ; there is also a large green pear four or five of which go to an 
occa. Every year some thousand of them are sent in boxes to Constantinople as 
presents, such sweet pears are found but in Persia in the town of Nessu and are 
like the pears called Melje in the town of Bâr. Black barley is produced here, 
which must be given with caution to horses, and there is a great quantity of rice. 
In the town is the tomb of Az-dedeh. 

We had remained here three days when letters arrived for the Pasha from my 
uncles, Melek-zâdeh and Abd-ur-rahîm, giving notice of the death of my father, 
and that all his goods remained in my step-mother's hands. They begged leave 
from the Pasha for me to make a journey to Constantinople in order to arrange 
my afFairs, after which I might return to him. I received three letters from my 
relations with the same news, which I showed to the Pâshâ, who showed me those 
he had received. He gave me leave to go on condition I would come back again, 
called the Kiaya and Khazinedar, gave me five hundred dollars, two horses, 
and two slaves, a fine tent and three mules in addition to those which I had received 
as a present from the late Vârvâr Alî Pâshâ. With seven Mamlûks and eight 
servants attached to me, I took leave of the Pâshâ and set out at the end of Jemazi- 
ul-akhir in the year 1058 (1648) from Begbazari for Constantinople. 

Journey from Beg-bazdri to Constantinople. 

We marched nine hours to the north through cultivated villages and open 
meadows to the village of Sârî-beg. Here a gigantic wall is seen, which is said 
to have been moved by the mii'aculous power of Haji Begtâsh, and the spot is 
shown where he sat upon the wall. It has no foundation and therefore it is evident 
it must have been moved hither. Seven hours further is the village of Kostek- 
beg of an hundred houses in a ground intersected by valleys. The inhabitants are 
free from all duties. At the time of the rebellion of Kara Yaziji, Seid-ul-Arab, 



evliya efendi. 241 

Kalender Oghlî, Jennet Oglılî, Deli Hassan and Seji<lh Oghlî in the time of 
Ahmed I. they assailed a great caravan here, which they plundered, killing more 
than two thousand men. The road then remained blocked up for some time, till 
Nassif Pasha built here a great khan and transported the inhabitants hither. There 
is a mosque, a khdn, an imaret and a bath. The raisins of this place are cele- 
brated for sour preserves. The khdn has no equal in the whole of Anatolia unless 
it be the KhcCn of Katifa and Sa'asa'a in the neighbourhood of Damascus. The 
stable holds two thousand horses, there is besides a stable for camels, and all the 
buildings are covered with lead. Eight hours further to the north we arrived at 
Nailî Kkân, a small affranchised mussulman village of an hundred houses in a valley, 
governed by a MutevelU of Nassif Pâshâ. This khân is also his foundation and is 
built like that of Kostek-beg Khan, having an hundred and fifty chimneys with a 
kitchen like that of Keikavus. Travellers receive each a loaf in a brass plate, a dish 
of soup and a candle. In seven hours more we reached the village of Turbeli Koilik, 
which in the harsh language of the Turks is pronounced Torbalı Koiluk. Akshems- 
ud-din is buried in this village. The castle, built by the Greek Emperors, was 
conquered by Ghazi Osman in the year 712 (1312). It has a Kiaya-yeri and 
Serdâr but no Dizdar. This place is surrounded on both sides by rocks from 
which the water of life flows through fir-wood pipes. Though its inhabitants are 
Turks, it is yet a sweet town of two thousand houses, all covered with fir-wood, 
eighteen mosques and eight quarters. The houses are overhung by the chalk 
cliffs, which from time to time fall down upon them, without doing the least harm 
to men or mice. The number of the houses, immediately overhung by the rocks, 
is two hundred, there is no college or house of tradition but twenty schools for 
boys; in the market-place are three khans covered with brick, a bath, a good 
number of mills and seventy-five shops in which saddle-bags and horse-cloths 
are sold. No Jews can inhabit this place, because in it they die instantly. 

Description of the tomb of the great Saint Jkshems-ud-din. 

He was born at Damascus and derives his genealogy from Abubekr, which was 
proved by the absence of one of the joints in his finger, because all descendants 
from him are born with that defect. He had conversed with Shehab-ud-din 
Sehrverdi, who is buried in the castle of Baghdad, and at Angora with Haji 
Bairara. He accompanied Mohammed II. to the conquest of Constantinople, 
and foretold the day when the town would be conquered. He and his whole 
family lie buried here. It was he who discovered the tomb of Eyyiib and on 
whose admonition they dug on the spot indicated by him. He composed many 
volumes of books and was in medicine a second Lokman. His son Ahmed 

VOL. II. I I 



242 THE TRAVELS OF. 

Chelebi is the author of Yüssûf and Zuleikha, one of the most renowned of poems 
in the Turkish language, he did not accept of the directorship, which his father 
intended for him and which after his death devolved on Sa'ad Allah, another 
son of his, and who is buried near his father. Sheikh Niirallah his third son 
went to Brussa to finish his studies and killed himself accidentally, his penknife 
entering his stomach. Sheikh Chelebf Emi-illah did not follow his father's man- 
ner of life, and died of the gout ; he composed an historical work. Sheikh 
Nasrollah his fifth son travelled for seven years in Persia and is buried at 
Tabriz ; the Persians visit his tomb, and some erroneously believe him to be 
the son of Shems Tabi-fzi who is buried in the town of Khüî, whither he walked 
with his head cut off, carrying it in his hand. Sheikh Mohammed Nûrolhüda 
the son of Akshems-ud-din ; his father having touched his mother's womb when 
she was pregnant with him, she was immediately delivered on the salute given 
to the child, which returned it saying, " Esseldm aleikum." This ecstatic child 
(Mejzub) when grown up could discern in the mosque those who would go to 
heaven from those who would go to hell. He is buried in the village of Evlek, 
which was given to him by Sultân Mohammed. Sheikh Mohammed Hamdol- 
lah, the abovesaid second son of Akshems-ud-din, was also spoken to by his father 
when in his mother's womb. At eight years old he was already author 
of a Divân. He composed Leila and Mejniin, and Yussiif and Zuleikha, which 
has no equal in the Turkish language. He died when sixty-six years old. Among 
a great number of treatises he wrote one on physiognomy which is much esteemed. 
His son Mohammed Chelebf was a great divine and in caligraphy a second Yakut 
Mostea'assemi and Ibn Mokla. The tomb of Sheikh Abd-ul-kadir, the son of 
Sa'ad Allah ; he is buried outside that of his ancestor. Sheikh Abd-ur-rahim one of 
Akshems-ud-din's followers, who lived forty yeai'S after him ; he is the author 
of the work Wahdet-nameh (book of unity). 

We remained here one day and then travelled seven hours to the north to 
Taraklı, built by the Greek Princes of Brussa and conquered by Osman. The 
judge is appointed with an hundred and fifty aspers; there are fifteen hundred 
houses in a valley all covered with brick, eleven mihrabs, seven quarters, a bath, 
five khans, six schools and two hundred shops ; this town is called Taraklı because 
spoons and combs (Tarak) are made here from the box-trees which cover the 
neighbouring mountains. These spoons and combs are sent into Arabia and Persia. 
The torrent which flows through the village falls into the river Hârmen and with 
it into the sea. Eight hours to the north is the castle of Kiva, properly Kekiva, 
a small castle for the sheep of a Greek Princess. It is the foundation con- 
secrated to the famous bridge of Sultân Bayazîd H. here built over the Sakaria. 



evliya efendi. 243 

It was formerly a large town, but ruined in the reign of Sultîin Murad IV. by the 
inundation of the Sakaria, it consisted of three hundred houses, a mosque, a bath, 
three khans, and seven schools for boys. It is now situated at an arrow's shot dis- 
tance from the river, and has a large khan covered with brick and twenty shops near 
it. The sour preserve of raisins and the melons of the district are famous, 
two melons are a load for a horse. The river 8akaria, which flows here under the 
bridge, comes from the town of Beg-bazari and falls into the Black Sea near Irva. 
In this place reside a Serdâr, Kiaya-yerî and Mütevelli, or administrator of the 
Wakf. Burhan a companion of Osman I. is buried here. We passed the bridge 
and to the north along the banks of Sakaria through the great forest, called Aglmj- 
denizi (the sea of trees), a den of wild beasts and robbers, where many strangers 
have been lost. The trees are high firs and linden, which intercept the rays 
of the sun, and perfume the brain with their sweet scent. 

These mountains are inhabited by some tliousand unmerciful Turks, who live by 
cutting wood and loading it in ships, and sometimes by cutting passengers and 
unloading caravans. This forest extends through four Sanjaks, viz : Brussa, Ismid, 
and Boll, and a month is necessary to make the tour of it. In some places it is cut 
through like the road to Kiva. Three hours from Kiva we came to the castle of the 
shepherds (Choban Kala'assf), a small castle towering to the skies. It is here 
that the shepherds of Princess Kekeva dwelled and took toll from those who 
passed ; the passage being straightened between the mountains and the river Sakaria, 
they obliged every body to pay. We passed through it and continuing our way to 
the West along the bank of the Sakaria for seven hours we reached Sabanja, a 
cultivated place which has been already described on the way to Erzerum. From 
hence we came to Nicomedia, also described in the journey to Erzerum. We pas- 
sed Herke, Gebize, the tomb of Gemikli, Ali-baba, Pendik, Kartal, the bridge of 
the Bostanjf-bashi, and Kadikoi, and arrived at the end of Jemazi'-ul-akhir, 1058 
(1648), in the great town of Scutari, and at last, praise be to God ! at Constantino- 
ple, with all my baggage. I kissed the hand of my mother and the eyes of mv 
sisters, then mounted again on horseback to fulfil my vow by visiting the tomb of 
Eyyub, wliere I immolated and distributed a victim, and returned home. In a dream 
I saw my father who wished me joy on my happy arrival and on my visit to the 
tomb of Er-Sultan. Having thrice said the Süra-et-tekâtherî, I awoke and took a 
boat to visit the tomb of my father behind the arsenal, and my ancestors buried 
there since the time of Mohammed II, thrice said the above Sura, then returned 
home, took possession of my father's heritage, and made a vow to consecrate two 
thousand zechins of it to the pilgrimage of Mecca ; visited all my friends and 
acquaintances, and enjoyed with them the pleasures of conversation, when the great 



244 THE TRAVELS OF EVLİYA EFENDİ. 

rebellion of the troops began on the eighteenth of Rejet, 1058, and terminated in 
the dethronement of Sultan Ibrahim and the accession of his son Mohammed IV. 

(^Here follows the account of the dethronement ofSiiltdn Ihrahim, which is nearly 
the same as has heen given, in the first volume, under this Sultân s reign, and is 
therefore omitted here.) 

Evliya then relates how his master Mohammed Defterdar Zâdeh came to Con- 
stantinople, and after a lively contest with Koja Mevlevi, the grand vezir, obtained 
from him the nomination to the Governorship of Malatia, begging he would grant 
it him with the Kharaj (tribute), Awariz (accidental duties) and the Mohassillik or 
collectorship, which was done. Evliya waited on him and with great difficulty ob- 
tained permission to go on the pilgrimage to Mecca. He then remained sometime 
at Constantinople, and attached himself to Silehdar Murteza Pâshâ, as Mûezzin-bâshî 
(chief proclaimer of prayer), he was also named Imam of the Mahmel (the Sultan's 
annual present to Mecca), and went from Constantinople to Scutari in the first 
days of the month Sha'abân, setting out with Murteza Pâshâ for the journey to 
Damascus. The Pcâshâ's Imam being an Arab whom Murteza disliked, the Arab 
performed prayers outside, and Evliya inside the Pasha's tent and was continually 
in the Pasha's company. During the time they remained at Scutari, the famous 
robber Hyder Oghli, in whose hands Evliya had fallen when he lost his way in the 
pass as before related, was brought in by Hassan Aghâ, and hanged at Parmak- 
kapii (finger-gate). The same night as the execution of the robber. Evliya 
slept in his paternal home at Constantinople, then took leave of his friends and 
relations and passed over to Scutari, where he visited Mahmud Efendî of Scutari, 
and Saint Karaji Ahmed and the tombs of all the great men in the burying ground, 
calling their spirits to his assistance in the Syrian voyage, which he was about to 
undertake. 

Amen, by the grace of the Lord of Apostles. 



END OF THE SECOND VOLUME. 



^M 



fo 



r 

r 



^^ 






^ ? 



1^ ^^ 



ii .£3' 



'^f'iijwsut^'"'' '%3Aif;:i 



v^ 



■^^ 






^■0,^ 









-^ 

s 

ig 



^^.oFTAnrr 






^öAavaaıı 



^\V\EUNIVER5-/^, ^V^SANCfl 



o 









''^AaiAiNii] 



^lOSANCEl 



\ > = 






^•IIB 






%0JIW3JO'^ 



^OFCALIF0% 



'''AuJ/MNil ] 



^tllBRARY 

Ö - ' — ' 

5 



^OfCALIFO 



University of California 

SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

Return this material to the library 

from which it was borrowed. 



CAllfO?^', 



REÇD LD-URt 
i JANİÛ ]99j) 

NOV 14 1989 

JAN 2 11991 



AP/? 9 ?ooa 



1 



Jil SEP 2;^ 



OCT 6 1997 



^öAavaaiH^ 



^^WEUNIVERy//, 



i? 55 



^■^omnw 



UAhTERLOA 



ySZ 







K-\nVA',Trl. 



^i'ilHNVSOl^'^ "^AaJAIKd ]V\V 



^^ 



^4 



I 












ii>^ 



ir: 







NOV 1 2004 



^^" 



--rt *-iJ 






v;^ Ş. 



§' \ 



^.', 



^ 



O 
' r-r» 



v/sajAiNn-iwv 



^^UIBRARY-O^ 



wii uiii ^ un.l/ 



^i. 



;'HiV!VFR9//,_ 



i 



■i 



'^/. 



•uw]i IV ; jv,i ■ 



ex 






,^'rtEUNIVERX//, 

C 



^^WEUNIVERy/^ 






■'■İİlJUNVSüV^ 



,\' 



^WEUMIVER% 



sj>:lOSANCElfj> 




o 



%a3AINil-3\^^ 



VS 



OFT; 



^ 






\\\Flî«IVF[?':/A 



■ir 



.K-in";.v:nnrr. 






.nFr.MiFr,'', 



aKHIBRARYO^^ <^U1BRARY0/^ 

i~ ^ '^ s ■ ■ -- -a. g 



\«EUNIVER% 



^^lOSANCElfj> 



,^^' 



^^t-ElBRARYOx ^^«EllNIV: 



"^.i/OJIlVDJO^^ %OJI1V3JO' 



^ 



^.OFCA1IFO%^ 



^^.OF'CAIIFOP^^ 



pnj t. 



1= 



^üAbvaan-î'^ ^OAavaani'^ 









AWEUWVERy/A 









^lOSANCElfj}» 



<rji«Nvsoi^^ 



# 



o ^-- 



"^/sa^AiNn-jw^^ 



rs" 






'"^'d/ojiivj-w"^^ 



V?,. 



^'ûAüvaan-^ '-^o 



.^MEUNiv; 



'V/k . 



x.C? 



AV^EUNIVERS/y;,, 







inN.uTFIf)-. 



'^"'-mmi-m^ 



v/sa]AINn-3Wv 



,^^ 



aT-IIRPiRV/)^ 



A^tv.. 

a ti irr 



•A. 



^ 



,<? 






>- 



^j^F ItWlVFRV;,- 



.lOV.WCFirn, 



S 5V. 



:: i. 

s 



^V\E■UNIVERS/^ 



iii'v Avjrrif 






)l 






I» 



, i\rrAiifn(;>„ 



- AF TAiimPi. 



•WFI'MIVFRr/ 



I'l.WCFirr.. 



-:.OFfAtl'^ 



S: .-^> i- ET 






,1]WC* ^^OJIIVDJO^ ^<!/0JllV3dû'^ 



.IVFR% 



,.v\OSANCEltr;;> 



C5 — 



^ 



^OFCAlIFOfti/, 

5» 



D 000 323 872 2 



^ 









^ÖAHVa!]IV# 



^/İIJONVSOI^ '<^/ia3AINn3\\V'' 



? ^. 



■ sN- 



iüAavaan-î^"^ 









- 1 •r-^Lj-'r -" c: 



-f. 

■ JOJ.MK.l ın^ 






,S i' 



■ I ınn • r\v/ 



I f ıı>ıı\ ırnr 



<^ 



Ov./] n \ j jM 






sAHIBRARYO^ "■'■■'•I'YO/^ 



9 ^-^> >■ i 



-< 



■'■v MJ . 



1 (> r ," • I I rı\f. 



\\' •// 






vvlOSANCFl£j> 



O 



' j ııjıı\ y\)\ * 






^OfCA[IF0% -(.OFCALIÎ 



#^ /::^ 






0:\mmo^. 




^ <s 



i % 



■>i 



=3 O 

^OFCAİlFOft^ ^: 



l^lll I 



'i 



^ÖA.Ü' 



^üAHvadiiY^'^ 



<^ 



viov^"^ ■^^/iaaAiNrtdHV"' 



az 



%. 



.vSÜV^"^' '^i'iadAlNılîV^ıv'' 



>* 



A>N^ 



.o-jû"^^ '^-^amm-i^ 



v> 



^^\^EUNlvEı?s•// 



ifx> 



^5M£UNIVER5//^ ^VlÛSAKCflfj^ 



%S=^. 



^H'JNYSOV^"' H\V^ 



\MF-'. 









IIBRARYft 



■^ %: 



^ 5\ 



n\v 



^ 



^1 ifTs İl ırrl 



%0jnV3J0'?' "^(Î/OJİIVD 



^^WEUNIVER% ^vlOV^'JCflf 



\\^ 



o et 

c 



>- 



.üFrAiımo., 



rA':f 






S3 C^ » 






tJS- 



11^ 


# 






A;OFCAllF0ff.^ 


,^^ 




^y^ 


^«UNIVERS/A. 


# 



Cy 



■^ 



,^^V\E-UNIVER% ^^slOSANCnfj-^, ^h; 



^^tllBRARYQ/r^ ^^WEUNIVERSy^ ^lOSANCElfj;^ 



^fJliDNVSÜV^^^ '^AaiAINlVjWV^ ''^»'<!/ÜJIlVJJO'^' ''^*'<l/ÛJlIVJja~^^ ^irJNYSOl"^'"- %, 






^Jild'JNVSÜl 



-ı^OFCAlIFORfc, ^5İ\EÜNI\ 



i? 



;i>,mrr. 



,^lOSANCElfj> 



'^JirjNvsov'*^ %a; 



:Vr;^ .^\T IIRS.\fiYQr 



^ 






^V^EUNlVERy/^ 



,vins; 



'ıFiıvîVFnr- 



•\ AKTFirr 



üFrüimp-. ..nFTAi If nPi/_ 






^^1 î 



li l /^ 



':>f*-V*f.'f,.